“CLOSENESS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIP ON SELECTED STUDENTS OF DR

“CLOSENESS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIP ON SELECTED STUDENTS OF DR. CARLOS S. LANTING COLLEGE WITH AN OFW PARENT,
AN ASSESSMENT.”
MARIA ROSELLE L. HUBILLA
2018
LIBERAL ARTS DEPARTMENT
Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College
Tandang Sora Ave., Sangandaan, Quezon City.

ABSTRACT
Title of Thesis: CLOSENESS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIP ON SELECTED
STUDENT OF DR. CARLOS S. LANTING COLLEGE
WITH AN OFW PARENT, AN ASSESSMENT.

Researcher: MARIA ROSELLE HUBILLA
Degree: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PSYCHOLOGY
Institution: DR. CARLOS S. LANTING COLLEGE
Key Concept: CLOSENESS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIP
WITH AN OVERSEAS FILIPINO WORKER PARENT
Adviser: DR. RONNIE TAVARRO
Year Written: 2018
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The researcher would like to express a sincere gratitude and appreciation to the following persons:
To her Mother, for sacrificing her fate working outside the country to give her needs in school and giving her full support and words of encouragement for pursuing this course.

To her Father, for providing her daily needs since she started studying and for giving her full support to finish every task.

To her Boyfriend, for helping her from the very beginning, in gathering data and sharing his insights or ideas and point of views regarding this study.

To her Dean Mr. Ronnie Tavarro, for teaching and guiding them on how to start and finish this study and for the encouragement.

To her Professor Ms. Kristine Manzanares, for giving her words of encouragement, giving her time to answer some questions and moral support.

To her Friends and Church mates, for cheering her up when she feels down and continually praying for her upon doing this study.

And most of all to the Almighty God our divine providence for keeping her safe and giving her strength, knowledge and wisdom during the process of the study and making it possible to finish this study.

DEDICATION
The researcher would like to dedicate this study to the following:
First, to the Almighty God, who unconditionally love her from the very beginning no matter what happens, for the guidance, for the provision and for giving her knowledge and wisdom that, she needed to finish this study.

To her parents, Lucille Laag Hubilla and Roque Fremista Hubilla, for giving her a full support in any different aspects, for the love and words of encouragement to finish this study and for pursuing this course.

To her siblings, Christian Jay Hubilla and Charmaigne Ann Hubilla, serves as her inspiration to give her best, to pursue and finish this course and study.

To her boyfriend, Elijah James Neri, for helping her since she started to do this study until the end, for giving her support physically, morally and emotionally and for sharing his insights or ideas regarding to this study.

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
INTRODUCTION
Family is consider as the basic unit in the society. Then, every unit of family is very important to the society. As go deeper to this topic, this will focus on the closeness among OFW parents in their family relationship. Knowing that all parents have their responsibility to provide the basic needs of their child and provide education for the better future of their children. Traditionally, the father as the “haligi ng tahanan” or the provider of the family, that he worked 8 hours or more every day. Sometimes, fathers make their night as day too. While, mothers stayed at home for guiding, caring, and teaching their children for the manners that they need outside the home. Those are the basic mindset they have on the term “family” and the basic responsibility of the parent to their children. Sadly, those are not applicable in our country nowadays; many parents sacrificed their lives just to give their child a stable and better life through working abroad, the Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW). As your family grows and life progress, it gets harder to find ways to connect and spend time together when the parent is busy to his or her work. Even recently, married couples can find it challenging to find or give time in their schedules for togetherness. In addition, creating lot of memories and enjoying time together with your love ones should definitely take priority. A healthy family relationship help all members of a family feel safe and connected to one another. While all families go through good and difficult times, a family with a healthy relationship is still able to interact with one another in a safe and respectful way.
In a healthy family relationship, people are able to trust and rely on each other for support, love, affection and warmth. Families often share their common goals and try to work together to reach those life goals. The following are the positive views on a healthy family relationship. In every individual or members of the family are valued and respected, there is also two-way communication exists, each member makes an effort to understand and trust the other’s point of view, adults must share the responsibility in order for them to become more independent and successful in the near future.

