Charles Robert Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, the biologist, the psychologists, philosophist, founder of evolutionism who put forward the doctrine of biological evolution, which destroys all kinds of idealistic theology and species invariance.
The idea of a gradual and continuous change in all species of plants and animals was expressed by many scientists long before Darwin. But it was Darwin who put forward a completely new hypothesis regarding living nature, generalizing individual evolutionary ideas into one, the so-called theory of evolution, which was the most widely spread in the world.
He published ” The Origin of Species by Natural Selection” in 1859. It should be noted that despite the huge popularity among the reading public, the idea of a gradual appearance in the living nature of new species for the scientific community of the time turned out to be so unusual that it was not accepted immediately.
Darwin suggested that in competition among animal populations, only those will survive that have properties of benefits under given specific conditions, allowing producing offspring as well. His theory is based on three principles: a) heredity and variability; b) the struggle for existence; c) natural selection.
Variability is an inalienable property of all living things. Despite the similarity of living organisms of the same species, two completely identical individuals cannot be found within the population. This variation of features and properties creates the advantage of some organisms over others.
A certain variability , or adaptive modification, is the ability of individuals of one species to react in an identical way to changes in the environment. Such group changes are not inherited, so they can not supply material for evolution..
The core principle of natural selection has the following implications: Organisms have a tendency to overproduce while living space and food are limited, so that creatures must “fight for survival.” Variants exist in individuals within the same population, and individuals with favorable variations that adapt to the environment will survive and multiply offspring, while individuals without favorable variability will be eliminated. His natural selection principle is based on the prevailing “fusion genetic” hypothesis at that time

However The “modern” theory of evolution – the synthetic theory of evolution (STE), based on the synthesis of Darwin’s theory of natural selection with Mendel’s genetics, proves that mutations are the cause of variability – abrupt changes in the hereditary structure of the organism that occur randomly do not solve the problem either.
The question arises after so many years of the discovery that whether the theory of evolution is the only logical explanation for the development of life?
Evolution is the development of life. Recognition that evolution is taking place is the only logical explanation for the observed regularities of modern biological diversity, which is also confirmed by the paleontological chronicle and embryological data. The theory of evolution is an explanation of the mechanisms of evolution, there can be many theories of evolution. At the moment, the theory of natural selection (or rather, the synthetic theory of evolution as the “successor” of Darwinian) is the only theory that meets the criteria of scientificity – verifiability and falsifiability: on the basis of this theory, hypotheses can be constructed that are empirically tested, and there is the likelihood of their experimental refutation.

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Charles Robert Darwin (February 12, 1809 – April 19, 1882) is the one who put forward the doctrine of biological evolution, which destroys all kinds of idealistic theology and species invariance. In addition to biology, his theory also focused on the development of anthropology, psychology and philosophy.
The idea of a gradual and continuous change in all species of plants and animals was expressed by many scientists long before Darwin. But it was Darwin who put forward a completely new hypothesis regarding living nature, generalizing individual evolutionary ideas into one, the so-called theory of evolution, which was the most widely spread in the world. Darwin expounded his concept in his work “The Origin of Species by Natural Selection” (1859).
It should be noted that despite the huge popularity among the reading public, the idea of a gradual appearance in the living nature of new species for the scientific community of the time turned out to be so unusual that it was not accepted immediately.
Darwin suggested that in competition among animal populations, only those will survive that have properties of benefits under given specific conditions, allowing producing offspring as well. His theory is based on three principles: a) heredity and variability; b) the struggle for existence; c) natural selection.
Variability is an inalienable property of all living things. Despite the similarity of living organisms of the same species, two completely identical individuals can not be found within the population. This variation of features and properties creates the advantage of some organisms over others.
Under normal conditions, the difference in properties remains invisible and does not have a significant effect on the development of organisms, however, under changing conditions, especially in the unfavorable direction, even the smallest difference can give one organisms a significant advantage over others. Only individuals with the appropriate conditions of the properties are able to survive and leave offspring. Darwin distinguishes between uncertain and definite variability.
A certain variability , or adaptive modification, is the ability of individuals of one species to react in an identical way to changes in the environment. Such group changes are not inherited, so they can not supply material for evolution..
The core principle of natural selection has the following implications: Organisms have a tendency to overproduce while living space and food are limited, so that creatures must “fight for survival.” Variants exist in individuals within the same population, and individuals with favorable variations that adapt to the environment will survive and multiply offspring, while individuals without favorable variability will be eliminated. If the change in natural conditions is directional, in the course of history, after a long period of natural selection, tiny variations will accumulate and become significant variations. This may lead to the formation of subspecies and new species.
Development of Darwinian evolutionary theory
In 1865 Austrian botanist GJ Mendel from the pea hybridization experiment obtained the correct conclusion of the genetic particles. He proved that the genetic material is not fused, separation and recombination can occur during the passage of reproduction. At the beginning of the 20th century, genetics was established. Thor Morgan and others then established the theory of chromosome genetics, revealing the basic laws of inheritance. This should remedy the shortcomings of Darwin’s theory and contribute to the development of evolution; but at that time most of the geneticists, including Morgan , were opposed to Darwin’s theory of natural selection. People ‘s belief in Darwin’s theory of evolution , a serious crisis.

