1.1 Background to study
Indigenous knowledge is the outcome of everyday commitment in routine life of the local people. Rural African communities from the time of our ancestors have been greatly exceptional with special knowledge with which activities were carried out and well-known progress made. Even though, people fail to realize the efficacy of the indigenous knowledge that helped in the enhancement of crime control in various communities (Ajibade 2012). It is quite regrettable that this knowledge has not been appropriately appreciated to be the means of solving problems in the cities today. And for this reason, criminal activities have been on an increase and almost beyond the capacity of our Nigerian police force. Indigenous knowledge is very important when it comes to crime control. Ohijini (2005) added In spite of the existence of various security agencies, in the urban areas, crime has been on an increase on daily bases in urban areas. Therefore many residents resulted to the use of local security personnel such as vigilante groups in places like Minna to supplement the efforts of the state to curb crime. And also place like Enugu state where they use Bakasi in local areas to fight against cultism and other forbidden crime as set by the members of the communities in order to maintain peace in the community.
Over the last few decades, many scholars have worked on this area of study and have discovered that Indigenous knowledge has been the bases for which the local’s people take up in solving problem of their immediate environment. It is often observed that this knowledge has been effective in various ways to solve their problems. Scholars have provided varied definitions for what constitutes indigenous knowledge. Semali and Kincheloe (1999) for example, view indigenous knowledge to reflect the dynamic way in which the residents of an area come to understand themselves in relationship to their environment and how they organize that local knowledge of flora and fauna, cultural beliefs, and history to enhance their livelihood. Smith (1999) in his own research added that indigenous knowledge is a term that internationalizes the experiences, concerns and struggles of some of the world’s colonized peoples. The National Research Foundation (NRF) further buttressed that it is a complex set of knowledge and technologies existing and developed around specific conditions of populations and communities indigenous to a particular geographic area.
These communities however put efforts together and make commitment on how to make the livelihood simple for them, thereby consulting different oracles in order to guide the formulations of laws to be in accordance with the commitment of the community. Ocholla and Onyancha (2012) made a similar argument that it is a dynamic archive of the sum total of knowledge, skills and attitudes belonging to a community over generations and expressed in the form of action, object and sign languages for sharing. They express grief that, unfortunately, for reasons basically associated with ignorance and arrogance, indigenous knowledge has been neglected, vindicated, stigmatized, illegalized and suppressed among the majority of the world’s communities (Ocholla and Onyancha, (2012).
Onyancha (2012). Similarly argued that every community possesses indigenous knowledge rural or urban, settled or nomadic, original inhabitants or migrants. Based on ideas, experiences, practices and information that have been generated either locally or elsewhere and have been transformed by local people and incorporated into their way of life and expressed in their local languages. This makes indigenous knowledge difficult to transmit to those who do not share the languages, traditions and/or cultural experiences of a region or community. Naturally, it is local because it is anchored in a specific community; established within the boundaries of broader cultural traditions and developed by a specific community; intangible and consequently not easily codified; conveyed orally; experimental rather than theoretical; learned through repetition; changes continuously; and is constantly created and recreated, discovered and lost, even though outsiders may perceive it to be static (World Bank, 1998). Indigenous knowledge is embodied in various forms and it is through these forms – beliefs, medicine, knowledge technology, education, communication, agriculture, food technology, arts and crafts.
1.2 Statement of Research Problems
Most of the problems facing the urban areas today are that of population and migration of indigenous people seeking for a better livelihood in the urban areas. Almost 70% of the indigenous people now live in the urban areas. According to Njiraine (2012). He stated that growing trends has a vast implication on the city, as such, may lead to a loss of lifestyle, culture, risk of alienation and also loss of traditional knowledge. Urban indigenous people often find it difficult to pass this knowledge to their younger generation. The indigenous people living in the region may want to meet their cultural needs on like housing which will be at odds with their cultural needs too without having to give up on their traditions and they would want to keep cultural specification of housing style when they move to the cities.
Njiraine (2012) also added that the issue of population of the indigenous people creates rise in discrimination ranging from age, sex and disability based discrimination among the people in the cities, this discrimination often affect women, especially those transiting from childhood to adulthood and also youth transition of reconciling the traditional ancestral ways with adaptation to culture of the population. Urbanization has become the major key factor influencing the problems of crime in the urban areas today which has been the major motivation of migration in the urban centre. This factor has been the major disadvantages of facing the cities, such as criminal activities leading to destructions of life and properties; the growth in urban crime rate in Nigeria is one of the major social problems facing the country in recent time.
Abayomi ( 2013) Commented on the dominance of crime in urban centre increases the unstable nature of the issue of urbanization in the country, for it pyramids one fear upon others. The concentration of violent crimes in major urban centers worldwide is therefore considered as an indicator of the collapse of urban systems. In many urban centers of Nigeria today, criminal activities and violence are assuming dangerous tendencies as they threaten lives and property, the national sense of well-being and unity, peace, social order and security, thus, reducing the citizens’ quality of life.
Ajibade (2015) buttressed that Practices varnish as they become inappropriate for new challenges or because they adopt too slowly. Over the last few years the rate of crime in Nigeria has been on the increase and these crimes are being carried out with more ideal and complexity. This has led to the formation of various groups such as vigilante groups, to combat crimes in some parts of the country. One of the fundamental techniques to combat criminal activities is the better understanding of the dynamics of crime.
Ajibade (2015) Stated that factors such as political influence make it difficult for the application of indigenous knowledge in to the system of practice by various agency to combat crime, for instance when people commit crime and some of the politician uses their influence to release them from been punished by law. Ajibade (2015) He added that this becomes a problem thereby becoming a motivation for crime and increases criminal activities.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The primary aim of the study is to assess the indigenous knowledge practices in urban crime control in suleja and proffer a better solution with the existing practice.
In order to achieve the stated aim, the following objectives where advanced; to:
I. examine the types of crime occurrence recorded and its frequency;
II. identify the existing indigenous knowledge and practices used in combating crime in the area;
III. assess the effectiveness of indigenous knowledge used in curbing crime
IV. make proposal for Encouraging indigenous knowledge practices.
1.4 Research Questions.
1. What are the types of crime occurrence recorded in suleja?
2. Which form of practices is used by the indigenous people in suleja ?
3. Will indigenous knowledge practices become effective to crime control?
4. How does urbanization increase the chances of crime?
This study will be helpful to various law enforcement and security agencies agency in the urban areas of suleja and it will bring to the people the relevant knowledge required to crime preventions in their communities. It will help the security agencies laying strong foundation in crime prevention in various aspects of criminal activities.
The study will provide information on the level of crime, the mode of indigenous crime prevention and control and also provide information on dept of criminal activities, and enable the security agency to know the need to ensure security of those whom they serve. It will provide information on the barriers militating against the safety of the people, lives, and property. The study will be helpful to planning thereby providing information on areas that are prominent to criminal activities such that it will make provision for the location of security agency such as the police so as to know where to locate the facilities that will enable easy access to these areas that are prominent to criminal activities. The study will add to the body of knowledge on indigenous knowledge practices and crime control in criminal activities in urban areas and will serve as a guide to other researchers who may have interest in indigenous knowledge practices. Therefore planning strives to ensure equity, safety and security in the urban center. (Njiraine 2012).
