Considering the potential effects of stress, nurses could infinite from further understanding the concept of stress in order to aid in their patients’ health.
My goal for this concept analysis is to apply the framework defined by Walker and Avian (201 1), to perform a literature review and explain the concept of stress. Determine the aims of the Analysis The purpose of this concept analysis paper is to examine the current definitions and uses of the word stress, and enhance the understanding of the concept with the expectation of finding a working definition that can be put into practical use.The concept analysis will be completed with the use of the Walker and Avian method. This method is typically composed of 8 steps, of which only six will be included in this concept analysis: (1) selecting a concept, (2) determining the aims of the analysis, (3) identifying the uses of the concept, (4) determining the defining attributes, (5) identifying antecedents and consequences, and (6) defining empirical referents.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
Identify uses of the Concept The word stress originated in the sass’s from the Middle English word stress and a variation of distressed.It also has roots from the Latin word strict which means constricting or pulling. There are several uses and definitions as t relates to word stress.
One definition provided by the Merriam-Webster dictionary (2015) states that stress is “a physical, chemical or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation. ” According to the Cambridge dictionary (201 5), stress can be defined as worry that is caused by a difficult situation, while a second definition is also provided declaring the meaning as a force that is applied to an object which ultimately changes its shape.Therefore, stress can be described as a feeling one encounters to facing a challenge, as well as a erasure able to transform ones shape. A number of disciplines including physics, medicine, psychology, and sociology have defined stress within their field.
In the field of medicine, the term stress was coined by Dry. Hans Sells as the body response to strains placed on it. He explained stress as a syndrome, which induced hormonal autonomic responses on one’s body, which in time could lead to illness.Those in the discipline of physics, have been describing stress since the application of Hooker’s Law in 1658. Hooker’s Law states that, “for relatively small deformations of an object, the escapement or size of the deformation is directly proportional to the deforming force or load” (Britannica, 2015).
An example would be a stress fracture, one that occurs as a result of repetitive force being applied to bone. Those in the discipline of psychology use a cognitive approach, explaining stress as a dynamic process that occurs when an individual assesses situational demands as surpassing available means.Lazarus & Folkway (1984) developed a transactional model Of dealing with stress, in which they believed stress was influenced by both the individual and environment factors. The sociological perception of stress include work stress, burnout, and work overload, all resulting from limited means.
Many professions have been associated with having a great deal of work stress. One in particular is law enforcement officers, which are constantly exposed to highly stressful situations which include exposure to danger, and criminal activities that can potentially endanger their lives.Additionally, the nursing profession offers a similar comparison to work stress as it relates to work overload and burnout due to chronic staffing shortages which in turn produces stressful work environments. Although most of the definitions of stress have implicated a negative interpretation of the concept, not all stress is bad. As noted previously, stress is the body response to react to situations, including those with the potential of harm or death. All animals have an innate stress responses which is useful in life threatening situations.During acute stress, our bodies perceive danger, and initiate the nervous system to secrete stress hormones, including cortical and adrenaline. The release of these hormones cause changes to occur such as an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and he ability to react quickly.
These physiological changes occur to improve our focus in preparation to fight of flee from hazard. A common term used to explain such phenomenon is also described as fight or flight response.After the relief of the threat or stressful situation, the body will naturally return to its normal functioning. On the contrary to acute stress, chronic stress is identified as “response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period over which an individual perceives he or she has no control” (Franz, 2011). Chronic stress has been noted to lead to several complications, as it can impair normal body function. Lastly, an additional term used to define stress is post-traumatic stress disorder (OPTS).
OPTS is a mental disorder that can develop after a frightening event and continuously leads to flashbacks, anxiety, and nightmares. Determine the Attributes In order to determine the attributes of the concept of stress, a search was performed that included the use of definitions, internet searches as well as a complete literature review. (Walker and Avian 2011) label the defining attributes as a group characteristics most frequently associated with the incept.The attributes associated with stress include, the application of a stimuli, to an entity whether it is in the form of force, a situation or event.
The entity perceiving the stimuli as overwhelming or an impossible challenge. Lastly, a measurable response by the entity to the stimuli. For example an alteration in the entity, whether it be in the form of a symptom, emotion, or disease process. Identify the Antecedents (Walker & Avian 201 1) defines antecedents as the events that must occur before the existence of the concept.In order to understand the concept of tress as it relates to body function and disease we must understand its antecedent which is normal body functioning. The existence Of an entity in a steady state, homeostasis, or normal condition must be present Normally the body regulates its internal environment with the use of a negative feedback loop to maintain a state of equilibrium, which aids in preserving health and functioning. Complex systems involving neuronal and hormonal regulation can become altered when stress is applied to the entity.
Therefore, in order for stress to be understood as a concept we must understand that he entity, which is normally in homeostasis, undergoes physiological changes as it perceives and evaluates a stimuli. Identify the Consequences The consequences of a concept are described by (Walker & Avian 2011) as events that occur as a result of a concept. The consequences of stress is noted as a change in the state or shape of an entity after it has undergone an interaction with a stimuli. Stress as it relates to a person can lead to changes in physiology, emotions, as well as pose a threat to one’s physical or mental health.Although there are multiple variations in the ways stress is defined, he definitions and uses of the concept all conclude to stress as being a process in which demands are placed on an individual that exceeds their adaptive capabilities. This in turn points to biological and psychological variations that have the probability of inducing illness. Over time, continued strain on your body from routine stress may lead to serious health problems, such as heart disease, depression, anxiety disorder, and other illnesses.
Define the Empirical Referents According to (Walker & Avian 2011 empirical referents are classes or groupings of actual phenomena that prove the existence of the concept itself. In other words, it is a way Of measuring or demonstrating that a concept exists. Some measures of stress focus on the physical effects it causes. For instance, I came across an article that measured the correlation between professionals with highly stressful occupations and instances of cardiovascular disease and obesity.
Additional sources eluded to measuring high levels of cortical secretions with the application of a stressful stimuli.Another article among the literature reviewed described the use of an Educator stress inventory. The research included a total of 8,084 educators in southeastern state in the United States using a tool to measure stress associated with high-stakes testing. Lastly, a tool provided by the American Institute of Stress includes the Holmes- Rare Life Stress Inventory. The tool was introduced to 5,000 medical patients, and included the uses of 43 life events or experiences.
The events were also known as a life change unit, and each experience was determined by a set number of stress.The higher the number of stress, the more likely the patient was to become ill. Attached below is the Holmes and Rare Stress Scale: Note. Retrieved from American Institute of Stress Discuss the importance of the concept in practice/research An understanding Of the concept of stress is beneficial in practice and research because it is a factor that all individuals deal with on a day to day basis. Whether someone experiences acute stress, chronic stress, or even post-traumatic stress, it is important that individuals have a basic understanding of the concept to allow them to identify stress as a risk factor that may lead to disease.Providing differential uses with regards to stress allows for further comprehension and understanding of such a complex concept. With the development of tools, individuals can begin to understand situations and life experiences that cause stress, symptoms associated to prolonged stress, and become familiar with resources to manage and cope with stress.
Conclusion With the use of the Walker & Avian method Of concept analysis, was able to conduct a concept analysis on stress. Stress is a word that IS used interchangeably within many professions and disciplines, which at times can obscure its meaning.