Charles Robert Darwin, the biologist, the psychologists, philosophist, pioneer of evolutionism who put forward the doctrine of biological evolution, which destroys all kinds of idealistic theology and species invariance.
Darwin put forward his idea on theory of evolution by natural selection in his book which was published in the name of ” On the origin of Species” in 1859, which was the most widely spread in the world.
Darwin suggested that in competition among animal populations, only those will survive that have properties of benefits under given specific conditions, allowing producing offspring as well. His theory is based on three principles: a) heredity and variability; b) the struggle for existence; c) natural selection.
Variability is an inalienable attribute of all living things. Despite the similarity of living organisms of the same species, two completely identical individuals cannot be found within the population. This variation of features and properties creates the advantage of some organisms over others.
A certain variability, or adaptive modification, is the ability of individuals of one species to react in an identical way to changes in the environment. Such group changes are not inherited, so they can not supply material for evolution..
The core principle of natural selection has the following implications: Organisms have a tendency to overproduce while living space and food are limited, so that creatures must “fight for survival.” Variants exist in individuals within the same population, and individuals with favorable variations that adapt to the environment will survive and multiply offspring, while individuals without favorable variability will be eliminated. His natural selection principle is based on the prevailing “amalgamation genetic” hypothesis at that time

darwin gives a lot of evidence to increase the fitness of organisms to environmental conditions caused by natural selection this for example is widespread among animals of patronizing color making them less noticeable in habitats: night butterflies have a bodycolor corresponding to the surface on which they spend the day; females openly nesting birds capercaillie black grouse hazel grouse have a color of plumage almost indistinguishable from the surrounding background; in the far north many animalsare painted white partridges bears etc. many animals that have special protective devices against eating them by other animals have in addition a warning color for example poisonous or inedible species some animals are endangered in the form of bright repellent spots for example the hamster has a bright color of the abdomen many animals that do not have special protective equipment in terms of body shape and color imitate the protected mimicry many of them have needles spines chitinous cover shell shell scalesand so on. n. in animals a great role as devices playing different kinds of instincts the instinct of caring for offspring the instincts associated with obtaining food and so on. d. among plants a wide variety of adaptations to cross pollination the dispersion of fruits and seeds are widespread all these adaptations could appear only as a result of natural selection ensuring the existence of the species under certain conditions. however darwin noted that the adaptation of organisms to the environment their usefulness along with perfectionis relative in nature this means that when conditions change useful signs may be useless or even harmful. for example in aquatic plants that absorb water and substances dissolved in it by the entire surface of the body the root system is poorly developed but the surface of the shoot and the airy tissue the aerochyma formed by the system of intercellular spaces piercing the entire body plants this increases the contact surface with the environment providing better gas exchange and allows plants to make fuller use of light and absorb carbon dioxide. but when the pond dry up such plants will die very quickly. all their adaptive signs ensuring their prosperity in the water environment are useless outside of it

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Charles Robert Darwin, the biologist, the psychologists, philosophist, is the one who put forward the doctrine of biological evolution, which destroys all kinds of idealistic theology and species invariance. In addition to biology, his theory also focused on the development of anthropology, psychology and philosophy.
The idea of a gradual and continuous change in all species of plants and animals was expressed by many scientists long before Darwin. But it was Darwin who put forward a completely new hypothesis regarding living nature, generalizing individual evolutionary ideas into one, the so-called theory of evolution, which was the most widely spread in the world. Darwin expounded his concept in his work “The Origin of Species by Natural Selection” (1859).
It should be noted that despite the huge popularity among the reading public, the idea of a gradual appearance in the living nature of new species for the scientific community of the time turned out to be so unusual that it was not accepted immediately.
Darwin suggested that in competition among animal populations, only those will survive that have properties of benefits under given specific conditions, allowing producing offspring as well. His theory is based on three principles: a) heredity and variability; b) the struggle for existence; c) natural selection.
Variability is an inalienable property of all living things. Despite the similarity of living organisms of the same species, two completely identical individuals cannot be found within the population. This variation of features and properties creates the advantage of some organisms over others.
A certain variability , or adaptive modification, is the ability of individuals of one species to react in an identical way to changes in the environment. Such group changes are not inherited, so they can not supply material for evolution..
The core principle of natural selection has the following implications: Organisms have a tendency to overproduce while living space and food are limited, so that creatures must “fight for survival.” Variants exist in individuals within the same population, and individuals with favorable variations that adapt to the environment will survive and multiply offspring, while individuals without favorable variability will be eliminated

However The “modern” theory of evolution – the synthetic theory of evolution (STE), based on the synthesis of Darwin’s theory of natural selection with Mendel’s genetics, proves that mutations are the cause of variability – abrupt changes in the hereditary structure of the organism that occur randomly do not solve the problem either.

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