In addition, it is not about the children or just their children, but the whole family rather. That is why the researcher is motivated and inspired to know more and to conduct a research that entitled, closeness of family relationship on selected students of Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College with an OFW parent. In which she believes that the closeness of family relationship changes or not, if one of the child’s parent or both is working abroad.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The principal institution for the socialization of children is the family itself. It is the basic social unit consisting of parents and their children, (Amador, 2015). Family has different functions in terms of molding or shaping their child’s personality or behavior. One of its primary function is to provide a framework for the production and reproduction of persons biologically and socially. One’s experience of one’s family shifts over time, from the perspective of the children on how they would think in their everyday life or struggles in life. Since, family can be also known as “family of orientation”, Parents can share positive perspectives in life to their children.

The basic social unit of the country is the family, which also includes the intermediate family members (aunts, uncles, grandparents, cousins) and other outside relations (godparents and close friends). As such, many children have several godparents and when parents are out of the country to work, children are mostly left to the grandparents to watch over them. It is common for members of the same family to work for the same company, a practice that was influenced by the first Chinese settlers in the Philippines. Filipino families live in different kinds of house structures depending on their status or area. For families in rural areas, they live in a nipa hut, which is made of bamboo and roofed with leaves from palm trees or corrugated metal. Filipinos that are ranked as “middle class” live in houses made of bricks and stones.

In addition, the family serves to guide their children socially and plays a major role in their enculturation and socialization. However, the parent function to their family is not just to produce children but also to guide their children, since birth until they have their own family too. Early guidance and discipline within the family members may result to good relationship inside and outside the family. Thus, the children may build good relationship with other person, either friends or love ones.

A healthy home environment offers emotional security to a child, (Gaita, 2016). Since, a home is the favorable environment in terms of interpersonal relationship, home must also strive to achieve the desired objectives in making self-meaning. Every family should build a healthy home, not just a house for their child but a home that worth living. However, because of those basic needs and other material things, and the desire of parent/s to give or supply everything for their children, they sacrificed their fate to work outside the country for higher salary.

Wherein, sometimes, both parents the mother and father, sacrificed their lives and fate going abroad, (Bedana, 2015). Looking forward, that they will give the basic needs and material things for their child. Without knowing, that they leave the responsibility, the love and care those they should/must do and give as parents in their children. Sometimes, it does affect their child’s behavior, may develop inappropriate attitudes towards his/her family and to other people and may result on not being close and unopened relationship within their family. The child may keep secrets that can be harm himself/herself or even the whole family, if not be guided or guarded by the parents itself.

Based on (Philippine Statistics Authority PSA, 2016) the number of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) who worked abroad during the period of 2016 estimated at 2.2 million. CALABARZON reported the biggest share of OFWs with 21.0 percent, followed by National Capital Region (NCR) and Central Luzon with 12.9 percent and 12.7 percent, respectively. Forty-seven percent of the total OFWs came from these three regions, (Bersales, 2017). So, the rapid increase in number of Overseas Filipino Workers is quit alarming they leaved their own country just to gain financial security for their families. This means that the number of children who left by their parent reached the number of almost 6 million, (Rufo & Bedana, 2015, 2016).

As the comparative analyses revealed that mothers from working abroad demonstrated lower levels of warmth when compared with mothers from two-parent homes. Children from OFW families was discussed to demonstrate greater internalizing and externalizing behaviors when compared with children from homes in which both parents lived in the home, (Harper & Martin, 2012). In addition, fathers who worked abroad may contribute to mother behaviors and child outcomes in certain direct and indirect paths.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study generally aims to determine the level of closeness of the family relationship on having an OFW parent.

