CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONBackground to the study Human resources management practices practices are viewed the most necessary belongings of every organization, but very few agencies are in a position to fully make use of their potentials.
Lado and Wilson (1994) define a human resource system “as a set of awesome but interacted at attracting, developing, and maintaining a firm’s human resources”. Over the years, researchers have counseled many satisfactory human useful resource administration practices that have the potential to improve and maintain organizational performance. These practices consist of emphasis on employee selection based totally on fit, with the enterprise culture, emphasis on behavior, attitude, and fundamental technical capabilities required by, the job, compensation, contingent on overall performance and worker empowerment to foster group work amongst others. The thought of organizational performance is based totally upon the idea that an organisation enterprise is a voluntary affiliation of productive assets, together with human, physical and capital resources, for the cause of manufacturing and making profit, Barney et al.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
, (2001).Organizational performance comprises the proper output or consequences of an organization as measured in opposition to its supposed outputs (or desires and objectives). Stickland and Thompson (2007,) provide a complete approach for measuring performance of organizations.
According to Drucker (1975), human beings are a firm’s most valuable resource. Having the right personnel at the right area and at the right time is utmost vital for the survival and success of any organization. (Oladipo 2011). Firms proclaim that people are the supply of their competitive gain whether they are technological experts, accommodating client services, professional or visionary managers at a time of unparalleled science development. It is the human aid that spells success or failure of all firms, and in particular entrepreneurs.1.
2 Problem statementOrganizations today are confronted with the assignment of finding and preserving higher-performing employees. Indeed, human aid management practices are practiced via management of the selected banks and the total banking sector in general. Human aid is the backbone of corporations in the world and undoubtedly the most essential resource.
According to Qureshiet. al. (2007), have an impact on of human useful resource administration practices on organizational performance has been an necessary vicinity of lookup in the previous 25 years indicating positive relationship between human resource administration practices and organizational performance.
He again stated that, human aid administration practices have been an important and integral area in administration and organizational overall performance for the last a number of years especially in the banking industry.A study carried out in Saudi Arabia on how one of a kind variables help an employer to reap its targets in efficient and positive way (AlHussain, 2011).Human resource management is a hassle to nearly all business enterprise across the globe for example a study conducted in India by means of Singh (2004) investigated the relationship between six human resources management practices and organizational level performance in India. A study performed was additionally in Saudi Arabia on how different variables help an agency to acquire its targets in environment friendly and nice way (AlHussain, 2011). It is evident from these studies concerning the factors that affect human assets practices in the banking quarter on organizational performance. These have been carried out mainly in India, Saudi Arabia with few of these research being performed in Africa (Chiboiwa, Samuel & Chipunza, 2010; Mensah & Alemna, 1997 and Tettey, 2009).
Also preceding research on human aid administration practices have been patchy or inconsistent and researchers have not arrived at an fantastic combo of practices that should improve organisational commitment and retention (Chew & Chan, 2008). Existing literatures have appreciably elicited the wonderful contributions of human sources administration practices on organizations’ performances (Ahmed & Schroeder, 2003; Schuler & Jackson, 2007; and Agyapomaa, 2011). The Ghanaian banks experience some level of worker turnover due to the massive opposition from other banks as well as other sectors of the economy. Hence it is critical that human resource administration practices that can raise retention are explored and instituted.
Empirical lookup on employee retention in Africa in established and Ghana in particular is limited. (see Mensah & Alemna, 1997; Tettey, 2009). In 2001 for instance, a whole of 380 out of 538 employees left the banking industry in Ghana. In 2002, 464 had been employed while 487 left the banks leaving the internet employment at -23. Similarly, a complete of 610 employees left the banks in 2007, representing a 60.53 percentage enlarge over these who left in 2001 (Amediku, 2008). These propose that retention is a primary assignment confronting banks in Ghana. These dearth of literature on the have an impact on of human aid administration practices on organizational performance in Ghana in general and in particular in Sunyani Municipal calls for an empirical study to assist fill the know-how gap.
Objectives of the studyThe study used to be guided by the following objectives:1. To discover out the kinds of human useful resource administration practices employed in the banking sector2. To have a look at how human useful resource practices have an impact on organizational performance.3. To check out the extent to which human useful resource management practices have been used in the banking sector.
4. To decide the challenges dealing with the affect of human aid management practices on organizational overall performance and measures that can be put in vicinity to clear up the challenges.1.4 Research Questions1. What are the sorts of human useful resource administration practices available or used in the banking sector?2. How do human useful resource management practices affect organizational performance?3. Determine the extent to which human resource management practices have been used in the two banking sector?4.
What are the challenges going through the affect of human useful resource administration practices on organizational overall performance and measures that can be put in location to remedy the challenges?1.5 Significance of the StudyThe lookup and its findings will provide an insight into the chosen banks on how quality human resource administration practices have impacted on the performance of the banks. It will also convey to the be aware of the administration of the banks some satisfactory human aid administration practices.
To the board members, the learn about will furnish the benchmark that can be used to the other branches of the banks underneath study, which do now not practice exceptional human resource administration practices as expected. This will therefore, enhance on their performance and lead to the attainment of the average targets as well as competitive edge in the commercial enterprise environment. The learn about will once more elicit some lookup gaps in the region of quality human sources administration practices in the banking sector for other researchers to do more work into.
1.6 Scope of the studyThe study focused on the banking sector and again restricted itself to to Sunyani Municipality and therefore the findings were not to be generalized to be generalized. This was once due to the fact the banks chosen across the country of which the researcher had no documented evidence needed. The study was limited to the best practices of human resource management and how they influence the performance in the banking sector.
1.7 Limitations of the StudyThis learn about faced a lot of challenges as the researcher located it very tough in assessing facts from the chosen banks due the reluctant nature of management and personnel in giving out information since the banks confidentiality policy restrained most of the respondents from answering some of the questionnaires. It was once regarded to be towards the banks confidentiality policy to expose the organization’s private matters. However, the researcher used an introductory letter from the university to persuade administration of the banks to cooperate with me and this helped to keep away from suspicion and enabled the employer management to reveal a lot of the information sought by means of the study.
The study could not cover all banks and businesses within Sunyani Municipality. Also not all financial institutions in the Municipality were investigated due to time and resource constraint.1.8 Definition of Significant Terms used in the StudyHuman aid administration Refers to the management of human capital-employees who make contributions to the attainment of enterprise goals.Recruitment and SelectionIs the technique thru which the employer seeks candidates for possible employment and the system thru which the company attempts to identify candidates with the vital knowledge, skills, competencies and different characteristics that will assist it gain its’ goals.Reward SystemReward systems, refers to procedures, rules, and standards associated with allocation of advantages and compensation to employees.Job DesignThe process of defining the way work will be performed and the venture that will be required of an worker in a given job.
Training and DevelopmentTraining is referred to as a planned effort to facilitate the gaining knowledge of job related knowledge, capabilities behavior through employees. Development is described as the acquisition of knowledge, capabilities and behaviors that enhance an employee’s potential to meet changes in job necessities and in consumer and purchaser care.Performance ManagementRefers to ability thru which managers ensure employees’ things to do and outputs are congruent with the organizational goals.1.9 Organization of the StudyChapter one gives the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, the research question, the significance of the study, delimitations and boundaries of the study, definition of significant terms used in the study and organization of the study.Chapter Two reviewed literature applicable to the study the concept of best human resource management practices on organizational performance and also covering the theoretical framework, conceptual framework, empirical evidence, discussion and the summary of the literature.
Chapter Three discusses study’s research design, target population, sampling procedure and sample size research instruments which covers, pilot testing, validity of instruments, and reliability of instruments. Data collection methods, data analysis techniques, ethical issues were discussed in this chapter. Chapter Four has covered detailed analysis, presentation and interpretation of research findings. Chapter Five gives a summary of the study findings, discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the study.CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.
1 IntroductionThis chapter reviewed literature relevant to the topic; Assessing the impact of quality human aid administration practices on performance of the selected banks inside Sunyani Municipality. The assessment is targeted on the subject matters of the learn about which covers; recruitment and selection, reward system, job design, training and development, overall performance management and the theoretical body work, motivational principle and conceptual framework.2.