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on indigenous knowledge practices and crime control in suleja town. The study will look into the dimensions of crime and the level of acceptance of indigenous knowledge practices.
1.6.2 RESEARCH SCOPE
The study looks to access the indigenous knowledge practices in urban crime incidence and their way of control. The research will cover the area of local understanding of their environment. The study will also cover the dimension of urban crime, understand the effectiveness of Indigenous knowledge in the town, Investigate crime data from relevant institution and develop criteria to encourage indigenous knowledge practices.
1.7 The Study Area
Suleja is a city in Niger state with a population of about 216,578 estimated by census 2006, it was established in the early 19th century by Mohanmed Makau, the last Emire of zaria. it is also recorgnized as a centre of excellence for traditional west african pottery, such as Ladi Kwali pottery centre, which was established by Micheal Cardew in 1950. It is located in the north central part of Nigeria. Discovery of the ancient sculptures of the Nok culture, both at Suleja town and in the Makabolo rever red, have helped prove the influence of Nok on the Yoruba art of Ife. Suleja is also known as an exporter of Gbari pottery, cotton weaving and dyeing with locally grown indigo. And mat making are traditional activities, but farming remains the chief occupation. Local trade is primarily in agricultural product. In figure 1.1 The researcher prepared a map showing the study area in map of Nigerian as well as map of the study area as shown in figure 1.2 and figure 1.3 shows the road network in suleja and this is shown below.
Figue1.1: Niger State in the National context.
Source: field survey (2018)
Figure 1.2: Administrative sub-division of Niger state.
Source: field survey (2018)
Figure 1.3: Map showing road network in Suleja.
Source: field survey (2018)
Indigenous knowledge has its limitations, and these must be recognized. Indigenous knowledge is sometimes accepted uncritically because of naive ideas that whatever indigenous people do is naturally in harmony with the environment. There is historical and fashionable evidence that indigenous peoples have also contributed to environmental damages through over-grazing, over-hunting, or over-cultivation of the land. It is misleading to think of Indigenous knowledge as always being good right or sustainable. This study did not go into all the factors that could influence indigenous knowledge and its practices in suleja. Instead, it hopes to focus on how to examine the dimension of urban, evaluate the level of acceptance of indigenous knowledge practice, assess the effectiveness of indigenous knowledge, investigate crime data from relevant institution, and to encourage indigenous knowledge practices crime recorded in suleja.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
1.8.1 Indigenous Knowledge
Indigenous knowledge is the local knowledge that is unique to a culture or society. This knowledge can be passed from one generation to another, usually by words of the mouth and cultural rituals, and has been the bases of the sustainability of different societies across the globe.
1.8.2 Indigenous People
Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing in those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal systems” (UNDESA, 2004).
This refers to an action which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law. It is also an illegal act which can constitute punishment by the government especially for the violation of the law. Crime causes loss of live and property as well as overwhelming fear of insecurity.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Frame Work
2.1.1 Concept of Indigenous Knowledge
Indigenous knowledge is the knowledge used by local people to make a living in a particular environment. Terms used in the field of sustainable development to designate this concept include Indigenous technical knowledge, traditional knowledge, environmental knowledge, rural knowledge, local knowledge or pastoralist knowledge. Indigenous knowledge can also be conceptualized as the knowledge that an Indigenous local community accumulates over generations of living in a particular environment. Technology, know –how skills, practices and beliefs that enable the community to achieve stable livelihoods in their environment.
Indigenous knowledge can be defined as a body of knowledge built by a group of people through generations of living in closed contact with nature (Johnson, 1992).such knowledge evolves in the local environment, so that it is specifically adapted to the requirement of the local people and conditions. It also create and experimental, constantly incorporating outside influences and inside innovations to meet new conditions. I is usually a mistake to think Indigenous knowledge as old-fashioned, backwards, static or unchanging Indigenous people are the original inhabitants of a particular geographical location, who have a culture and belief system distinct from the international system of knowledge.
Indigenous knowledge practices are local knowledge developed over centuries of experimentation by our ancestors and are passed orally from generation to generation. It was proven to be a perfect scaffold to sustainable development connecting the past, present and the future. Prior studies have shown that there is no universal definition of indigenous knowledge, therefore Indigenous knowledge is the exceptional knowledge restrained to a certain culture or society. It is also known as local knowledge, folk knowledge, people’s knowledge, traditional wisdom or traditional science.
2.2 Promoters of Indigenous Knowledge Practices
Promoters of indigenous knowledge have in time past looked at the various areas of concern as pertain to indigenous knowledge. And effort has been made even at the local and international level. Scholars like micheal waren, david baker, osward welner and many others have done well to consistently promote the local mechanism and how relevant they could be to the society today and not to be considered as outdated. In Nigeria, scholars such as J.S. Oguntoyinbo, A. Faniran, O. Areola, M.A.A. Osunade, David Atte, Oguntunji Titilola, and L.T. Ajibade. Their efforts have been geared towards establishing the basis for the utility of indigenous knowledge in agricultural development. For instance, Warren, et.al, (1989) wrote volumes of works on ethno-veterinary medicine, indigenous agricultural knowledge and gender issues. Richards (1079), Howes and Chambers (1980), Biggs and Clay (1981), Osunade (1987), Tabor (1993), Ajibade (2002) and several others have also emphasized the relevance of utilizing indigenous knowledge in soil resource inventory for increased agricultural production.
Works have also been done on indigenous soil and water conservation in Africa. Examples of these include those of Kassogie, et.al. (1990), reig (1991) and Hagmann and Murwira (1996). The role of indigenous soil knowledge in agricultural development is exemplified in the work of Baker, et.al. (1977) and Pawluk, et.al (1992) using Ikale (Ondo State), Kabba (Kogi State) and Alayi (Imo State) in Nigeria as sampled areas, confirmed the high quality of farmers’ environ mental knowledge in terms of relevance to the monitoring of agricultural resources. Some foundations are promoting Indigenous knowledge as an important contribution for human survival. To end climate crisis, to solve global poverty, our Indigenous partners are our greatest teacher, said Rajasvini (2015).
The concept of ways of being, and lessons learned from Indigenous knowledge experimentation are relevant. Other long experience of Indigenous community, such as their close observation and adaptation to weather changes overtime, as critical insights to solving the problems facing the world. The Temalpais Trust initiated the launch of a collaborative fund dedicated to promoting and harnessing the traditional knowledge, called the Indigenous ways of knowing and learning fund. The fund supported also Christensen fund, the Novo Foundation, and the Swift foundation, disbursed its first round of grants as in early 2015. Indigenous knowledge and native science are being recognized as successful contributor in addressing problems of climate change, food security and sovereignty, protection and care.
2.3 Principles and Basic Element Of Indigenous Knowledge Practices
The principle of Indigenous knowledge arises from accumulated experience of the ancient communities on natural values and their understanding about the environment. Their knowledge, social, and livelihood system. Their cultures are closely related to the natural laws operating in the local ecosystems. Unfortunately such culture has become highly vulnerable to destructive forces related to unsustainable use of resources, population expansion, and global economy.