Specifically, this study attempts to answer the following questions:
What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1 Age
1.2 Gender
1.3 Year level
1.4 Monthly income
1.5 Name (Optional)
2. What is the profile of the parent?
2.1 Where does your parent work overseas?
2.2 Number of years the parent working abroad
3. Rate the following questions:
3.1 How often do you spend time with your family?
3.2 How often do you spend time to talk with your parent/s that working abroad?
3.3 How happy are you in your relationship with your family?
3.4 How much does your family show support for your activities?
3.5 How satisfied are you with the degree of closeness between family members?
4. Rating scale
4.1 Never
4.2 Seldom
4.3 Sometimes
4.4. Often
4.5 Always
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In light of the present study, this study would benefit the following:
Parents – that they may be aware of what would be the effect of their absence, and the result of working abroad in the closeness of the relationship within the family members, the openness and closer relationship of the parent and the child that can affect one’s personality or behavior.

Students – that they may also be aware on what they should do to maintain the closeness of the family relationship no matter what if your parent is an OFW or Non-OFW parent.

Professors – that they may understand the situation of their students and the student’s parent. Also, let them to encourage the children (pupil, student).

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
The study focus on the Closeness among OFW and Non-OFW parent in their family relationship. This study was conducted at Tandang Sora Residences / at Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College located at #16 Tandang Sora Ave., Sangandaan, Quezon City.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
In this chapter presents different literatures like foreign and local literatures and studies that the proponent considered as necessary or related in this study. It includes books, and other publications and websites for a more comprehensive learning source.

FOREIGN LITERATURE
(Lee Pai-Lin, et al) says, “Family is a key factor to one’s development” (p.1). That is why the researcher focus on the family relationship either an OFW parent or not. The closeness of a family is considering as fundamental to the happiness and competent of an individual (The Relationship of family closeness, self-regulated and school adjustment).
Family may influence a person’s behavior or personality, negatively or positively if not guided by parents may lead to unusual behavior. Family separation was a great contributor of child neglect that generally leads to child deviant behavior. For example, leaving homes to work abroad, parental and family neglect, lack of supervision and guidance.

Many researchers focus their studies on specifying how the features of students’ learning environments influence their development, but relatively few researchers have examined the role of the family in context with the development of each individual (Strage, 1998). Though peers exert great influence, the family remains an important factor to their development (Kingon & O’Sullivan, 2001). This research must reveal that those who had stronger family attachments also had a higher level of family relation or closeness of the family members (Imamoglu, 2006). It defined family closeness, referred to from previous research, as children’s feeling about parental warmth and involvement, and the relationship between parent and children (Strage, 1998). Thus, the higher level of family closeness, the warmer the children felt toward their family, and the better relationship among the family members.

Family Closeness The closeness of family is important to every individual. For example, many children from divorced families were found to have more behavioral problems, less social competence, more psychological suffering, and less surplus learning, compared to those children you are from close or intact families (Garmezy, 1984; Gersten, 1977 & Rutter, 1983). Chen (2000) reported that those 5th to 7th graders in elementary school in Taiwan with closer family relationships had better abilities to adjust in school rather than their counterparts with less close relationships. Pianta, Egeland, & Sroufe (1990) postulated that mothers who provided an emotionally warm home climate fostered competent first-grade outcome for girls. Other scholar also investigated how different level of family closeness related to adolescent delinquencies (Chen, 1995). Imamoglu & Imamoglu 2006) suggested that college students reporting generally secure attachment relationships also indicate high scores in family relationships.

Also in terms of their academic adjustments were predictable by emotionally close family relationships (Aspinwall, 1992; Ben-David, 1999; Chang, 2006; Chartrand, 1992; Lin, 2003). Those students who have unusual behaviors or behavioral problems most likely would drop out (Lin, 2003). Among the 145 dropouts in middle, school in Taipei, Lin (2003) postulates that family relationship is one of important factors that contribute to students’ withdrawal from the school.

