Chronic disease, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension

Chronic Disease Courtney N. Doles
University of Rio Grande
Chronic DiseaseChronic Diseases are diseases that persist over a long period of time. Chronic disease can hinder independence and the health of people with disabilities or create additional activity limitations. CITATION Med l 1033 (Medical Definition of Chronic Disease, n.d.). Chronic Diseases are conditions that last more than a year. It may require ongoing medical treatment and it can effect daily activities. Chronic Disease includes Alzheimer’s, dementia, arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and many more. Risky behaviors that may lead to chronic disease are tobacco use, poor nutrition, lack of physical activity and excessive alcohol use.
The biggest implication of chronic disease in the United States are the health care costs. The US focuses on high costs of treating a disease instead of the benefits we would receive by preventing them. Some chronic diseases may be prevented with lifestyle changes. Lifestyle changes may include eating healthier, exercising more and quitting bad habits like smoking and drinking excessive amounts of alcohol. The share of American adults classified as obese increased from 13% in 1960 to almost 40% in 2016. Epidemiologic research has established a strong link between obesity and chronic diseases such as heart disease, kidney disease and several types of cancer. CITATION Chr18 l 1033 (Chronic diseases are taxing our health care system and our economy, 2018). So, if Americans would eat healthier and exercise more, it could reduce their risk of getting a chronic disease.
Health care services can be preventive or reactive. Preventive health care is used to keep illnesses from occurring. The right preventive care at every stage of life helps all Americans stay healthy, avoid or delay the onset of disease, keep diseases they already have from becoming worse, lead productive lives and reduce costs CITATION Pre l 1033 (Preventive Health Care/Gateway to Health Communication/CDC, n.d.). Many Americans do not participate in preventive care because of financial reasons. .
Preventive health care services can reduce the prevalence of a targeted disease or condition to help people live longer, healthier lives CITATION Nas16 l 1033 (Nash, Fabious, Skoufalos, Clark, & Horowitz, 2016). They are services that are used to prevent illness or injury. Any screening test performed to detect an illness is considered preventive. Preventive services may include immunizations and vaccines to prevent illnesses like the flu or tetanus, screenings for hypertension, breast cancer or colorectal cancer, and routine well checks such as pap smears or prostate exams. By taking part in these services, patients and physicians are able to prevent problems or catch an issue before it escalates into something worse. Preventive health services are covered under The Affordable Care Act. This act makes preventive care affordable and accessible by requiring certain healthcare plans to cover recommended preventive services without charging a deductible, copayment, co-insurance or other cost sharing.
Reactive healthcare involves going to the doctor after you have gotten an illness or injury. With reactive services, a physician will prescribe antibiotics or meds to help cure the illness or delay the progress. Reactive healthcare can get expensive. Paying for prescriptions, copays, etc. an appointment can get very costly.
According to NBC News, The United States is struggling with their health and rank last against citizens of 10 other wealthy countries when it comes to emotional distress, struggling to pay for care and skipping doctor visits CITATION Fox16 l 1033 (Fox, 2016). The report states, “Americans are more likely than other people in other countries to have more than one chronic condition such as arthritis, heart disease, asthma, hypertension or diabetes.” CITATION Fox16 l 1033 (Fox, 2016)Chronic Disease has a big impact on population health. In the United States, chronic diseases are the leading cause of deaths and among the most costly and preventable. Statistics show in 2008 that one out of every two U.S. adults report having at least one of six chronic illnesses. They report illnesses with cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, diabetes or arthritis. Seven out of ten American deaths each year of from different chronic diseases. Fifty percent of yearly deaths can be linked to heart disease, cancer and strokes. Diabetes can cause kidney failure, non-injury lower-limb amputations and blindness among adults ages twenty to seventy-four. Hypertension is among the top of the list of chronic diseases that lead to death in the United States. Approximately 63 million people suffer from hypertension and close to 70% of first heart attacks and strokes occur due to hypertension. COPD is a common diagnosis for Americans as well. Over 13 million Americans suffer from COPD CITATION Pub l 1033 (Public health and Chronic Disease, n.d.).

References
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