2.4 Application of Indigenous Knowledge Practices
Indigenous knowledge is very vast and diverse. This knowledge has been collected, accumulated and perfected over centuries. It is very effective in crime control and over the years they have adopted this knowledge in making sure that their community can become a place that can be livable for all in a certain community. The value of indigenous knowledge is not only limited to agriculture, environment and biodiversity. It has an immense value in education, medicine symptoms, and traces the disease to the context of the person’s life, rather than a bacteria or virus. According to Hoskins (1990), only few of the community projects initiated over the past decade have succeeded. Many of them have failed because of the disregard for local needs and priorities or the failure to involve local groups in the planning and implementation of local projects. Indigenous knowledge is particularly relevant in resource conservation according to Ajibade (1999) because indigenous societies have profound and detailed knowledge of the system and species with which they are in contact for generations. Posey, D. A. (1995) Nature and indigenous guidelines for new Amazonian development strategies: Understanding biological diversity through ecology.
2.5 Merit and Demerits of Indigenous Knowledge Practices
2.5.1 Merits of Indigenous Knowledge
Though Indigenous knowledge I ancient is very important to know that this knowledge has been used by various communities to solve the problem they have faced in the past. It has also formed part of the major global knowledge of the world today. It has a value and relevance in itself, and can be preserved, transferred and adopted anywhere around the world.
Indigenous knowledge increases responsiveness to issues that is faced by the community, sharing Indigenous knowledge across communities can help enhance cross-cultural understanding and promote the cultural dimensions for development. It is an integral part of the development process of local communities.
2.5.2 Demerits of Indigenous Knowledge Practices
Although Indigenous knowledge practices is very vital to the communities at large but has its own disadvantage when it comes to decision making. Some times when decision that are made in a particular community may not be applicable to another, therefore this disagreement may lead to communal crises and it may take time for the conflict to be resolved.
2.6 Relationship of Indigenous knowledge
In relating Indigenous knowledge to urban crime, it is of great importance to understand the concept and the role that Indigenous knowledge has played in the prevention of crime. Crime in urban centre came as a result of so many socio-economic, political and physical factors which affect the urban areas badly. Indigenous knowledge can be applicable to urban crime control as it will not only help in combating crime but also help the various security agencies to have an easy access to criminal incidence in urban areas. With this basic knowledge, the communities in their various way and traditional systems of crime prevention will help contribute to the fight against crime in the urban area. (Gakuru 2006)
Every society across the globe has its own challenges when it comes to crime control and prevention. The prevalence of crime in the society today is a very serious concern. Crime has eroded the sense of safety and security of so many societies today; it has impacted on the society in a variety of ways according to the nature and extent of crime in the society. It constitutes a problem when its incidence is so rampant in the society. Crime is a threat to the economic, political and social security of any society and a major factor associated with personal and into the public sphere, breaking prohibitory rules or laws. Indigenous knowledge practices with constant concern about the environment helps to give update on any forms of crime in the society, therefore this commitment by various groups of the community constantly gives information about their environment. Senanayake (2015) commented that these strategies often enable them to have a better understanding about the changes that takes place in the environment. Therefore crime prevention can be done by engagement in early identification of potential areas, and offenders in the community by seeking to intervene to prevent further criminal behavior or occurrence from developing in the society, so as to change people especially those at high risk of embarking upon criminal activities they carry out.
Gakuru (2006), argue that for a considerable period of time, traditional knowledge has been considered little more than a remembrance of varying pasts, being preserved only as superstition folklore. However, he continues to observe that indigenous knowledge is a permanent feature in the society as long as the society is alive. The use of indigenous knowledge has been seen by many as an alternative way of promoting development in urban areas. Development ang growth requires knowledge management of its subjects and indigenous knowledge provides it. The World Bank is instrumental to the development of indigenous knowledge and they often do this through community based programs in the African states. The president of the world bank observed that: indigenous knowledge is an integral part of the culture and history of local community and that we need to learn from local community to enrich the development process. Therefore indigenous knowledge integrates the harnessing of the different socio-cultural skills tha tare acquired from the community, this knowledge is the skills that brings solutions to the society.
2.6 Reviews of Literature
According to Ajibade (2015), Knowing the unknown through the known: The case for indigenous knowledge in sustainable development. He aimed at exploring how indigenous peoples respond to ecological and development challenges and how their cultures and knowledge systems can contribute to the sustainable development agenda. In achieving this aims, he adopted the following objectives; he examined the characteristics of indigenous knowledge and indigenous peoples’ concept or perceptions of development to understand the concepts in which traditional knowledge is rooted. He analyzed the means of knowledge practices and transmission with a particular focus on the importance of women and elders and on the ambivalent role played by formal education. He also evaluated the Relationship between indigenous knowledge, sustainable practices, land and resource management, looking at the role of community and women as well as suggested new alternative strategies for sustainable development implemented by some indigenous groups.
Prior to this research, Ajibade (2015), reviewed different literature from various authors. He looked at ‘The Concept of Indigenous Knowledge’ in which he deduced that People in different places define indigenous knowledge in different ways, but all have the same focus. He stated that it is the local knowledge, which has been institutionalized, built upon and passed from one generation to the next (Odhianbo and Jahan, 1990; Osunade, 1992; Warren, 1992). According to Ajibade, (2015), in his journal knowing the unknown through the known: The Case for indigenous knowledge in sustainable development, in which he cited from the works of Kater (1993); Munyakho (1994) and Sindiga (1995). Argued that indigenous knowledge exists in all spheres of life such as education, engineering, health, politics, agriculture and even sports.
He also looked at “relevance and need for indigenous knowledge” relating it to observations in
quite a lot of research. Indigenous knowledge is particularly relevant in resource conservation according to Ajibade (1999). He emphasize that because indigenous societies have profound and detailed knowledge of the system and species with which they are in contact for generations. Buttressing this point, Richards (1979) affirms that many traditional beliefs and attitudes to environmental resources are oriented to conservation rather than exploitation. Irrespective of that fact, Ajibade (1999) observed that indigenous natural resource management techniques are not primitive, destructive or ineffective contrary to the belief of many policy makers and western scientists. They are considered as being sophisticated, scientifically valid, productive and appropriate.
Ajibade, (2015). In his journal highlight that the role of indigenous knowledge especially in providing the basis for a sustainable approach to development, which has been ignored for many decades, is now being recognized in many countries. He recommended that while the move is appreciated, it is necessary to spread this to different cultural settings so that full documentation can be obtained at least on a regional level. Attempt should be made to encourage indigenous means through which technical knowledge can be created, accumulated and stored in a database where it can be retrieved for manipulation and usage in decision making.
He concluded by stressing the need to study and understand the existing systems in order to attain sustainable development in Africa. Based on such studies according to Okigbo (1991), the various underlying processes that made them sustainable can be identified and improved upon through research.
Ayoola & Jabaru, ( 2015). On the topic the estimation of crime rate in the southwest of Nigeria: Principal Component Analysis Approach, Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Volume XV Issue I I version I Year 2015. The objectives of this research seeks to examine the degree of relationship between the different crimes committed in the Study area in the last fifteen years. To determine the crime that accounted for highest percentage of the total crimes in Southwestern Nigeria. To conduct a principal component analysis to determine important components present in the data. To examine the crime with high loadings on each of the rotated components. To recommend the policy measures that can be employed to reduce crime patterns at the regional or urban scale in Southwestern Nigeria. Different literatures where reviewed in the cause of this research.