LOCAL LITERATURE
Kasilag (2015) says that being an OFW has positive and negative impact for every individual and the family members they left behind on his Asian International Journal entitled Relation between parent’s overseas workers on the left-behind children (p.2). Without knowing, that the negative stories they hear regarding the life they have after or during working abroad, but it may have positive contribution on the life of the overseas workers and their family members. The study of (Scalabrini, 2003) and Booth & Tamura (2009) likewise found that working abroad has positive effects especially on the economic and educational aspects of their families left behind. (Parrenas, 2005) found that although the children of migrant workers may not considered as the poorest of the poor in the Philippines, once their parents work abroad, better health and education, and a well-built house were brought for the families left behind. All of those positive impacts in the life of their family makes them genuinely happy to continue on working outside the country.

In some cases, overseas work has negative impact on their family especially on their children. Studies in the Philippines show that a mother’s absence in the family has a larger negative effect on the educational outcomes of children (Cortes, 2011). This study revealed that respondents did not classify their family as poor or very poor. This supports the findings of (Parrenas, 2005) who found that the children of the OFWs cannot considered poor. The fact that they enrolled in a private school, majority of the respondents belong to well-to-do families. This also agrees with the study of (Scalabrini, 2003; Semyonov, 2004; Booth and Tamura, 2009) which revealed that overseas work provide better living for the left-behind families or not working abroad will result to poor living for the family.
Wherein, it appears that for the left behind children, their parent’s overseas work and the wealth and honor associated with it do not automatically bring them the quality of life they perceived to have or vice versa for non-OFW parent. Perhaps, economically speaking, if they are aware and already satisfied for staying with their own land and family, so migration is not anymore an option. They would rather stay in the country where quality of life and the closeness of their family relationship makes them firm and stronger no matter what circumstances occur on their family and is easily accessed with the presence of friends and family.

FOREIGN STUDIES
In the family they get education, learn lifetime values and strengths needed to become personalities. When they grow older, they learn on how to respect others who live close to them. They will observe that parents and either follow their example or choose their own path in life. Hence, family relationships start showering their colors of family members. The closer they get, the stronger they are, no matter what the circumstances or destiny brings to them. Overseas worker has enabled many Filipinos to meet the needs of their families. Many Filipino immigrants can described as well-educated and highly skilled professionals with high socioeconomic status (Espiritu, 1994; Liu, 1991 & Santos, 1997). In some findings from several studies suggest that immigration also adversely affects the well-being of immigrant families.
(Qin, 2006) shows that immigrant parents’ demanding work schedule negatively affects family dynamics, weakened family bonds may linked to negative psychological outcomes among children of immigrants (Hwang & Wood, 2009; Rumbaut, 1994). The relationship between satisfaction with parental upbringing and mental health. It examined the interaction between family closeness and satisfaction with parental upbringing in predicting depression and suicide-related outcomes. Because children’s satisfaction are not measured, a new scale was developed and validated for the current study. Family Closeness, parental role fulfillment and immigration stress (2011, p.4) states that both lack of family closeness and children’s level of satisfaction with their upbringing were significantly associated with depression or suicide-related behaviors; the interaction between closeness and satisfaction, however, did not significantly predict negative psychological outcomes.

Filipino children often do not share their parents’ view that devoting numerous hours at work is an act of sacrifice—an obligation parents feel they have to fulfill to provide the basic needs of the family and the best possible education to their children (Bulatao, 1970 & Parreñas, 2006). Because the parents do often not communicate these cultural beliefs and personal experiences explicitly, children of Filipino immigrants may lack the awareness or appreciation for what their parents have given up. Instead of recognizing their parents’ reasons for spending long hours at work, Filipino American children may inadvertently focus on what their parents are not able to do due to their absence (e.g., spending quality time with the family, providing their children with guidance, etc.).