2 Conceptual Review2.2.1The concept and definition of human resource managementThere are many resources which are fundamental for the development of institutions. These assets include; man, money, substances and time. One of these sources in the development manner is man. Man can be said to be productive or unproductive relying on how he/she performs his/her endeavor and duties. In the quick growing and globalised world of today, the issue of human resource management unit is going through a huge challenge.
All institutions, whether or not small or large are dealing with the undertaking of creating their work force to meet the demands of present day realities due to lack of certified human aid managers with managerial skills. Indeed, institutional growth cannot be completed besides certified human resource management. The role of the human useful resource supervisor is evolving with the change in aggressive market environment and the cognizance that human resource managers have to play a more strategic role in the success of an organization. Organizations that do no longer put emphasis on attracting and holding talents can also find themselves in dire penalties as their competitors can also be outplaying them in the strategic employment of their human resources. Efficient human useful resource administration is one of the most quintessential requirements for survival in this competitive world.
To bring out the best in a man is the essence of human useful resource development. Sethumadhavan (2007) wrote that human assets managers of today might also find it difficult because of the unexpectedly changing commercial enterprise surroundings and therefore they need to update their understanding and competencies by using searching at the organization’s objectives. In order to succeed, human useful resource managers have to be a business driven characteristic with a thorough appreciation of the organisation’s big image and be able to impact key decisions and policies.Senyucel’s (2009) sees human useful resource administration as a combination of people-centered administration practices that recognizes employees as property and geared to developing and keeping skilful and dedicated group of workers for accomplishing organizational goals. (Ayesh et al, 2012) described human useful resource management as composed of policies, practices and structures that affect employees’ behavior, attitude and performance.The study focused on seven variables of human resource management practices specifically education and development, overall performance appraisal, empowerment, compensation, job rotation, participation in selection making and selecting system. Having the proper personnel at the proper location and at the right time is utmost important to the survival and success of any organization Oladipo (2011).
Human resource practices and development are designed to enhance the knowledge, competencies and competencies of employees; enhance their motivation, minimize or do away with loitering on the job and decorate the retention of valuable employees; and enhance the retentions of precious employees. Those practices consist of worker recruitment and selection procedures: incentive compensation and overall performance administration policies and massive worker training, participation and involvement in decision-making.”Human capital corresponds to any inventory of information that contributes to his or her productivity.”( Garibaldi P, 2006).
Recruitment procedures that grant a massive pool of qualified applicants will have a big affect over the pleasant and kind of abilities that new employees possess. Providing formal and informal education experiences, such as fundamental ability training, on the job experience, coaching, mentoring and management development, can further influence employees’ development. Human aid management practices can have an effect on employee thru the use of legitimate resolution techniques to appoint appropriately skilled employees and through comprehensive coaching to develop modern employees. Even excessive knowledgeable personnel will now not operate efficiently if they are no longer motivated.
Managers can use human aid administration practices for the motivation of employees to work both harder and smarter. The human aid administration practices include recruitment, socialisation, selection, placement, evaluation, coaching and development, compensation and benefits, and retention of the employees of an organization. Businesses have developed human aid data structures that support: (i) recruitment, selection, and hiring, (ii) job placement, (iii) performance appraisals, (iv) workforce recruitment and selection, (v) training and development, and (vi) health, safety, and security.
The first few activities of human aid administration are recruiting and choosing which deal with the movements concerned, and the recruiting is additionally less frequently alerted in human resource statistics machine recently. Besides, e-recruitment on the web being the cutting-edge trend for the recruitment and choice procedures can further distinguish many things to do of the processes.2.2. 2 Staff Recruitment and SelectionRecruitment and choice is regularly as a planned rational activity, comprising positive sequentially-linked phases within a method of worker resourcing, which itself may be placed within a wider human aid administration strategy.Bratton and Gold (2007) differentiate the two terms while establishing a clear link between them in the following way; recruitment is the technique of generating a pool of capable human beings to observe for employment to an organization; while determination is the method with the aid of which managers and others use specific gadgets to choose from a pool of applicants an individual or individuals greater probably to be successful in the job(s), given administration goals and prison requirements.’ In putting out a similar distinction in which recruitment activities provide a pool of humans eligible for selection, Foot and Hook (2005) advise that, although the two features are closely connected, every requires a separate vary of abilities and expertise, and may additionally in practice be fulfilled with the aid of different staff members.
The recruitment activity, however now not typically the decision, can also be outsourced to an agency. It makes sense, therefore, to deal with each activity separately. Recruitment and resolution forms a core part of the central activities underlying human resource management: namely, the acquisition, improvement and reward of workers. It often forms an necessary part of the work of human aid managers – or specific specialists within work organizations. However, and importantly, recruitment and determination decisions are regularly for proper motive taken by means of non-specialists and by means of the line managers.
There is, therefore, an vital experience in which it is the accountability of all managers, and where human useful resource departments exist, it may additionally be that human aid managers play extra of a assisting advisory function to those people who will supervise or in other methods work with the new worker (French and Rumbles, 2010). It has been argued that in order for the firm to construct and preserve the aggressive advantage, acceptable staffing is vital (Boxall, 2008). Dean (2010) highlights two techniques for effective recruitment, specifically (a) job description and individual specification, and (b) recruitment advertising. Many researchers have persistently published that having a structured strategy has the tendency to increase validity of recruitment/selection (Middlewood, 2001).
Recruitment is extra likely to attain its objectives if recruiting sources reflect the type of position to be filled, certain recruitment sources are greater advantageous than others for filling sure types of positions. Internal search, for instance, has its merits such as; it endears the workers to the company and will increase worker patriotism. It builds morale via expectations of rising via ranks; encourages excellent individuals who are bold to stick with the agency and subsequently controls worker turnover; it improves the probability of a good selection, given that statistics on the individual’s performance is quite simply available; it’s less steeply-priced than going outside to recruit; and those who are subsequently taken from the enterprise and make succession planning easy.
(Khan 2008) observes that in the case of internal recruitment of qualified candidates can be reached at a low cost and minimal time; this works as a reveal for performance and better evaluation of candidate’s capabilities is also possible. Armstrong (2006) observes that the assumption underpinning the practice of human aid administration is that human beings are the organization’s key resource and organizational overall performance generally depends on them. Therefore, if an appropriate range of human useful resource insurance policies and procedures are developed and implemented effectively, then human resource will make a massive impact on company performance.Guest, Michie, Conway and Sheenan (2003) additionally argue that the case for an affiliation between human aid administration and performance is based on two arguments. The first one being that the high-quality deployment of human resources provides one of the most effective bases of aggressive advantage.
The 2nd argument is that positive deployment of human resources depends on the application of a exceptional combination of practices, or the use of a steady set of human resource practices. Additionally, Guest et al (2003) stress that there is a possible case that human useful resource management will be more effective if it matches the commercial enterprise approach of the firm. External recruitment is highly-priced and time consuming; more over external recruitment can be demotivating for the existing personnel and it can purpose serious worker morale problems. There is additionally the danger of hiring candidates who does not fit with the job or organisation when in contrast to the apparent high plausible displayed at some stage in the decision manner (Jackson and Mathis, 2005). In addition, posting jobs internally is an fantastic method of presenting advertising possibilities to all personnel and minimizing employee complaints of unfair cure and unlawful discrimination (Bernthal, 2009). Campus recruitment is a recruiting method in which an groups go to a number universities and schools to recruit fresh graduates.
Though it can be time consuming and costly, the organizations can generate a large number of younger and full of life candidates thru campus recruitment. Beside campus recruiting many of the employers now participate in job affairs. Through job gala’s the can fill the vacancies quickly (Jackson and Mathis, 2005).
Another formal method of recruiting is to use an employment organisation that finds and pre monitors candidates referring these who appear certified to the company for in addition assessment and closing resolution (Fisher and Schoenfeldt, 2004). This kind of recruitment is very high priced however wonderful when groups does not prefer to put time and effort into recruitment activities. According to Costello el al.