In their studies they observed that there is no universal definition of crime. Which is as a result of changes in social, political, psychological and economic conditions. An act may be a crime in one society, but not in another (Danbazau, 2007). For example, prostitution, adultery and homosexuality between consenting adults have been wholly or partially removed from the criminal law in USA (Feldman, 1997) but are considered as crimes in Muslim communities such as Saudi Arabia. The constant changes in time also change the perception of society on crime. Today, it is becoming a crime to pollute the air and water. Therefore, the perception of an “act” to be a crime varies with time and space.
They noted that Crime is a universal phenomenon and differs only in degree among the various nations of the world. The Nigerian crime problem is multidimensional and is capable of discouraging its corporate existence as well as efforts towards sustainable development. According to their studies, Crime is often thought of as a moral threat and injurious to the society. However, it has been observed that the entire world is experiencing high criminal rate. The report of international crime victim survey (ICVS) has confirmed the situation. The report which was conducted on six major world region including Africa, Asia, central and eastern Europe, Latin America, and western Europe for the 1989 – 1996 period as shown that more than half of the urban respondents reported being victim at least once regardless of what part of the world they inhabit (Ackermen and Murray, 2004).
The data required for this study was obtained from secondary source (National Bureau of Statistics) and it covered reported crime cases in Southwestern Nigeria that comprises – Oyo, Osun, Ondo, Ekiti, Ogun and Lagos States. They identified the most outstanding variables to adapt in explaining the main distributional pattern of crimes in the study area using principal component analysis. They found out that There are low pair-wise correlation in between many of the crimes and therefore cannot be used to explain one another, but, at least moderate correlation exist in between sizeable number of the crimes.
They recommended that Government intervention in the provision of infrastructure and other basic amenities that would make life more meaningful should be encouraged. Government must also make it as matter of policy to shift its thinking about crime and punishment and turn its focus to crime prevention, addressing the root causes of crime such as lack of employment which is rampant among the youth, and devoting our resources to community building, education, and workforce development that provides jobs at a living wage because the future of Nigeria and our democracy depends on them.
Ahmed and Alapata (2012) The pattern and distribution of crime incidence in an urban environment: a case study of osun state, southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 5; March 20 (2012). The research aimed at the major tasks in the study are to identify, organize, and explain the pattern and trend of crime in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria, objectives of this study: Examine the trend of crime in the study area in the last fifteen years. To evaluate the extent to which police deployments are able to reduce crimes perpetration in Southwestern Nigeria. Evaluate the societal/institutional failures sthat have significantly contributed to the upsurge of rate of crime rate in the study area. Assess the policy measures can therefore be employed to reduce crime patterns at the regional or urban scale in Nigeria.
The study reviewed several literature in which Ahmed and Alapata (2012) ascertain that Some scholars in various social science disciplines like; Oyebanji (1982); Omisakin (1998); Alemika (2003); Agbola (2002); Ahmed,(2010) and hosts of other writers have at one time or the other engaged in various studies of social problems and poor management of urban centers. They attempted some measures that can ameliorate criminal activities in urban centers of Nigeria. But most of their suggestions for security improvement in our cities were not implemented resulting into series of problems that are facing the country today.
They viewed the works of Schaefer (1989) who referred to crime as a violation of criminal law which its formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority. Crime according to Dan Bazau (1994) view crime as something which offends the morality of society, or that violates the divine law. The consensus approach to defining crime presents it as; an offence that is committed by omission, commission or deliberately. This work therefore, examines the crime distributional pattern in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria from 1985 to 2000 as affecting urban planning in the state as a whole. The major motivating factors of this study are centered on various socio-economic and political movements that transformed the country between 1985 and 2000.
Ahmed and Alapata (2012) observed that the growth in urban crime rate in Nigeria is one of the major social problems facing the country in recent time. The dominance of crime in developing countries increases the volatility of the issue, for it pyramids one fear upon others. The concentration of violent crimes in major urban centers worldwide is therefore heralded as an indicator of the breakdown of urban systems. They added that The fear of armed robbery keeps Nigerians sleepless at night and they tend to live one day at a time with the fear of whether they will see the light of tomorrow. They are especially afraid of armed-robbers, paid assassins, political thugs and other criminals who assess life as being worthless.
Ahmed and Alapata (2012) discovered that The major motivating factors of this study are centered on various socio-economic and political movements that transformed the country between 1985 and 2000. The country witnessed series of crime waves that transposed a new dispensation into the so-called „modern democratic government?. Hence, Nigeria witnessed different modes of governance from military to civilian regimes before these periods. The military, in the first instance, solely took advantage of its professional training by using violence to usurp power through coups and counter coups. The politicians in their turn, and in their bids to absorb power, used hired-thugs, or paid assassins/hired killers to perpetrate violence and instill fears on their opponents. The frustrated masses took to formulation of militant groups as witnessed in the uproar of the youths from South-South and the Boko-Haram Sect from the North-Eastern path of the country disregarded the law.
The data required for this study was obtained primarily from secondary source and was acquired from Zone Eleven of the Police Zonal Command Southwestern Nigeria that comprises- Oyo, Osun, Ondo and Lagos States. This twenty three variables were later re-written in an attempt to identify the most salient variables to adapt in explaining the main distributional pattern of crimes in the study area. Aderamo (2000) Ahmed (2010) used factor analysis in the spatial pattern of intra-urban trips in ilorin and trend and pattern of crime in southwestern Nigeria respectively. Thus the method is considered as the most suitable for the task of separating factors and identifying development indices for explaining factors affecting distribution of crime in selected urban centers in Osun state, Nigeria.
The study focuses attention on criminal activities as affecting the livability of residents of urban centers in the state. The investigation was carried out using ten selected local government areas that are notorious as black-spots crime area in the State. Five hundred Household-heads were administered questionnaires to solicit for information on type of crimes commonly perpetrated in their neighborhoods as well as these crimes’ causes, impacts, and coping mechanisms that sustained them. Factor analysis and multiple regression statistical methods were used to reduce bulky data collected from primary and secondary sources into manageable standard.
They concluded by saying that the work has eventually served as eye-opener to some hidden facts about criminal activities in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. The work has demonstrated the effect of social structure on human beings leading to crime incidence in various hot-spots in the state. The reaction of human beings for survival within the social structure has constituted a corpus of knowledge relevant to examination of youths engagement in urban violence. Youths who are found in criminal activities absorb crime as a method of adjusting to social malignant. To eradicate crimes, therefore fundamental societal survival techniques must be dissociated from crime. This requires a fundamental restructuring of the society towards productive engagement in the sector that can provide the need and positive aspiration of the people in cities all over the world. Positive achievement is obtained through educational institutions, community participation in productive engagements, and above all, where governments perform its tasks appropriately. To reduce youths? perceived negative attitude, societal negatives must be ameliorated.
Kenechukwu (2012). On the research Trends In Criminal Activities In Enugu State: A ten Year Empirical Evaluation (2000-2009) he aimed at describing and analyzing the trends in criminal activities in Enugu State. The objective of the studies seeks to ascertain the most prevalent form of crime in Enugu State, ascertain if there are no differences in crime against persons and that against property, establish the trend over ten years period (2000 – 2009) and make recommendations on possible ways of curbing criminal activities in the state.
Different literature was reviewed in the cause of this research and it expresses views on trends of criminal activities in urban areas. It also covered views and various activities of crime in different location, as well as roles of various security agencies that are concerned with preventions of crime the responsibility of the community in crime preventions.