(Lim, 2011 p.15) stated that the Filipinos have always valued the importance of education. Wherein, Filipinos view education as a means to improve one’s social standing or maintain a family’s reputation (Salazar, Schludermann, Schludermann & Huynh, 2000; Schulze, 2004). Thus, the motivation of Filipinos to achieve academic success became even more pronounced in the 1970s when having college education meant having the opportunity to work overseas and being able to provide financial support to one’s family (Pagaduan, 2006 & Lim, 2011). They should consider these as a challenge of being an OFW that the difficulty of maintaining close family ties while coping with the fact that spending long of hours at work will affect the closeness or quality time of the family members.

LOCAL STUDIES
It is true that the money of those Filipino overseas workers earn trickles into towns and villages, helping build houses, open restaurants and send children to private school. However, the absence of the parent either the mother or father will contribute a great factor for building a good and close relationship between parent and child. Working abroad has been sought-after opportunity to utmost Filipinos who desires to have a better-quality family life. Three out of 10 Filipinos are Overseas Filipino Workers or seeking to be one (Asis, 2007) – describing how the widespread migration can necessitate Filipinos to work in foreign countries. Attributed to the April to September assessment of Philippine Statistics Authority, in the year 2013, estimating 2.3 million Overseas Filipino Workers employed around the world. Ninety-six point two per cent of contract workforce from the Philippines composing of 50.3 % males and 49.7% females, statistics presented states that there are yet more male OFW’s than female. In the year 2008, there are 6 million children left by their OFW parents, growing up and gaining consciousness however deprived of the whole supervision of their fathers or mothers.

The number of left-behind children is rapidly increasing proportionally as the number of Filipino workers is doubling; the count of OFW families are escalating as they experience geographic distance—a serious threat to every relationship. Mediated communication is vanishing in the communication exchanges of OFW families since the technological emergence has paved way in the 20th century. Currently, the OFW and their family have no alternative preference, but to depend on the CMC alone (Aguila, 2008) to have a persistent communication and to withstand their intimacy with each other. Long Distance Relationships instantaneously profit and agonize commencing on the usage of such communication tools (Miller, 2009). Reinforced by Epstein et al. (1993), family communication offers importance to the articulated and unarticulated interchange of information among household members even if they are apart.

In OFWs ‘absence of physical intimacy, their loved ones manage with separation using all expedient conceivable way to withstand their close connection and to lessen the loneliness that they experience. Technologically advanced systems of CMC turned out to establish well in the Filipino’s daily life, with their predicament to stay compact with their family even when they are not together (Aguila, 2008). Reshaping Communication: A Study of How Mediated to Computer Mediated Communication Exchanges Affects the Relationship among Overseas Filipino Workers Families (p. 14200) stated that to understand and see the effectiveness of mediated communication to computer-mediated communication tools in the family connection of OFW families. The communication among migrant workers and their left behind families are very important (Madianou & Miller, 2011).

CHAPTER 3
STUDY FRAMEWORK
In this chapter presents the theoretical- sociological, critical, humanistic foundations of your research.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK:
-361949191135Demographic Profile of the Responds
Age
Gender
Civil Status
Year Level
Monthly income
What is the profile of the parent?
2.1 Parent working abroad2.2 Parent living with/left at home
2.3 Number of years the parent working abroad
How often do you spend time with your family?
How happy are you in your relationship with your family?
How much does your family support for your activities?
How satisfied are you with the degree of closeness between family members?
00Demographic Profile of the Responds
Age
Gender
Civil Status
Year Level
Monthly income
What is the profile of the parent?
2.1 Parent working abroad2.2 Parent living with/left at home
2.3 Number of years the parent working abroad
How often do you spend time with your family?
How happy are you in your relationship with your family?
How much does your family support for your activities?
How satisfied are you with the degree of closeness between family members?
1952624191135Data Gathering
Use of Questionnaires
Analysis of Data Gathered
Statistical Treatment
Frequency Count and Percentage- Weighted mean
Interpretation
00Data Gathering
Use of Questionnaires
Analysis of Data Gathered
Statistical Treatment
Frequency Count and Percentage- Weighted mean
Interpretation
3895724210185Outcome of the study:
Closeness of family relationship on selected students of Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College with an OFW parent, an assessment.