(2006) recruitment is described as the set of things to do and procedures used to legally gain a ample variety of certified people at the right region and time so that the humans and the business enterprise can choose every other in their very own best short and long term interests. In other words, the recruitment technique gives the corporation with a pool of doubtlessly qualified job candidates from which judicious resolution can be made to fill vacancies. Successful recruitment begins with perfect employment planning and forecasting. Jovanovic (2004) stated recruitment is a procedure of attracting a pool of high fantastic applicants so as to pick out the satisfactory among them. For this reason, pinnacle performing groups dedicated enormous sources and energy to developing excessive nice resolution systems.
Recruitment and selection method are essential practices for human aid management, and are necessary in affecting organizational success (Jovanovic, 2004). Due to the reality that agencies are usually fortified through data science to be extra competitive, it is herbal to additionally consider utilizing this science to re-organize the normal recruitment and decision system through proper choice techniques, with that each the effectiveness and the efficiency of the processes can be expanded and the excellent of the recruitment and decision selection improved. Many decision-making problems, which include recruitment and selection, are herein involved. The gadget allows computerized or computerized approaches to solve the problems, and is of quintessential significance as an aggressive device in the data age. Researchers indicate that high quality recruitment practices and insurance policies enable boards to discover the first-class candidate for their organization.
The personnel function turns into especially necessary when recruiting and choosing new administrators. A necessary position for human useful resource management is how to elicit nice reactions from candidates when discussing administrative roles. When opportunities are to personnel to pass toward careers in administration (i.e., tapping shoulders of attainable candidates), often a negative reaction occurs. People except administrative experiences have terrible perceptions and views of the position of the administrator. In tries to appeal to and support individuals to the administrator’s function it is necessary to pick out what boundaries prevent potential candidates from applying to the pool. Job complexity and workload are perceived by means of personnel as the two issues having had the biggest affect on the quantity of applicants for administrative positions.
Other elements include terrible remuneration as it relates to needs and expectations of the job and lack of resources and aid structures. Many highly qualified, competent, and gifted personnel disregard careers in administration because they do no longer choose to sit in an office all day. Selection is a chain which is as robust as its weakest link.
The choice entails a series of complex selections concerning the desire of person, choice of techniques to use, and the preference of information. Stonner, Freeman and Gilbert (2000) see the determination method as the mutual system whereby the organization decides whether or not or now not to make a job provide and the candidate decides whether or not to accept it.2.2.3 Job DefinitionIn each organization, job definition helps management to define task, authority and structures that will be prepared and integrated throughout organizational devices and in character jobs. Job definition is combination of job description and job specification. 2.
2.4 TrainingTraining can also be defined as a deliberate application designed to improve performance and to bring about measurable modifications in knowledge, skills, mindset and social conduct of an employee for performing a particular job. Training & Development (T&D) is a very prominent function of HRM (Vlachos 2008).
2.2.5 Employee’s ParticipationEmployee’s participation in administration is a very fine mechanism for all round boom of people and enterprise profitability; however, no longer plenty has either been performed or initiated in this direction. Partly, the trouble is that the scheme of employee’s participation in administration structures is continually pushed via statutory mechanisms and to that extent it is regarded as coercion/compulsion from the government.2.2.
5 Performance AppraisalPerformance appraisal is an exercise carried out to consider the contribution of all the executives and staff/workers made in the direction of the standard increase of the organization. Performance appraisal has attracted a lot of attention from HRM professionals. For example, Levin (1986) in his studies identified some makes use of overall performance appraisal like assessment of worker benefit appraisal, willpower of employee salary, employee coaching needs, comments & recommendation of employee’s past performance. Thang (2004) in his experiments concluded how well a suitable Human Resource Management associated choice is made will determine how properly employees will perform their jobs.2.2.6 Organizational performanceOrganizational performance contains the real output or consequences of an business enterprise as measured in opposition to its supposed outputs (or goals and objectives). According to Richard et al.
(2009) organizational performance includes three particular areas of outcomes: (a) financial overall performance (profits, return on investment, return on assets, etc.); (b) product market performance (market share, sales, etc.); & finally (c) optimized shareholder return (economic cost added, total shareholder return, etc.).2.
2.7 Relationship between human resource management practices and organizational performancePerformance of any agency largely depends on the performance of its employees. Successful agencies are increasingly realizing that there are a range of factors that make a contribution to performance, but human useful resource is in reality the most necessary (Mello, 2005). Effective Human aid practices enhance the performance of organization and lead to greater profits. Datta et al. (2003) found out that nice use of Human resource practices disclose a stronger association with efficiency of a firm.2.2.
8. Openness, confrontation, trust, autonomy, pro-activeness, authenticity, collaboration and experimentation cultureDevelopment of human sources requires a developmental climate which is characterised by means of the prevalence of openness & frankness, arguments & discussions, confrontation, distinction of opinion, trust, pro-activeness, autonomy, authenticity, collaboration and experimentation. “Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Autonomy, Pro-activeness, Authenticity, Collaboration and Experimentation culture” is integral for facilitating Human Resource Development. Openness & frankness refers to the surroundings where employees experience free to talk about their views, ideas, things to do and emotions with one another. Confrontation is putting at issues and issues in an open mind with the view to solving them instead than hiding them for worry of getting hurt or hurting others. Trust capability believing human beings for what they are saying.
Autonomy is granting adequate freedom to let humans work independently with responsibility. Authenticity is the tendency on the phase of personnel to do what human beings say. Collaboration is to receive the interdependence to be useful and useful to one some other and work as teams. Experimentation displays an surroundings where the spirit of attempting out new ideas with the view to bringing innovation and improvement in the existing system. 2.3 Theoretical reviewThis phase centered on a variety of theories of worker motivation in relation to job performance.
2.3.1 Theory on human useful resource management and performanceTheories on human beings management have been sifted, going thru so many phases, from the perspectives of Taylorism, bureaucratic theory, concept X and concept Y until the breakthrough with Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne scan which commenced any other phase of humans management acknowledged as human relations. The era of personnel management surfaced which has metamorphosed into the current day Human Resource Management. Since then, human resource administration has captured the interest of many studies churning out loads and hundreds of findings that from time to time generate debates and disagreements. 2.
4 Empirical Literature ReviewThis section aimed at explaining the various previous researches in relation to this research.2.4.1.
Relationship between human useful resource administration systems, human resource outcomes, and organizational performance.Previous empirical studies on special human resource management systems and organizational performance linkage have been well-studied (Su and Wright, 2012). Many studies depicted direct relationship between human resource administration and organizational performance. For instance, find out about of Huselid (1995) found that agency in numerous industries have accelerated organizational performance by way of employing high-performance work system. Organizations additionally yielded higher productivity and financial overall performance improvement with lower turnover rate.
Moreover, it also confirmed that one factor in preferred deviation of the use of high-performance work system has have an effect on of 7.05 percent on turnover, income growth $27,044, market growth $18,641, and $3,814 more earnings than organizations didn’t rent the system. Ichniowski et al. (1997) claimed that the Innovative human resource gadget has noticeably impacted on the usual performance of employees. In a learn about by way of Elorzaet.
al. (2011) which explored the “black box” in Spanish context, additionally observed the on the spot effect of greater commitment effect on lower absenteeism on productivity. This diverse context study has validated the mediator effect of human resource outcomes, which is the “black box” between HRM structures and organizational performance linkage. A numbers of students who supported SHRM studies consistently referred to that human aid administration structures impacted each organizational financial and non-monetary performance. 2.4.2 Best human useful resource management practices and organizational performanceThe study outlines empirical overview on satisfactory human aid administration practices that affect organizational overall performance namely; recruitment and selection, rewards system, job design, coaching and development and performance management.
In the globalized world, the changing international market competitiveness has created new challenges for groups as nicely as humans (Pfeiffer 1994). For companies to maintain or create competitiveness, it is vital that they build and retain their knowledgeable and talented human resources. Huselid (1995) indentified the hyperlink between human aid administration practices and turnover productiveness and monetary overall performance when he discovered a bad relationship of employee competencies and organizational shape on turnover and also that worker skill and organizational shape and employee motivation have a nice have an effect on company performance. Indeed excessive overall performance work practices are probable to have an impact on association performance. In his study, all human useful resource administration variables except education and development are suggested to have a full-size association with firm performance.