Kenechukwu (2012) cited the works of (Wabara 2005) who however expressed that the role of the police in any human society cannot be over-emphasized. Every society needs a strong and effective police force to maintain law and order, to promote peace and harmony and to secure lives and properties. So the police force is not only central to individual self-actualization, but also to social cohesion, economic development and democratic consolidation. This expression shows that the role of police in any society is very relevant in any society in the country. Without an effective policing in any society, especially in most urban centres, where diverse social vices is on an increase on daily bases.
Onovo (2005) lay emphasis on the barriers that reduce the capacity of agencies to share criminal intelligence include the following: Lack of a national process for generating and sharing intelligence, Existence of laws that unduly restrict law enforcement access to information, the hierarchical structures of sharing information, Deficits in criminal intelligence analysis, Lack of good technologies to support criminal intelligence sharing. It is therefore necessary to examine these barriers that are currently affecting the effectiveness of different agencies so as to help increase technicalities in getting information of criminal activities, because this information will guide them and helps in prevention of crimes and to bring the criminals to law.
The method of data collection in these studies was based on survey research. It can also be called a descriptive research. The information was gathered through questionnaire, interviews (oral, written, structured, unstructured etc.), inventories, rating scales, self-report, and observations. It is used to find the meaning and obtain an understanding of the present condition. Three methods of analysis was adopted in this study Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-distribution was used to answer some of the research questions as well as determine the hypothesis set for the study-most prevalent crime in the state and if the rate of crime against persons is the same with crime against property. Regression analysis was used to determine the actual trend on crime in the state over the years as well as make forecast on the future trend for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013.
Kenechukwu (2012) Found out that no society is free from crime and this has being attributed to many reasons like unemployment, hunger, greed etc. The major causes of crime in the state was found to be complex changes in economic, social and cultural factors unemployment, dysfunctional facilities, poor education, child abuses, substance abuse, economic inequality and community breakdown.
He concluded that poverty remains a key challenge and the main cause of rise in crime in most of the development societies. Poverty results out of bad leadership. In the Nigeria case, it is failure of leadership both at national and state levels. Ours is a case of resource cause theory.
The research recommended that it is necessary to preserve political steadiness and effectiveness of democratic institutions to effectively pursue youth and employment revival, revamping the education system to coincide with local imperatives especially with regards to vocational training and skill development. Fighting institutional corruption and bureaucratic decadence in government agencies for effective policy implementation and revamping of the agricultural sector of the economy.
Hansen (2016) Crime Prevention among Indigenous Peoples: An Exploration of Opaskwayak Restorative Justice. Aimed to examine crime prevention among indigenous peoples. Waziyatawin and Yellowbird (2005) explain that decolonization is “the intelligent, calculated, and active resistance to the forces of colonialism that perpetuate the subjugation and/or exploitation of our minds, bodies, and lands, and it is engaged for the ultimate purpose of overturning the colonial structure and realizing Indigenous liberation.” However in order to do so, one should examine the epistemological structures of Indigenous ancestors. Walter Lightning (1992) who documented Elder Louis Sun child’s views on decolonizing Aboriginal emotions and thinking structures in his article Compassionate Mind. Sun child expressed that “great care should be given to the head and the heart” (Lightning, 1992), which speaks of holism and the significance of the harmony between the mental and emotional human realms and this unity reflects a “large-scale connectedness” (1992). Similarly, Smith (1999), a prominent Maori author on Indigenous decolonization methodologies, wrote that restorative justice in Canada, for example, applies the concepts of the ‘healing circle’ and victim restoration which are based on indigenous processes and as such restorative programs are based on a model of healing rather than punishing. Therefore, decolonization of traditional knowledge and cultural values is central to justice in northern Aboriginal communities.
The study utilized qualitative methods and, more specifically, open-ended interviewing, case Study, and narrative. The three participants are members of the Opaskwayak Cree Nation and wanted to be acknowledged for their contributions to the study. Elder Irene Young is a respected
female elder in the Opaskwayak community and she volunteers her time to deal with justice in the community. Similarly, Sherwin Moore and Clinton Whitehead volunteer their time to deal with justice matters and are also respected members in the community, but they are still young men. Creswell advises that qualitative research is suitable when the major research question
asks “how” (1998).
The Opaskwayak Restorative Justice Committee serves the Opaskwayak Cree Nation and is made up of band members of the Opaskwayak Cree Nation. The committee deals primarily with minor offences and focuses on the youth; but to a lesser extent it also deals with adult offenders. We draw on the testimonies of Irene Young, a Swampy Cree Elder; Sherwin Moore and Clinton whitehead all respected members in the Opaskwayak community and they serve on the Opaskwayak justice program. A theme that emerged out of the interviews with participants was the correlation between crime prevention and Opaskwayak’s restorative justice program.
Chinwokwu (2014) Trend and Pattern of Violent Crimes in Nigeria: An Analaysis of the Boko Haram Terrorist Outrage Journal of Culture, Society and Development- An Open Access International Journal Vol.3 2014. This study aimed at examining the trend and pattern of violent crimes in Nigeria with a focus on the terrorist activities of Boko Haram. The objectives of the study seeks to trace the trend and pattern of violent crimes back to the 1980s and the emergence of Boko Haram whose pattern of criminal violence have taken very dangerous dimension and intensity in Nigeria. To examines the origin, ideology, operational methods and the factors which have sustained the sect and made their pattern of criminality very destructive.
The literature review in this study will reveal various views as pertain to the trend and pattern of violent crimes in Nigeria. Emeh, (2012) cited by Chinwokwu (2014) draws similar conclusions that Crime can be seen as an infraction of both the basic principles of law and order and the norms of civilized behavior. No society is immune from this thorny social problem but what differs is the frequency and magnitude of the situation and the response mechanisms to address same.
Emeh, (2012) added that In the 1980s, crime wave grew to nearly pandemic proportions, particularly in Lagos and other urbanized areas characterized by rapid economic growth and change, stalk economic inequality and deprivation, social disorganization and by inadequate government service and law enforcement in capabilities. Published crime statistics were probably grossly understated because most parts of the country were virtually unpoliced coupled with the issue of ‘dark figures’ (Igbo, 2007; Odekunle, 1981). Nigeria became caught in the web of crime dilemma which manifested in upsurge of both violent and non-violent crimes. The crimes grew from minor offences to robbery, murder, rape, cultism, Kidnapping, sea piracy and terrorism, thus generating a state of insecurity and threat to National security. According to Igbo (2000), violence appears to be the norm rather than the exception for armed robbery in Nigeria (cited in Igbo, 2007).
Government should ensure the law on terrorism is enforced to the letter without show of sentiment. The Criminal justice system especially the police and the court must relegate sentiment and allow the full Weight of the law to be meted to all offenders equally according to the Act. The security of our country’s borders should be reviewed to ensure all the nooks and crannies of the country’s land borders through which aliens can enter the country are properly policed with structures and equipment emplaced with the immigration and customs and other security officials stationed there, to screen immigrants and emigrants accordingly. The government should put in place emergency measures requisite to quell a violent revolution including reducing such areas of discontent that could be capitalized by disgruntled elements like unemployment, corruption, and infrastructural development relation to power, roads and refineries as well as empowering the security forces to nip such a revolution in the bud. The security agencies should be equipped and trained with modern technological gadgets for detecting bombs among others, as well as encourage them with life insurance policy that will motivate them to take the risk of dying for the unity and security of the nation.