00Outcome of the study:
Closeness of family relationship on selected students of Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College with an OFW parent, an assessment.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
0000116903533210500
316230063500
FIGURE 1: Conceptual Framework of the study.

Figure 1 illustrates the Conceptual Framework of the study showing the input, process and output in assessing or for the researcher to gather data for this study. For the input, it is to know the demographic profile of the respondents, wherein they have to answer the following: Age, Gender, Civil status, year level and monthly income of the family.

Then, to know the profile of the parent of the respondents, they must answer the following: Parent working abroad, parent living with or left at home and the number of years the parent working abroad.

Next, is to know the different responses of the respondents on the following questions through giving a rate each number. After, gathering data for this study, the researcher can determine and conclude that the respondents are having good relationship with their family members; they are having either OFW parent or Non-OFW parent.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
(Bronfenbenner, 1979 & Crouter, 1983) proposes that the family, home environment, social and cultural worlds interact with each other in various levels in life of a child. It said that, many factors are affecting child’s behavior even their family has a role (Gaita, 2015).
In addition, according to Bowen, a family is a system in which each member has a role to play and rules to respect. Therefore, each member of a family, expected to respond in certain way according to their role as a family (Sanchez, 2015). The closeness of the family relationship having either an OFW parent or Non-OFW parent will show on how we communicate well with each other.

The “Family Systems theory” of Bowen (Reshaping communication, p. 14199) he stated that an OFW family continue to communicate while the communication tool changes to keep in touch with the family members. As the tool changes and advancing, the communication within the family continue to widen and more often.

According to “Media Richness Theory” (Bernarte, et.,al 2015) different communication tool has different characteristics. Identification and various capacities to provide instant feedback and to transmit message cues– these features distinct from each communication tool to bring more closeness to the family. In addition, the theory guides the researchers to identify the communication patterns and preferred communication characteristics of the OFW families.

DEFINITION OF TERMS:
Family – the basic unit in society traditionally consisting of two parents rearing their children; any of various social units differing from the equivalent to the traditional family.

Closeness – is the ability to let down the inner barriers that allow someone else to see you as you truly are.

OFW – Overseas Filipino Worker, Filipinos who work abroad or Filipinos who are abroad indefinitely as citizens or as permanent residents of a different country and to those Filipino citizens abroad for a limited, definite period, such as on a work contract or as students.

Mindset – People believe their basic qualities, like their intelligence or talent, or simply fixed traits.

Fate – the will or principle or determining cause by which things in general are believed to come to be as they are or events to happen as they do.

Parent – a mother or a father.

Mother – a female parent.

Father – a male parent.

Behavior – range of actions that made by an individual.

Socialization – is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.

Framework – a basic structure underlying a system, concept, or text.

Biological – an inherited or innate way.

Social – in the company of others, especially for pleasure; in a social manner.

Enculturation – is the process by which people learn the dynamics of their surrounding culture and acquire values and norms appropriate or necessary in that culture and worldviews.

Family of orientation – refers to the family that you were born and raised in.

Family of procreation – defined as the family that we create by getting married and having children.

Strive – make great efforts to achieve or obtain something.

PSA – Philippine Statistics Authority serves as the central statistical authority on primary data collection in the Philippines by conducting censuses on different sectors of the Philippine economy such as population, housing, agriculture, fisheries and business.

CALABARZON – formally known as Southern Tagalog Mainland and designated as Region IV-A, is an administrative region in the Philippines.

NCR – National Capital Region.

Central Luzon – designated as Region III, is an administrative region in the Philippines.

Internalizing behavior – are negative behaviors that are focused inward. They include fearfulness, social withdrawal, and somatic complaints.

Externalizing behavior – are directed outward toward others. Such as bullying and vandalism.

Deviant behavior – departing from usual or accepted standards, especially in social or sexual behavior.