They researched into how human resource administration practices have an effect on organizational overall performance turnover. More so, they recognized a superb hyperlink between hiring a manager and employees, and the advent of the right culture for organizational growth. Selection is the manner of deciding on a candidate from a group of applicants who high-quality meets the resolution standards for a specific position. In this technique the proper individual chosen for the requisite qualifications and know-how is placed in the fabulous job function to reduce the prices and most the profits with the aid of capacity of their advantage and talent. (Vlachos 2008).Cho, et al (2006) have identified that there is a nice and large relationship among human aid administration practices and staffing(recruitment source, pre-selection test, talent quotient (IQ) test, structured interview and biographical records clean of the organization) for improving economic or income performance. As a result, groups are motivated to attract qualified candidate for survival and boom of the enterprise therefore enhancing financial or earnings performance.A formal recruitment procedure is the first step closer to a extra strategic and value-added human useful resource management systems.
In order to have the great affect on performance, many of the superior human aid techniques require the determination of sure kinds of workers. Those that have the character traits to be influenced through and function well in teams, or those that are slightly more educated and will respond better and more quickly to coaching has end up a integral issue. The literature consists of research that focal point on the overall performance consequences of precise human resource management practices, such as training (Bartel,et al.,(1994). Researchers showing the impact or relationship between human useful resource practices and a firm’s performance, have operationalized human useful resource practices in countless one of a kind ways. For example, some researchers have examined solely one human resource practices in countless distinct ways. Some researchers have examined solely one human useful resource practice namely; staffing practices, compensation practices, Training practices, while different researchers have examined human resource practices and control systems.
They centered on compensation inventive and reward systems as the most intensively studied human useful resource practice.However, the fine human resource practices can also be independent. Social science literature gives some theoretical and empirical assist for this expectation.
McMhan (1992) argued that researchers take a look at “bundles” of human aid practices and their collective effect, alternatively than the impact of isolated and their collective effect, rather than the impact of isolated human useful resource practices, on company performance. Human resource activities are interdependent, and as total they generate certain outcomes for the firm.Further research provides help for such arguments as they located that “bundles” of human resource practices had been extensively associated to workers’ productiveness and association financial performance.
Although some research have set up fantastic associations between consistent “bundles” of human resource management practices and organizational performance, they have determined out that no longer all “bundles” have an equal influence on a firms’ performance. Similar effects are suggested via Goodernham, et al., (2006), who located a tremendous have an effect on of human useful resource management practices on association overall performance of 3,281 firms in Europe. The outcomes furnish modest proof for the high quality and large relationship that exists between a firm’s performance and human useful resource management practices. The current literature on human useful resource administration practices, the recent theoretical work on the “resource based” view of the company (Barney, 1998) helps the action that human useful resource administration may additionally be an necessary source of aggressive advantage.
He in addition argued that resources lead to sustainable competitive advantages when they are valuable, rare inimitable and nicely organized. The researcher determined that without having ample human resource, the agency will be unable to acquire establishes goals. Hence, managing human aid is the key role of success of an organization. Currently, most organizations have handled their humans as the most essential resource of an organization, in particular human aid as the most necessary asset in the carrier organization. The previous studies have supported the notion that when correctly designed, human useful resource administration practices can help companies to enhance performance. This human useful resource administration practices elicit some behavioral outcomes in addition to the improvement of capabilities and competencies of employees. Barney (1991) argued that human resource can provide a supply of sustained aggressive benefit when four primary necessities are met, that is thru valuable, rare, inimitable and properly geared up resources. As a result, it is necessary that groups adopt human aid management human aid management practices that make high-quality use of its employees.
Lado and Wilson (1994) outline human useful resource administration system as “a set of distinct but interrelated activities, functions, and procedures that are directed at attracting, developing and maintaining (or disposing of) a firm’s human resources”. In addition, it can be described as “..
..as an organizational set of human aid administration activities, functions and processes: Selection, training, appraisal, promotion and compensation, carried out to attract, strengthen and keep strategic human useful resource that permit the company to obtain its goals. Dessler (1997) Categorizes human resource management gadget in accordance to 5 activities: selection, training, compensation, labour members of the family and employee security. Petra and Juan (2004) proposed a mannequin based on their essential speculation that human sources represent a supply of competitive advantage. This mannequin also considers that be aware of how to establish a human aid administration system that contains human resource policies and practices in order to create and preserve the strategic human capital ought to have a sustainable competitive advantage. Many researchers on human aid administration practices have been carried out from time to time and researchers have identified different practices via exceptional names. Theories on the best practices or excessive commitment theories advocate that universally, positive human useful resource management practices, both one after the other or in combination are related with improved organizational performance.
In one another find out about Redman and Mathews (1998), pick out “Human resource administration bundle” of key practices which assist service companies first-class strategies being: i. Recruitment and decision of example, ‘Total best recruitment; zero defects recruitment’ right first time recruitment.ii. Reward system, for example, bonuses accessible for staff willing into is multi-skilled.iii. Job design, for example, encouraging a sense of cohesiveness and designing empowered jobs.iv. Training and development, for example, the front line team of workers having better interpersonal and social skills.
v. Performance administration with hyperlinks to contingent reward systems, for example, gathering patron comments to recognize the work by means of employees over and above their anticipated duties, which in turn are likely to lead to a bonus for staff.2.5 Conceptual Framework Figure 2.5.1: Conceptual framework twoJob Placement and DefinitionPerformance AppraisalFinancial Performance (Profit, Return on Investment and Assets)Training and DevelopmentProduct Market Performance (Market Share and Shares)OrganisationPerformanceHUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Health, Safety, and SecurityOptimised Shareholder Return (Economic Value Added, Total Shareholder Return)Staff Recruitment and Selection (Source: Researcher’s Own Model) CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY3.1.
IntroductionThis chapter offers with the research approach and design, selection of area, population, sample and sampling techniques, research instrument, pre-test, statistics series techniques, facts analysis techniques, facts processing and analysis and moral considerations3.2 Research Strategy and DesignResearch format is the blueprint for conducting the learn about that maximizes manage over elements that could intrude with the validity of the findings. Burns and Grove (2001) stated designing a study helps the researcher to plan and put in force the find out about in a way that will assist the researcher to attain intended results, hence growing the possibilities of acquiring data that ought to be associated with the actual situation.
The study designs adopted for the study was a case learn about strategy.A case learn about is an empirical in-depth inquiry about an individual, family, crew or organization. It is preferable when ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions are asked. McNamara, (2007), opines that case studies are mainly beneficial in depicting a holistic portrayal of a client’s experiences and effects related to a programme. He again stated that case research are used to organize a huge range of records about a phenomenon and to analyze the content material with the aid of looking for patterns and topics in the data, and similarly analysis via cross comparisons with other cases. The case study technique is therefore the most appropriate for this study due to the fact in this study, the researcher ambitions at explaining in depth the experiences of individuals in a specific district.
Secondly, the case study used to be selected because, the researcher wanted to check out a precise phenomenon.Quantitative research method used to be used by the researcher. Quantitative lookup regularly translates into the use of statistical evaluation to make the connection between what is recognized and what can be discovered with the aid of research. Consequently, analysing facts with quantitative strategies requires an appreciation of the relationships among variables with the aid of both descriptive or inferential statistics. Descriptive information helps to draw inferences about populations and to estimate the parameters (Trochim 2009). The essential cause of the use of the quantitative method is to make an most reliable selection by means of using mathematical and statistical models in a state of affairs when the probability of all outcomes is uncertain.
Another motive is that, quantitative method to decision-making produces the first-class effects when the hassle is virtually defined, a number of choices exist, and decision effects are without difficulty measurable. Quantitative method techniques, especially the ones relying on statistical software, have the benefit of suggesting the satisfactory solution to the hassle without even identifying all possible alternatives. This feature is quite beneficial in issues where the wide variety of viable choices is very large even though only a few are well worth considering for selection. Once the problem and prerequisites are defined, the decision-making technique becomes quick.(http:methods.sagepub.
quantitative.approach.research.n108.xml;2010/03/4;t;13:18,GMT).3.3. PopulationThe goal population in this lookup used to be the employees which include securities and cleaners of GN Bank, Utrack Financial and mortgage Service, Ecobank-Ghana and Zenith Bank (Ghana) Ltd within the Sunyani Municipality as shown below.