The research concluded the act of violence and terrorism being experienced in our country does no one good, rather the country is degenerating as a pariah nation soon to be abandoned as people move out in droves as a result of general insecurity. After a decade of violence, the government still does not have an effective strategy for dismantling the group. The terrorist organization preys on the disillusioned Muslims of the North, who are fed up with corruption, poverty, illiteracy, unemployment and lack of economic opportunities. Unless this changes, the audacity of Boko Haram attack will continue to hunt the government. The current announcement of the group to seize fire in order to enter into negotiation with government is good. But government must provide the terms of peace and must negotiate with the real leaders of the group and surrogates.
Owumi And Ajayi ( 2013) Traditional Values, Beliefs and Reliance on Indigenous Resources for Crime Control in Modern Southwest Nigeria. An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia Vol. 7 (1), Serial No. 28, January, 2013:73-94. They aimed at examining the prevailing values, belief and practices among the people of the southwest and its utility in the maintenance of local security personnel.
They seek to investigate the potency and efficacy of these indigenous resources in providing security within the community and the invincibility of community guard. Owumi And Ajayi ( 2013) have done well to review various books, literature and research in their effort to do justice to the prevailing values, belief and practices among the people of the southwest and its utility in the maintenance of local security personnel. They echoes this concern on the ground that, There is no society that is totally free of crime and criminality but the degree of its presence or occurrence varies from one society to the other and this also depends on the mechanisms put in place to checkmate the trend and incidence. They went further to say that each, race, or identity group in the world had and have, accepted and collective patterns and methods of social control and conflict resolution. They took it further by arguing that Africans depend solely on indigenous values and believe in combating crime and criminals.
Omololu (2003). Avers that community-based crime control outfit like OPC and Bakassi Boys are successful due to some factors including: the perception that members of the group possess supernatural abilities, particularly their famed ability to quickly identify the guilty from the innocent. ii Their readiness to confront armed robbers headlong at the risks of their own lives jolted the robbers who were used to police reluctance to do the same. The swiftness of their operation and the promptness with which they inflict instant punishment on identified criminals. The covert and overt support they receive from the state governments and prominent groups and associations in the area where they serve.
A Qualitative methodology was used to draw relevant information from the study population while the data were analyzed by ethnographic summaries and content analysis. The choice of this method was in consonance with the functional and control theories on which the study hinged. The result shows indigenous resources are efficacious in certain respects if they are used with caution and due observance of certain fundamental laws.
In the cause of this study, Owumi, Bernard And Ajayi, ( 2013) found out that there are evidences from the qualitative data gathered from the field that the official security agencies particularly the police have not done enough in terms of keeping secure the lives and property of the masses. This has resulted into a return to traditional and cultural patterns of crime control which are generally welcomed by the public most especially because it is inexpensive, fast and easily available
They recommended that Instead of anti-terror policing tactics, increasing para-militarism, or increasingly expensive high-tech gadgets, though useful and important, the ground-level tactics that is reorienting the security agencies to work better with the public will enhance the detection of crime and extremism, gather intelligence information and build partnership and confidence with the public.
They concluded that considering the utility of the indigenous systems in the prevailing circumstances, there is an incontrovertible need in Nigeria for each State Government to recognize and promote the relevant indigenous systems of security maintenance, crime prevention, and general law enforcement as complementary body to that of the police
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
The research design for this study is to indicate the structure and procedure that will be used for this research which will be used to answer the research question. The purpose of this study is to assess the indigenous knowledge practices in urban crime control in suleja. A quantitative research method will be used to focus on responses and statistical analysis. The study also adopted a qualitative data analysis. The study is to examine and interrogate the relationship between the indigenous knowledge practices in urban area and how they control crime. It is based on information gathered through questionnaire, interviews (oral, written, structured, unstructured etc.), inventories, rating scales, self-report, and observations. It is used to find the meaning and obtain an understanding of the present condition. Survey research method studies large and small populations (universes) by selecting and studying samples from the populations to discover the relative incidence, distribution and interrelations of sociological and psychological variables.
3.2 Data requirement
The data required for this study is to be obtained from primary and secondary source and will be acquired from relevant institutions, interviews, by asking question in a face to face contact.
Generally, there are two sources of data collection namely;
? Primary source of data collection.
? Secondary source of data collection.
The primary sources of data used in this study are;
? Field survey or reconnaissance survey.
? Administering of Questionnaires using the sampling survey techniques.
Reconnaissance Survey: as a form of primary source of data collection involves the use of photographs as well as existing security and indigenous practice in the study area. Photographs are taken to show various forms of practice used by the indigenous people in the Study Area.
3.3 Source of data
The source of data required for this study will be obtained from both primary and secondary source which demand the collection of data directly from respondent via interview of groups of people, individuals or through a questionnaire. Data will also be collected from relevant institutions such as the police, private security, vigilante, local security and from information gotten from group discussions. Information from the resident of the area will also aid to in accomplishing the objectives for the purpose of the research.
3.4 Method of Data Collection
The method of data collection for this study will be achieved through case study approach, observations, field notes and interviews. In examining the indigenous knowledge and practice in the area, information based on the types of practices that already exist in the area, then the information will also identify the types and effectiveness of the existing practices by the people.
The questionnaire is subdivided according to the objective of the research. A total of 399 questionnaire will be administered using a Likert scale type of questionnaire.
5 Strongly agree
1 Strongly disagree
Subdivision Objectives Survey respondent csale
One Socio-demographic Descriptive
two Examine the types of crime occurrence recorded and its frequency. Descriptive
Three Identify the existing indigenous knowledge and practices used in combating crime in the area.
Four Assess the effectiveness of indigenous knowledge used in curbing crime.
3.5 Sample frame
The sample frame for this study is obtained from a population data of 2006 NPC which was projected to a sum of 322,178 populations living in Suleja, Niger state.
3.6 Sample size
For the purpose of this research, the sample size will be determined using the following formular: n= N(1+N) (e)^2.
Where; n= sample size, N=sample frame and e= margin of error allowed.
Therefore; the sample size for this research is estimated to be 321.
3.7 Instrument of Data Collection
The instrument of data collection of this study will be through observation, interviews and questionnaire for the purpose of getting information needed for the research.
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
The data collected from the field will be analyzed. Statistically weighted mean will be used in answering the research questions. The response options in the instrument will be weighted, In order to achieve the objective and various statistical methodologies will be applied via computer analysis using the SPSS package. A frequency distribution table will be used to analyze collected from the relevant institutions involved in crime prevention in the study area.
Table Sources Types Method of data collection Instrument
Of data analysis Method of analysis Inference
Examine the types of crime occurrence recorded and its frequency. Relevant institution Qualitative and quantitative. Interview with offices of the relevant institutions. Personal interview. Descriptive statistics
To determine the dimension of crime recorded.
Identify the existing indigenous knowledge and practices used in combating crime in the area.
Interview Qualitative. Field survey /questionnaire. Interview/ physical observation. Descriptive statistics
Know the mechanism used by the residence.
Access the effectiveness of indigenous knowledge Interview/ observation. Qualitative. Interview Interview/ observation. Descriptive statistics
To know how effective IK is in the study area.
Assess the effectiveness of indigenous knowledge used in curbing crime.
