CHAPTER transmission system. Before operating transmitted and

CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the Study The growth of electricity demand is increasing rapidly.

Simplest optimization method is one of the better alternatives to fulfill this ever growing energy demand. Moreover, it reduces system energy loss, alleviates transmission congestion, improves voltage profile, enhances reliability and provides lower operating cost. Because of its small size compared with conventional generation units, optimization is more flexible to install in terms of investment and time. As a result, integration of transmitted energy resources (TER) with transmission network offers a promising solution; therefore, an intensive level of research is needed to understand the impacts of transmitted resources on transmission system.

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Before operating transmitted and dispersed generation in power system different technical, environmental, commercial and regulatory issues should be analyzed properly. Most significant technical barriers are protection, power quality, stability and outstanding operation. However, there are some other issues which should be analyzed before to maximize these technical benefits. From previous studies, it has been seen that different penetration level and various placement of DER will impact the transmission system differently (Rizy, 2010) moreover, improper optimization fuzzy size and inappropriate allocation of DER may lead to higher power loss than when there is no dispersed generation in the system at all (Mithulanthan). Therefore, detail and exact analysis method is required to determine the proper location and size of optimization more accurately and precisely. In transmission system, optimization should be allocated in an optimal way such that it will reduce system losses and hence improve voltage profile (Acharya, 2006). In our study, we will try to focus on optimum location and size of optimization to decrease total system power loss. In most of the previous researches of optimization, sizing and location of optimization has been connected with grid directly.

Significant risks are associated in connecting such equipment directly to utility transmission system. The insulation level of the machines may not synchronize with the system. Therefore, direct connection of optimization fuzzy is often discouraged (Arritt, 2008). 1.2 Statement of the ProblemThe problem of inconsistence power supply has become the order of the day in our country Nigeria. The causes of this has arisen as a result of power losses in transmission network, distortion, harmonic, short circuit, burning of feeder pillar to mention a few.

This project focuses its attention in power losses in transmission network as a result of distortion and harmonic. This unfortunate situation of inconsistence power supply in our country has demoralized the moral of investors to desist from so doing thereby enhancing the rate of unemployment in our country Nigeria. This can be overcome by using optimization1.

3 Aim and Objectives of the StudyThe aim of the research is to have a stable power supply1. To determine power losses in transmission network using Newton Raphson method and to compare it with simplex optimization method.2.

To determine the phase values of the voltage at load buses 3. To determine the slack bus real and reactive powers 4. To determine power losses in transmission network using simplex optimization method.

5. To determine active power loss reduction in the buses.6.

To design a model that reduces power losses in transmission network using simplex optimization method.1.4 Relevance of the research or Works This dissertation provides solutions coupled with improvement on the way losses are reduced in the transmission networks. This solution will enable companies to design new power system network and expansion of the existing network. 1.

5 Significant of the worki. Enhance reliable power supply.ii.

Encourage investor to establish industries.iii. Increase employment opportunities.iv. Enable the field Engineers to easily detect fault in the lines.

1.6 Limitation and Scope of WorkThe work focused attention in loss reduction in a transmission network to enhance regular power supply in local area power network and urban area power network coupled with wide area network.1.7 Layout or OrganizationGenerally, in this research, dissertation of loss reduction in a transmission network, the topic was introduced in chapter one, review of previous related work in chapter two, the method adopted, the design and implementation on how the research was achieved are treated in chapter three. Data presentation and analysis in chapter four, while in chapter five conclusions were done and recommendations made for future work


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