Table 3. SEQ Table * ARABIC 1 Selected Banks in Sunyani MunicipalityBanksMaleFemaleTotalGN Bank454489Utrack Financial and loan Service252045Ecobank-Ghana201838Zenith Bank (Ghana) Ltd13922Total10391194(Source: Field data, 2018)3.4 Sampling ProcedureSampling is a procedure or method of choosing a sub-group from a populace to take part in the study; it is the procedure of selecting a number of men and women for a study in such a way that the humans selected characterize the massive crew from which they were selected (Ogula, 2005). The researchers used easy random sampling technique. Simple random sampling (lottery) takes into account the fact that all persons in the populace get equal chance of resolution and are judged to be homogenous. This was used to pick eighty-four (84) employees as the sample dimension from GN Bank (20 workers), Utrak Financial and loan Service (22 workers), Ecobank-Ghana (20 workers) and Zenith Bank (Ghana) Ltd (22 workers) inside the Sunyani Municipality. Here, paper cut-out indicating “Yes” and “No” of which people have been asked to pick from and those who picked “Yes” became the sample size for the study. This technique was once used in order to make sure that all the respondents had been given equal chances of been selected.
Based on the above information, the pattern measurement (n) is calculated for the target populace of one hundred and ninety-four (194) and it sample size is eight-four (84).3.5 Data Collection TechniquesThe researcher first made a visit to the chosen Banks, introduced herself and her mission and sought permission from the authorities to allow her make a second go to administer the questionnaires. A time viewed to be handy for the people used to be given to the researcher to come at some point of her second visit. The questionnaires had been administered and some clarification was once given on some questions by means of the researcher to the chosen sample in order to extract unique facts on the subject beneath discussion. The researcher left the questionnaires with the workers and a date was agreed on by means of each the employees and the researcher for the collection of the crammed questionnaire.
3.6 Data Analysis TechniquesThe records used to be edited to observe and correct, feasible mistakes and omissions that were possibly to occur, to make sure consistency across respondents. The information used to be coded to allow the respondents be grouped into confined number of categories. This was performed for every question. Microsoft excels was once used for the analysis therefore tables, frequencies and graphs had been drawn. 3.
7 Ethical ConsiderationsThe purpose of the research used to be explained properly to the respondents and assured them of utmost confidentiality. Ethical concerns always emerge as the researcher plans the research, seeks access to groups and to individuals, collection of data, analyzing information and reporting the data. CHAPTER FOURRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS4.1 IntroductionThis chapter analyses data on the have an effect on of human useful resource management practices on performance of the chosen banks in the Sunyani Municipal. The records for these analyses had been received via the administration of questionnaires.
In line with the primary research goal, this chapter reflects on the core research targets as outlined in chapter One. The first section discussed the demographic background of respondents; however, the 2nd section discussed information bearing on to the lookup objectives.4.2 Data Presentation4.2.
1 Descriptive of Results for the Socio-Demographic CharacteristicsTable 4.1: Profile of Respondents.SEX FREQUENCY PERCENT (%)Male 50 59.5Female 34 40.5TOTAL 84 100AGE GROUPBelow 30 Years 32 38.
131 – 40 34 40.541 – 50 14 16.751 and above 4 4.7TOTAL 84 100MARITAL STATUSSingle 45 53.6Married 36 42.
8Divorced 3 3.6Separated 0 0Widowed 0 0TOTAL 84 100EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTCertificate 12 14.3Diploma 24 89.5Bachelors’ Degree 42 50.0Master’s Degree 22 26.2TOTAL 84 100(Source: Field data, 2018).From the table, 59.5% of the respondents have been male while 40.
5% were female. However, it has to be said that even though the majority of the employees are males, the banks do now not go towards the gender equality policy enshrined in the country wide labour laws which require that each guys and female have to be handled equally. This means that the figure of male being bulk of the respondents may have been mere twist of fate but now not based on any cultural, non secular and/or gender reasons. In admire to age, the consequences indicated that most of the employees’ age was once between 31-40 years with a proportion discern of 40.
5%, accompanied with the aid of those less than 30 years (38.1%) while 16.7 percent aged between 41 and 50. The least age team was those above the age of 51 with a percentage discern of 4.7%. What can be inferred from this age demographic trouble of the respondents is that, in the first place, the pattern may want to be viewed to be all-inclusive as it captured the opinions of a range of age corporations within the institutions. In addition, searching at the proportion number of the employees who are older than 50 being the 1/3 least (4.
7 %), it is truthful to deduce that the turnover price is high in the banking region as in the work of Kipkebut (2010), while the younger workers regularly have high expectations from the work place and as a result at hazard of turnover, the older people opt for to maintain their fame quo, and hence stay in the work for a longer duration of time given that they do now not want to disrupt their benefits such as pension.With reference to marital status, 53.6% of the respondents were single. 42.8% were married.3.6% were divorced whilst none of the respondents was once separated and widowed.When it comes to instructional level, these who were the majority were those with First Degree (50%) accompanied via Master’s holders (26.
2%), certificates holders’ were 14.3% while the least used to be these with Diploma (9.5%). This offers the indication that the banking area has academically certified employees for its provider delivery. Another discovering on the demographic points was about the team of workers ranking. On this issue, it was located that majority of the respondents were junior staffs (53%) while the senior staffs were 47%. However, although the majority of the employees have been junior staffs, the small share wide variety of 6% as the difference can be seen to be a truthful reflection of the kind effective promotional attitude of the institutions.
With regards to the wide variety of years labored in the banking sector, the finding indicates that those who have worked between 1-5 years are the majority with 64.3% while these who worked above 5 years were 35.7%. This suggests that, most of the personnel have no longer labored for a longer length and therefore might also lack journey in contrast to the number of workforce who have worked for longer period and have had adequate experience, there is a proper mixture of workers in the institutions. The experienced ones are rather giant ample to be able to have an effect on their information on the inexperienced staff. 4.
3 Descriptive Analysis Results Relating to the ObjectivesResearch Objective1: To find out the Kinds of Human Resource Management Practices Available to the Banking SectorIn an attempt to answer this research objectively, the researcher asked the respondents how they were recruited into the organization, the responses received are presented belowFigure 4.1: How Workers were Recruited into the Organization(Source: Field data, 2018)The result acquired from the field suggests that 40.5% of the employees said they got here into the corporation through other employees’ referral. This affirmed the work of Khan 2008 observes that in the case of inside recruitment of qualified candidates can be reached at a low fee and minimal time.
Also, 31.5% of the workers additionally stated they obtained recruited by first hearing the statistics in local newspaper in a shape of advertisement, 20.4% of the people stated net which means they obtained to know of the vacancy via the net and was subsequently recruited into the organization. This finding affirms the work of Dean (2010) which highlighted two techniques for positive recruitment, particularly (a) job description and person specification, and (b) recruitment advertising. Then 7.
6% of them stated they got recruited via the expert bodies. These findings antagonistic the work of the following scholars; beside campus recruiting many of the employers now take part in job affairs. Through job festivals they can fill the vacancies rapidly (Jackson and Mathis, 2005). Figure 4.
2: Kind of Method of Selection Used Most in the Banking Sector(Source: Field data, 2018)The consequences confirmed that, 46% of the respondents indicated personal interview, accompanied through 40.5% of them who indicated aptitude test 9.5% of the respondents said written interview and 4% of them went via sensible test.
The results showed that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality used non-public interview to pick out workers this was followed by using aptitude take a look at and then written interview and sooner or later sensible test. Also, the workers stated many reasons for joining the organization. These include; earning a living, exact reputation, to work, to get experience, due to the fact of the company’s vision, exact remuneration. These motives defeat the work of these scholars that say that, having the right personnel at the right place and at the right time is utmost vital to the survival and success of any corporation Oladipo (2011).The researcher in a quest to comprehend the type of human resource practice that is frequent in the banking sector, the people were asked the type of human resources exercise they are familiar with, the responses given are in the desk below.Table 4.2: Type of Human Resource Practice Workers Are Familiar With in the Organization.