Data from relevant institution Quantitative. Visiting relevant institutions. Collection of data in person Descriptive statistics
To get information from relevant institutions.
make proposal for Encouraging indigenous knowledge practices.
Literature Review Quantitative and qualitative. Critical Literature Review/ Interview
Collection of primary data. Descriptive statistics
T encourage the use of indigenous knowledge
3.9 Sampling Techniques
A stratified random sampling procedure will be used for selecting the participants in this study. This technique will be employed to ensure a fairly representation of the variables for the study. The stratification is based on institution and agencies in the study area, selection of staff will be done by simple random sampling. This would be achieved by writing out the names of the staff in piece of paper which will be folded and put in a basket. After thorough reshuffling, an element will be selected, recorded and be put back in the basket until the required number is obtained.
4.0 ANALYSES AND DATA PRESENTATION
4.1. Analyses And Data Presentation
This chapter presents and analyses the data collected for Suleja which is the study area. In the course of this study, Three hundred and twenty one (321) questionnaires were administered to respondents in different locations in Suluja. These constituted the representative samples of Suleja. Therefore,Three hundred and twenty one (321) questionnaires.
4.2. Demographic Information of Respondents
Assess to the demographic information of respondents of Suleja for this analysis is important; as crime and violence are factor that maybe determine by Gender, Age, Marital status, Educational level and occupation are used to determine it.
Figure 4.1: gender of respondent
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
From the result of the finding in figure 4.1 above, the researcher discovered that majority of the respondents were male (74%). This implies that the male respondent are usually open to respond to the question and most respondent feels that the male are more involved in committing criminal acts than the females. The perception of the females when approached is that most activities of crime are perpetuated by the male and which are mostly young people.
Figure 4.2: age of respondent
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
From the findings in figure 4.2, the researcher found out that majority of the respondents were between the age of 26-35(55.1%) which illustrates that in the age grouping the age within 26-35 from the findings has the highest responses, which involves both the male and the females in the grouping, out of which this age groups happens to be the majority of age groups that are involved in criminal acts. The researcher further discovered that the age group which falls within the age of 55 and above are mostly not concerned about committing crime and are considered to be more responsible than of the age of 25-36.
Figure 4.3: marital status of respondent
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
The result finding illustrated in figure 4.3 above disclose that the majority of the respondents were single (51.1%), this shows that most of the response obtained from the survey were from individual that are single, which also implies that the majority of the inhabitant that are not married are likely to be involved in criminal act or can in one way or the other be involved in criminal activities.
Figure 4.4: Educational qualification of respondent
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
The field survey result in figure 4.4 revealed that majority of the respondents are literate and that they have attained educational level of OND/NCE (38.9%). From the discovery it can be deduced that the information obtained were from a group people who understood practically the purpose of the research.
Figure 4.5: perception of respondent’s safety
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
The findings in figure 4.5 above illustrate the perception of respondent’s safety. The researcher sought to find out how safe the respondents in the study area are, the reason for this is to be able to know the extents of fear and habitable that particular environment is, to enable the researcher obtain the information needed for the research. From the findings, it was observed that majority of the respondents feel unsafe (60%), this implies that the area mostly encounter one form of crime or the other, which will always pose threat to the residence of that location at certain period. Furthermore, it can be concluded that most of the residence are usually concerned about their wellbeing and activities in the area.
Figure 4.6: respondents involved in crime
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
Study finding revealed that majority of the respondent are a victim of crime in their area. From the findings, (74%) of the respondents have been a victim of one crime or the other. closely followed by (25%) who have not been a victim of crime. From further finding, it was observed that the groups of people who have not been a victim of crime are mostly those who either have not lived there for long or people who live in areas with high security.
Figure 4.7: Type of crime respondents were victim of
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
From the result finding, the researcher was able to figure out the prevailing types of crime that the resident of the area were victims of. During the cause of the research, it was discovered that the majority of the resident usually fall into property crime (32%), this implies that property crime has been the major type of crime that they encounter on a steady basis.
4.4 The types of crime recorded
Figure 4.8: Type of crime recorded
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
From the result findings, the researcher was able to identify from the responses the type of crime recorded. Figure 4.9 shows that (45%) majority of the crime recorded are violent/thefts, closely followed by (31%) of property crime. This implies that the most commonly recorded crime is the violent/thefts.
4.5 Existing Indigenous Knowledge and Practices Used In Combating Crime In Suleja
Further finding has enabled the researcher to identify the various indigenous knowledge and practices used by the people. It was discovered that most of the people adopt their own practices according to the kind of crime that they encounter. Some of the people usually believe that the police is a waste of time when it comes to criminal cases because the police are also using that as a medium to extort from them and yet the same cases will not seize to happen.
Figure 4.9: Type of indigenous practices employed by the people
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
From the result finding, the researcher was able to deduce from the response of the respondent that the use of vigilante is one of the most common practices employed by the people. According to one of the respondent(35%,) in one on one conversation with him added that reason been that most of the vigilante usually add spiritual powers that enable them to fore see any type of criminal activities most especially at night, since they do not have sophisticated weapons to be able to carry out their operations. Further research was also able to identify practices such as the use of police(31%) especially in core areas of the cities such as the Suleja market and other part. Another practice is the use dogs, which most of the respondents also agree that the use of dogs(28%), is very important being that the dogs helps to chases the criminal away and also create awareness that something is wrong so they always stay alert in cases of anything negative.
Figure 4.10 use of local vigilante
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
From the research findings, (34%) of the respondents strongly agree that the use of vigilante group for prevention of crime is mostly used by the people. Meanwhile in some other part of the town, another (34%) agree that the vigilante are not always available in their area following this through the researcher found out that the major reason for this that the number of vigilante groups available are very few so they tend to operate in area that more prone to crime than the other parts, closely followed by (21%) whom disagree with the fact that the vigilante are commonly seen in their area.
Figure 4.11: use of dogs
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
From the research finding, majority (42%) of the respondents adopt the use of dogs for combating crime in their areas. This is closely followed by (29%) that who strongly agree with the fact that majorities of the area adopt the use of dogs for combating crime. The researcher went further to discover that in some areas, you can barely move at night if you are a stranger in the area because of the amount of dogs that are usually parading in the area. From this findings, it can be concluded that the use of dogs is one of the most common practices employed by the people for combating crime other than any other practice in Suleja.
Figure 4.12: police availability
Source: Field Survey, August 2018.
From the research findings, (32%) of the respondents strongly agree that the police are usually available in their areas, especially the market area, the Suleja club, and Madala junction. This is because of the high rate of crime occurrences in the area. This was also followed by (31%) who also agree that the police are available in their area especially at night patrol which also helps to ensure that criminal activities are in minimal.
4.6 Effectiveness of indigenous knowledge and practices used in combating crime in Suleja
Table 4.1 Effectiveness of use of dogs
Agree 98 30.5(%)
Disagree 102 31.8(%)
Strongly agree 69 21.5(%)
Strongly disagree 43 13.4(%)
Undecided 9 2.8(%)
Total 321 100(%)
Source: Field Survey, August 2018
From the research finding in the table above, it shows that (31%) of the respondents disagree that the use of dogs for crime prevention is effective. Followed by (30%), who agree that the use of dogs is effective. This implies that majority of the respondent are of the opinion that the use of dogs is not effective but it can be effective for some part of the areas. According to one of the respondent UBA junction when asked said that in some part of the areas, some people adopts the use of dogs not because it is the most effective but because when crime is going on in the area, the residents of the area are easily aware of what is happening because of the reaction of the dogs to the criminals.