Delinquencies – minor crime, especially that committed by young people.

Communication – purposeful activity of sharing, interaction.

Demographic – defined as statistical data about the characteristics of a population, such as the age, gender and income of the people within the population.

CHAPTER 4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter covers the research design, technique in gathering data, and population sampling technique. It included analytical tool, and market analysis, acquisition used by proponents in research. Surveys conducted on adolescent and young adult children to know the closeness among Overseas Filipino Workers and Non-Overseas Filipino Workers parents in their family relationship were the primary data source for this research.

The present study based upon descriptive research and the variables to be studied Closeness of family relationship, OFW parent and Non-OFW parent.
RESEARCH DESIGN
The descriptive research method was employed in this study. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon are being studied. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics of what is being studied. The researcher will use descriptive statistics like mean, median, mode, standard deviation and t-test for interpretation of the data.

Descriptive research is mainly done when a researcher wants to gain a better understanding of a specific topic. It is a scientific method, which involves observing and describing the behavior of the subject without influencing it in any way.

Primarily, a permit to conduct the survey among the students was sought from the respective officials of Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College. Upon approval of the concerned heads, questionnaires were reproduced and distributed to the student-respondents. Cooperation and utmost confidence were sought from the respondents to be able to gather the necessary data. They were further assured on the confidentiality of their responses and the purpose of the study.

Finally, the filled-out questionnaires retrieved, tallied, interpreted and analyzed using appropriate statistical treatments. Data were further presented using tables and graphs. The researcher conducted the study in Tandang Sora, Quezon City, specifically in Dr. Carlos Lanting College students who have parents working abroad and parent living with/ left at home are part of this study.
To interpret the gathered data, the researcher uses statistical method including frequency and percent distribution. Additionally, data analysis is use to determine the significant relationship between the respondents and its closeness to the OFW or Non-OFW parent in sustaining their relationship with their families.
METHODS AND SAMPLING
The researchers use descriptive design of research. It is use to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe what exists with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. It is a quantitative kind of research to understand a certain research problem from the perspective of the subjects (Burns & Grove, 2005). This type of method is use to know the rate of closeness among OFW and Non-OFW parent in their family relationship.

The data gathered were properly tallied, tabulated, interpreted and analyzed using the frequency and percentage distribution as well as the computation of the weighted mean.

Specifically, the following formulas:
Frequency and Percentage
P = F/N x 100
Where P = Percentage
F = Number of Responses
N = Number of Respondents
AND:
Weighted Mean
?wfWM = N
Where: WM: Weighted Mean
w: weight
f: frequency
N: Number of Cases
RESEARCH LOCAL
The respondents of this study were the students of Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College from all programs/Tandang Sora Residences. Specifically, all students or the respondents are randomly selected individual to be able to participate this study and be a representative from different program and to avoid biases. This study was conducted in Dr. Carlos S. Lanting College, Quezon City located at #16 Tandang Sora Ave., Sangandaan Quezon City.

INSTRUMENT AND ITS VALIDATION
In order to answer specific questions or problems in this study, the survey questionnaires will be distributed to the respondents. All necessary information in the instruments was checked and approved by the adviser before it was administered or distributed to the respondents. Since, that questionnaire was the main instrument use by the researcher in this study to gather the needed data and information from the respondents. This questionnaire is composed of three parts. The first part of the questionnaire is focusing on the demographic profile of the respondent, the profile of the parent of the respondent and some personal question that they must use a scale to answer. Because there are currently no scales that assess the level of closeness of participants feel towards their parents’ ability to fulfill their responsibilities, a questionnaire was developed for this purpose.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
This study is highly respected the respondents’ identity, the researcher must not use their pictures, names or profiles without any permission for the confidentiality of the individual. The researcher must know the dos and don’ts in this study and in distributing the questionnaires to the respondents. If the questionnaires were distributed to the respondent, it must explain well each item to avoid unusual behavior and wrong responses in each item.