HRP Frequency PercentTraining ; development 25 29.8Employee appraisal 18 21.4Attractive salary 10 11.9Availability of right tools 22 26.
2Recruitment and selection procedure 9 10.7Total 84 100.0(Source: Field data, 2018)From the table 29.8% of the workers had been used to coaching and improvement at their a number of work places. These groups of the workers agree with Training ; Development (T;D) is a very prominent function of human aid administration (Vlachos 2008). Also, 26.2% of them indicated availability of right tools. Also, 21.
4% of the people indicated worker appraisal system. 11.9% of the employees indicated eye-catching salary. And 10.7% of the people had been additionally familiar with the recruitment and determination process in the banking sector. This end result showed that many of the banks in Sunyani Municipality do education and improvement of their employees, however, many of them do have beautiful salary for workers.The researcher in an attempt to answer the research question asked a question about which human resource management practice management use to retain workers in the organization. The workers indicated their choices and this is presented in the figure below.
Figure 4.3: Kind of Human Resource Management Practice Do Management Used To Retain Workers in the Organization(Source: Field data, 2018) From the analysis, 40.5% of the employees indicated eye-catching salary. 32.2% of them indicated suitable working environment. And finally, 27.
3% of the workers indicated promotion. This potential many of the people are retained in the company because of the beautiful salary. However, a few of the people did point out excellent working surroundings and promotion. These findings agree with Boxall (1996) as he said Researchers have additionally found out that these well-paid, well motivated workers, working in an atmosphere of together and trust, generate greater productivity positive aspects and lower unit costs. In addition, the researcher desired to understand from the employees which practices need to be maintained by way of the enterprise and which be discarded.
The workers suggested that attractive salary, exact working environment, and availability of the right equipment need to be maintained and employee appraisal and promoting discarded. The employees additionally endorsed that provider quality enhancement; diversity, innovation and empowerment have to be stimulated in the organization. This affirmed the work of Levin (1986). In his studies, he recognized some uses of overall performance appraisal like evaluation of worker advantage appraisal, dedication of employee salary, worker education needs, feedback ; recommendation of employee’s previous performance. It is prevalent that human resource administration activities may additionally have an effect on organizational performance either immediately or in a roundabout way via human aid administration outcomes.Research Objective2: To examine how human resources management practices influence organizational performanceThe researcher made an attempt to answer the question by asking series of questions.
The first was to determine whether the organizations train its employees. The workers responses are presented in the figure below.Figure 4.4: Seeking to Find Out Whether the Organizations Train its Employees(Source: Field data, 2018)From the results obtained, 95.2% of the workers indicated ‘yes’ which means their establishments do arrange training for them, whiles 4.8% two of them indicated ‘no’ which means their corporations do now not prepare any structure of coaching to its workers. The evaluation indicated that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality do prepare education for their people and subsequently building on the capability of the workers.
This has the manageable to increase the productivity of the workers and subsequently the performance of the business enterprise in general. In addition, the employees delivered that people are selected for the training the use of the following basis; by using looking at the performance of the workers, they have been picked at random, via appraisal periodic evaluation and via selection.This component of this learn about confirms the work of Ayesh et al.(2012) as they identify periodic appraisal and training of personnel as composed of policies, practices and structures that impact employees’ performance. Workers were asked to indicate whether they have obtained any structure of coaching due to the fact they joined the organization. The responses bought are summarized in the figure below.Figure 4.5: Seeking to Find Out Whether Workers have Received any form of Training Since they Joined the Organization(Source: Field data, 2018)The evaluation above, shows that 88.
1% of the employees indicated ‘yes’ meaning they have acquired training, whiles 11.9 % of them indicated ‘no’ which means they have now not obtained any training considering that they joined the organization. The workers’ opinion was once sought on what accounted for greater productivity in the organization. The effects from the discipline are proven in the desk below.Table 4.3: What Accounted for Higher Productivity in the OrganizationResponse Frequency PercentTraining & Development 34 40.5Improved Supervision 12 14.3Time Management 18 21.
4Periodic Staff Appraisal 20 23.8Total 84 100.0(Source: Field data, 2018)From the results, 40.5% of the people cited coaching and improvement as the cause for the higher productivity in the organization. Therefore, this finding adversarial the work of Thang (2004) in his experiments which concluded that a suitable Human Resource Management related decision made will decide how nicely employees will perform their jobs.
Also, 23.8% of them indicated periodic team of workers appraisal as a reason. 21.4% of them noted perfect time management whiles 14.3% of them indicated accelerated supervision. The evaluation confirmed that the coaching and development of the workers is viewed as a practice that helped in the high productiveness of the organization. These findings opposed the works of, Park et al.
(2003) a study of Japanese multinational organisation (MNC) corporations which suggested that skills, attitude, and motivation were the elements of human aid outcomes derived from human useful resource administration system.In addition, the people have been requested whether or not they will remain in the organisation for long and for what reasons. Those who said they will stay lengthy in the business enterprise gave the following as their reasons; suitable management of the organization, higher prospects, to acquire extra experience, and that there are higher stipulations of provider in the organisation. Others who will like to depart the business enterprise for others locations companion to alternate of environment, to have greater exposure, to search for properly paid jobs and to analyze more as some reasons that they will like to leave the agency for others.As to whether the workers have all the necessary tools to work the responses gave by using the workers is shown in the figure below.
Figure 4.6: As to Whether the Workers have all the Necessary Tools to Work(Source: Field data, 2018)From the figure the consequences shows that 88% of the people indicated ‘yes’ meaning they have the critical equipment to work with, whiles 12% of them indicated ‘no’ which means they do no longer get the proper equipment to work with which means that the banks do supply their workers with the right equipment to work with hence many of the banks have the welfare of their employees at their hearts and they are performing their duties as employers as stipulated in the labour Act.Again, as to whether or not the current human assets management practices assist the organisational objectives, the employees of the a number institutions gave their responses which are in the discern belowFigure 4.
7: As to Whether the Existing Human Resources Management Practices Support the Organisational Objectives(Source: Field data, 2018)From the results, 76% of the people indicated ‘yes’ which means that the human sources administration practices in their various establishments guide the organizational objectives, According to SethumadHavan (2007), human resources managers of nowadays may also discover it difficult because of the rapidly altering enterprise environment and consequently they update their understanding and abilities through searching at the organization’s objectives. In order to succeed, human resource management practices ought to be a enterprise pushed feature with a thorough appreciation of the organisation’s large photograph and be capable to have an impact on key choices and insurance policies whiles. 24% of the employees said that their banks human useful resource administration practices do no longer support the organizational objectives.The workers were asked to price their number of establishments with regards to profitability, workforce retention, and credit score mobilization, this is shown in the figure below.Figure 4.8: Workers Rating their Various Institutions With Regards to Profitability, Staff Retention, and Deposit Mobilizationlefttop(Source: Field data, 2018)From the parent above, 32% of the people rated their institutions very excessive when it comes to profitability.
38% of them rated their institution’s performance in profitability high, 18% of them rated the companies average and 12% of them rated their organization profitability low.In all many of the employees in the banking area referred to that the a number banks are doing well in the phrases of profitability.In additions, workers’ scores of their organization’s in terms of staff retention suggests that 16% of the employees rated their organization’s performance in staff retention as very high, 22% of the employees rated their organization’s performance as high, 36% of them rated the institution’s as average . 26% of them also rated their institution’s low in terms of their performance in the location of personnel retention. Here, the groups are doing properly in the vicinity of workforce retention. This should build competitive advantage in these banks as stipulated by using Boxall, 2008, who argued that in order for a firm to construct and maintain the aggressive advantage, suitable staffing retention is critical. When it comes to credit score mobilization, 24% of them rated their quite a number organizations as very high, 34% of them additionally rated the businesses as high, 16% of them rated the institutions as average whiles 26% of them rated their a number of institutions as low. Meaning, many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality, function very well when it comes to savings mobilization. This indicates that, the performance of the number banks is high.Research Objective 3: To Investigate the Extent to Which Human Resource Management Practices have been used in the Banking Sector.The number of times workers received training in a year, is shown in the table below. Table 4.4: Seeking For the Number of Times Workers Received Training in a YearNo of times Workers Received Training Frequency PercentOnce a year 38 45.2Twice a year 27 32.2Three times a year 11 13.1Quarterly 8 9.5Total 84 100.0(Source: Field data, 2018)From the table, 45.2% of the employees said they received training once in each year, 32.2% of the people said they received coaching twice in each year, whiles 13.1% of them indicated three instances in a year. Finally 9.5% of the people indicated quarterly as the quantity of times they obtained education in a year. Hence, it be inferred that many of the banks inside the Sunyani Municipality do now not prepared training for their employees very frequently as over 50% of the workers indicated that they obtained coaching twice or less within a year. They brought that, the coaching they acquired has helped improved their carrier delivery. It equipped them with skills. It helped accelerated on their accuracy and skills and also elevated productivity in general.The type of training management apply is stated by the workers is in the table below.Table 4.5: Seeking for the type of Training that Management do ApplyType of Training Frequency PercentOn The Job Training 39 46.5Off Job Training 26 30.9Both 19 22.6Total 84 100.0(Source: Field data, 2018)From the desk above, 46.5% of the people indicated that, they undergo on the job training. 30.9% of the them indicated that they do endure off the job coaching whiles 22.6% of them indicated both on the job coaching and the off the job training. The analysis shows that many of the banks do have interaction their workers on the job training. This means that many of the workers have received coaching and this will assist the banks extend productivity. It is inferred from this that the high productiveness of the banks stated beforehand may additionally be due to the on the job education most of the banks take their employees through.Workers had been asked whether or not administration overview their salaries. Their responses are put in the figure below.Figure 4.9: Seeking to Find Out From Workers Whether Management do Review their Salaries.(Source: Field data, 2018)As to whether management of the banks do evaluation the profits of the workers, 80.3% of the workers indicated ‘yes’. Whiles 19.7% of the employees indicated ‘no’ meaning their establishments do not review their revenue structures. From this, one can say that many of the people in the banking institutions will be comfortable with their salaries. It confirms that many of the administration in the banking area are imposing the human resource management practices, however, the small element of the workers whose salaries or have an effect on productivity.Workers were also asked if emplooyees were rewarded and their responses are shown in the figure below. Figure 4.10: Seeking to Find Out Whether Emplooyees Were Rewarded(Source: Field data, 2018)From the figure above 73.8% two of the employees indicated ‘yes’ meaning they agree that their institutions do reward them, whiles 26.2% of them indicated ‘no’ meaning their establishments do now not reward them. The data indicated above indicates that many of the banks reward their workers subsequently people at the banking establishments are in all likelihood to be motivated to work challenging to carry out their best which could amplify productivity of every worker and the banks as a whole. This component has the same opinion with Guest et al (2003) as they stress that there is a possible case that employees have a tendency to be more high quality and will amplify the productivity of the company concerned. They further indicated that the profitable of personnel is finished in their more than a few institutions with the aid of looking at; lengthy service, via performance appraisal, commitment and amongst others. Hence one can inferred that there may want to no longer be any biases in the decision of the employees for the awards. Research Objective 4: To Determine the Challenges Facing the Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Organizational Performance.The researcher requested a direct query if there have been challenges with regards to the have an effect on of human resource management practices in the a number enterprise beneath study. The workers responses to the query are put in the diagram below.Figure 4.11: Challenges With Regards to the Impact of Human Resource Management Practices in the Various Banks.(Source: Field data, 2018)The consequences from the area suggests that 54.74% two of the people indicated ‘no’ meaning there were no challenges with the have an impact on of the human useful resource management practices whiles 45.25% two indicated ‘yes’ that means there had been challenges with the human useful resource management practices. Those who stated that there were challenges with affect of human sources management practices, stated some of the challenges to include; Poor remuneration, location of group of workers on profits scale, poor conversation channels embezzlement of cash and favoritism and victimization when it comes to advertising and appointment.They indicated the following measures to resolve the above noted challenges; by using checking the historical past of doable employees, clear-cut policies must be laid on promotion, there be free and truthful management practices in the organization, administration ought to admire the views of their employees in choice making and that there ought to be clear insurance policies on recruitment in the organization.CHAPTER FIVEMAJOR SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 IntroductionThis chapter discusses major summary, conclusions and recommendations.5.2 Major SummaryFrom the study, 59.5% of the respondents have been male whilst 40.5% had been females. The figure of male being bulk of the respondents might have been mere accident however now not primarily based on any cultural, religious and/or gender reasons. In appreciate to age, the results indicated that most of the employees’ age was once between 31-40 years with a percentage discern of 32%. When it comes to educational level, these who have been the majority have been those with First Degree (50%). This gives the indication that the banking quarter has academically qualified employees for its service transport as a result enhanced performance.Another discovering on the demographic aspects used to be about the group of workers ranking. On this issue, it was discovered that majority of the respondents were junior group of workers (53%), while the senior staffs have been 47%. With regards to experience, the finding indicates that these who have worked between 1-5 years had been the majority with 64.3%. This suggests that most of the employees have now not worked for a longer period and therefore may additionally lack journey in contrast to the wide variety of personnel who have worked for longer period. The consequences got from the discipline indicate that 40.5% of the employees stated they came into the organisation through other employees’ referral. This affirmed the work of Khan 2008 who observed that, inner recruitment of certified candidates can be reached at a low cost and minimal time. Also, 35.7% of the workers also said they obtained recruited with the aid of first hearing the statistics in local newspaper in a form of advertisement. 21.4% of the people said they had the data through the internet. This finding does now not confirm the work of Dean (2010), who highlights two strategies for positive recruitment, namely (a) job description and individual specification, and (b) recruitment advertising.The results confirmed that, increased quantity of the employees representing 46% indicated personal interview as a way of recruitment and selection. The outcomes confirmed that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality used non-public interview to pick out workers.Also, the people noted the following motives for becoming a member of the company include; incomes a living, exact reputation, to work, to get experience, due to the fact of the company’s vision, true remuneration. It was printed from the result that, larger wide variety of the employees have been used to education and improvement as the human aid management process.From the analysis, 40.5% of the workers indicated desirable salary, as the human resource management practice that administration do used to hold workers in the organization.In addition, the workers referred to the following human aid management practices that to be maintained by using the enterprise as; promotion, correct working environment, and availability of the right tools ought to hold and employee appraisal. Most of the workers also suggested that provider great enhancement; range and innovation empowerment have to be prompted in the organization. These reasons defeat the work of these scholars that says that, having the proper personnel at the proper region and at the proper time is utmost important to the survival and success of any organisation Oladipo (2011). The research suggests that the proper candidates were not recruited thru commercial of vacancies. It has been argued that in order for the company to build and maintain the aggressive advantage, proper staffing is indispensable (Boxall, 2008). The analysis, indicated that 11.9% of the people indicated ‘yes’ which means they have received coaching whiles 88.1% of them indicated ‘no’ which means they have no longer acquired any training given that they joined the organization. From the results, 40.5% of the workers cited training and improvement as the motive for the higher productiveness in the organization. Researchers have also observed out that those well-paid, properly inspired workers, working in an surroundings of at the same time and trust generate higher productivity positive factors and lower unit prices Boxall (1996).From the results, 88% of the people indicated ‘yes’ meaning they have the indispensable equipment to work with. Seventy six percentage of the workers indicated ‘yes’ which means that the human resources administration practices in their more than a few institutions assist the organizational objectives.In additions, workers’ ranking of their organizations’ in phrases of team of workers retention with the following degrees; very high, high, common and low, indicate that greater range of people rated the institution’s as average in its performance.From the result, 45.2% and 32.1% of the workers stated they acquired education once and twice in each and every yr respectively. Further, they introduced that, the training they received has helped extended their carrier delivery, it equipped them with skills. Also it helped them to enhance on their accuracy and skills. It additionally elevated in their productiveness in general.The result indicated that, 80.3% of the people indicated that administration does assessment the salaries. From the result, 73.8% of the workers agreed that their institutions do reward their workers. The records indicated above shows that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipal reward their workers. This aspect has the same opinion with Guest et al.(2003) who stress that there is a workable case that human resource administration will be more fine if it suits the enterprise method of the firm and will expand the productivity of the employer concern.The results from the subject indicates the following as challenges with the human useful resource administration practices; negative remuneration, region of team of workers on income scale, terrible communication channels embezzlement of cash and favoritism and victimization when it comes to promoting and appointment. However, they indicated the following measures to solve the above cited challenges; by means of checking the background of possible employees, straight forward policies need to be laid on promotion, there ought to be free and fair administration practices in the organization, management must admire the views of their personnel in choice making, and that there have to be clear insurance policies on recruitment in the organization.5.3 ConclusionsIt was revealed in the find out about that, higher numbers of the respondents were men which advise gender disparity. In admire to age, the outcomes indicated that most of the employees’ age used to be between 31-40 years with a percentage determine of 32%.When it comes to instructional level, those who were the majority had been these with First Degree (50%). With regards to experience, the discovering indicates that, these who have labored between 1-5 years had been the majority with 64.3%. The results showed that, higher variety of the workers, representing 46% indicated private interview as a way of recruitment and selection. The outcomes showed that many of the banks in the Sunyani Municipality used private interview to pick out their workers. This shows that the right candidates have been not recruited to fill advertised vacancies. Also, the workers mentioned many motives for joining the agency to include; earning a living, true reputation, to work, to get experience, due to the fact of the company’s vision, precise remuneration. From the analysis, 29.8% of the employees as the increased wide variety were used to education and development as the human resource administration process. It was once again revealed that, greater range of the workers indicated top working surroundings as the human aid administration exercise that administration do use to keep employees in the organization.In addition, the people recommended the following human resource administration practices that ought to be maintained via the organization; desirable salary, exact working environment, and availability of the proper equipment should be maintained and employee appraisal.The evaluation indicated that 88.1% two of the employees indicated ‘yes’ which means they have received education whiles 11.9 percent of them indicated ‘no’ that means they have no longer received any education on account that they joined the organization. From the results, greater quantity of workers, representing 40.5% cited education and improvement as the cause for the higher productivity in the organization.From the results 88% of the employees indicated ‘yes’ that means they have the quintessential equipment to work with. From the results, 76% of the people indicated ‘yes’ meaning that the human sources administration practices in their various institutions help the organizational objectives. From the result, 45.2% and 32.1% of the employees stated they acquired coaching once and twice in each and every 12 months respectively. The result indicated that, 80.3% of the workers said that administration do evaluate their salaries. From the result, 73.8% of the people agreed that their establishments do reward their workers. The consequences from the area suggests the following as challenges with the human aid administration practices; poor remuneration, location of staff on revenue scale, terrible communication channels, embezzlement of money and favoritism and victimization when it comes to promotion and appointment. However, they indicated the following measures to solve the above noted challenges; by using checking the historical past of possible employees, clear-cut policies be laid on promotion, there must be free and fair management practices in the organization, management must recognize the views of their personnel in selection making and that there must be clear policies on recruitment in the organization.5.4 RecommendationsThe learn about seeks to examine the affect of the human resource administration practices on the affect of human aid management practices on overall performance of the selected banks in the Sunyani Municipal. Based on the empirical evidences, the following hints are outlined to assist tackle the conditions in the selected banks in the Sunyani Municipal.1. Management of the chosen banks inside the Sunyani Municipal must have a merit-based reward or motivation or incentive system. This helps expand workers’ performance and amplify productivity. Other employees who recognize that the fine performers are the ones who are motivated can also put forth greater effort to be stimulated as well. 2. Management of the selected banks ought to think about merit-based recruitment and selection by using adhering to the requirements and insurance policies of the chosen banks due to the fact merit-based process is viewed to be fair that helps recruit the certified applicants for the advertised vacancies. 3. Management of the selected banks inside the Sunyani Municipality make it a responsibility to organize education and development programs to the employees’ considering the fact that these improve know-how and abilities hence promote performance. 4. The management of the selected banks within the Sunyani Municipality must ensure that performance appraisal is taken significantly and coverage standards carefully adhered to due to the fact overall performance appraisal help personnel to construct their very own self-awareness of their strengths, weaknesses and development needs.5. 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All the answers you give will help in achieving the objectives of this study. Your answers will be treated with confidentiality and will only be used for the purpose of this study. Thank you.1. Gender Male Female2. Age Below 30 31 – 40 41-50 Above 51 years3. Marital status Single Married Divorced Widowed 4. Educational qualification High School Diploma Undergraduate Post Graduate5. How long have you been working in this bank?Less than 1 year 1-6year 7-12 year Above 12 years 6. What role do you play as an employee? …………………………………………………….Research question 1: What are the kinds of human resource management practices available to the banking sector?7. How were you recruited into the organization?(a) Employee referrals (b) Advertisement in local newspapers (c) Internet (d) Professional bodies (e) Both internet and Local Newspapers 8. Which of the following selection procedures and methods is used by the organization the most?(a) Aptitude test (b) Personal interview (c) Written test (d) Practical test 9. Why did you join the Organization? …..…………………………………………………………………………………10. Which of the following human resource management practices in the banking sector are you familiar with?- Training and development -Employee appraisal – Availability of right tools/equipment to work with -Empowerment -Attractive remuneration – Recruitment and selection – Good condition of service -Empowerment -Time management – Discipline 11. Which human resource management practices does management use to retain employees in the organization?- Attractive remuneration – Good working environment – Promotion – Others ………………………..12. Which of the practices should be maintained or discarded by the organization? Specify. ………………………………………………………………………………..13. Aside the management practices of the organization, which other human resource retention practices would you recommend?-Good condition of service -Service Quality Enhancement -Diversity and Innovation/ Empowerment – Others …………………………Research question 2: How do Human Resource Management Practices Influence Organizational Performance?14. Does your organization train its employees? Yes No 15. How does management choose or identify employee for training?………………………………………………………………………………………………16. Have you received any training since you joined the organization? Yes No 17. What do you think has accounted for productivity in the organization?a. Training and development b. Time management c. Improved supervision d. Employee discipline e. Periodic staff appraisal f. quality recruitment 18. Do you intend to stay in the organization for long or will you like to join any organization? Give reasons…………………………………………………………………………19. Do you have all the tools / equipment you need to work with? Yes No 20. Do the existing human resource management practices support the organizational objectives? Yes No 21. How will you rate your organization in the following areas? Very high high average low very lowi. Profitability ii. Staff retention iii. Deposit mobilization Research question 3: Determine the extent to which human resource management practices have been used in the banking sector?22. How many times have you received training? …………………………………………………………23. How has the training you have received impacted on your work? …………………………………………………………………………..24. Which methods of training does management apply? (a) On job training only (b) Off job training only (c) Both on and off job training (d) Others …………………..25. Does management review your salary structure? Yes No 26. If yes, how often is the salary structure reviewed?……………………………………………………..27. Are you satisfied with the method used to choose employees for training? Yes No 28. Are employees in this outfit/organization rewarded? Yes No 29. If yes, how is it done? …………………………………………………………………………………………………….Research question 3: To determine the challenges facing the impact of human resource management practices on organizational performance and measures that can be put in place to solve the challenges.30. Does management have challenges in the impact of human resource management practices in the organization? Yes No 31. If yes, what are the challenges? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………32. How can the above mentioned challenges be solved? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..APPENDIX IIISample Size Formula shown below was used to determine the Sample Size CalculatorSample size = Z 2 * (p) * (1-p) c 2Where:Z = Z value (e.g. 1.28 for 85% confidence level) p = 15% from previous study, expressed as decimal (0.15 used for sample size needed)c = 5% margin of error, expressed as decimal (0.05)Sample Size= (1.28 ×1.28) × 0.15 (15%)= 1.6384×0.15 (0.85)= 0.24576 (0.85) = 0.208896÷0.05²= 0.208896÷0.0025= 83.5584Sample Size = 84