Table 4.2 Effectiveness of the use of vigilante
Agree 132 41.1(%)
Disagree 55 17.1(%)
Strongly agree 105 32.7(%)
Strongly disagree 21 6.5(%)
Undecided 7 2.2(%)
Total 321 100(%)
Source: Field Survey, August 2018
Study findings show that (41%) of the respondents agree that the use of vigilante is effective. From the findings, it can be noted that the vigilante groups in the area have always delivered in their duties to ensure crime prevention in the area. It was observed that the vigilante in previous years has become more effective in some areas more than the police. Further research was able to show that the vigilantes are mostly seen at night in the streets more than the police and other security agencies. The researcher further found out that (32%), of the respondents strongly agrees that the use of vigilante is effective. It can be concluded that from the result findings that the use of vigilante is effective.
Table 4.3 Effectiveness of the use police
Agree 98 30%.5
Disagree 102 31.8%
Strongly agree 69 21.5%
Strongly disagree 43 13.4%
Undecided 9 2.8%
Total 321 100%
Source: Field Survey, August 2018
From the study, a majority of (31%) disagree with the effectiveness of the police. The researcher further found out that the reason been that instead of the police to carry out their duties, they tend to use the advantage to embarrass people and accuse them of one crime or the other without proper investigations. Another group of (30%) agrees that the police is effective, they believed that in cases such as robbery, they have tried in their duty to ensure safety to the people. This also was closely followed by a group of (21%) who strongly agrees that the police is effective in their duties to prevent crime. This implies that majority of the respondents believes that thee police is effective in crime prevention.
Table 4.4 Effectiveness of use of burglary
Effective 139 43.3%
Ineffective 63 19.6%
Partially effective 12 3.7%
Very effective 93 29.0%
Very ineffective 14 4.4%
Total 321 100%
Source: Field Survey, August 2018
From the finding, it was observed that a majority of (43.3%) of the respondents believes that the use of burglary is effective. This was closely followed by (29.0%) a group who strongly believes that the use of burglary is Very effective. The researcher observed that most of the traders especially in the market area adopt these practices because of the high rate of stealing the those area. It can therefore be concluded that the majority believes that the use of burglary is not just effective, but also very effective.
Table 4.5 Effectiveness of indigenous knowledge and practices
Effectiveness of Indigenous knowledge and practices
Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Mean Scale
1 2 3 4 5
Use of police 89 204 27 172 345 2.64 Strongly Agree
Use of dogs 139 126 27 74 465 2.59 Strongly Agree
Use of vigilante 132 110 21 84 525 2.7 Strongly Agree
Use of burglary 146 126 18 40 450 2.46 Strongly Agree
use of local authority 83 152 21 116 630 3.12 Strongly Agree
use of local barricade 146 128 33 348 65 2.24 Undecided
Average Mean 3.12 Strongly Agree
Source: Field Survey, August 2018
Table 4.6 shows that most of the respondent in the study area strongly agree with the effectiveness of local authority in the area with a mean of 3.12, but this perception is not applicable to all areas as it varies from one location to another in the study area. In the cause of this research it was observed that most of the commercial areas uses the local authority more than the residential areas, the residential areas uses more of the vigilante especially areas that are dominated by populations of the youth in that location and then assisted by the police.
Table 4.6 Perception of the most common indigenous knowledge and practices
most common Indigenous knowledge and practices
Agree Disagree Undecided Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Mean Scale
1 2 3 4 5
Use of police 83 144 35 116 378 2.26 Strongly Agree
Use of dogs 111 14 30 84 336 1.79 Strongly Agree
Use of vigilante 101 168 25 108 312 2.27 Strongly Agree
Use of burglary 137 142 55 48 270 2.03 Strongly Agree
use of local authority 146 136 30 40 270 1.94 Strongly Agree
use of local barricade 146 128 55 52 261 2.0 Strongly Agree
Average Mean 2.27 Strongly Agree
Source: Field Survey, August 2018
From the finding shown in table 4.7 above, It was observed that the most common indigenous knowledge and practices in the study area is the use of vigilante. From the research it observed that the use of vigilante is more applicable in the residential area. Most of the respondent in the area attest to the fact that in the residential area it easy to recognize the vigilante when they are on duty and that give the resident of the area more confidence in their job. But in commercial area they tend to steal peoples properties because of the absence of the owners of the properties, so most of the time the police and the local authority are assigned to operate in the commercial areas for the reason of securing the properties in the commercial areas.
Table 4.7 Types of offence and frequency
S/N Offences frequency
1 House breaking 121
2 Aberration 21
3 Grievous wound 76
4 Receiving stolen 122
5 Escape from custody 55
6 Child stealing 12
7 Murder Attempted 7
8 Preach of peace 89
9 Theft/stealing 213
10 Computer scam 21
11 Armed robbery 79
12 Receiving stolen goods 95
13 Bribery and Perjury 41
14 Possession of unlawful arm 16
15 Demand with menace 6
16 Theft and mischief 121
17 Joint act (violence) 238
18 Cheating 112
Source: Court report, August 2018
From the finding, the researcher investigated the various offences committed in the study areas as recorded by the cases that have being dealt with in the court. From the report it was observed that about eighteen offences were identified in the report. The report also show that joint act /violence has being on a high side with about 238 in the previous years. This was closely followed by Theft/stealing with about 213.
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
This chapter discusses emerging issues from the findings obtained through interviews and analysis as presented in the previous pages. The study aimed at assessing the indigenous knowledge and practices in urban crime incidence in Suleja. The research was guided by the following research objectives; examine the types of crime occurrence recorded and its frequency; identify the existing indigenous knowledge and practices used in combating crime in the area; assess the effectiveness of indigenous knowledge used in curbing crime and make proposal for encouraging indigenous knowledge practices. The research adopted a descriptive survey design.
Questionnaire tools were used to obtain information from inhabitants and interview guide were used to interview key informants. The study sample population consisted of 321 inhabitants and 3 key informants. Therefore, 321 questionnaires were issued and 335 were returned while 2 interviews were conducted. Hence, the study recorded an instrument return rate of 96%. Data collected were and analyzed quantitatively. In the cause of the findings, the researcher looked at the demographic data of the inhabitants of suleja for this analysis is important; as crime and violence are factors that may be determined by Gender, Age, Marital status,
Educational level and occupation are used to measure it. The field survey findings from figure 4.1 shows that (74%) out of which the large proportion were male meanwhile (26%) were females. majority of the respondents were between the age of 26-35(55.1%) which was shown in Figure 4.2. figure 4.3 shows the marital status of the respondent of which (51.1%), married and (38%) were married. Educational qualification of the respondent as presented in figure 4.4 shows that (38.9%) are OND/NCE holders, (33%) were SSCE holder and (23%) B.sc/HND holders. This implies that many respondents are literate and it is expected that this sets of people are conscious of their environment. The result also shows that majority of the respondent feel unsave in their areas as shown in Figure 4.5. from the findings it was shown in figure 4.6 that the major types of crime encountered by the respondent is violent and theft as state by the respondents and (74%) of the respondent are a victim of crime as shown in figure 4.7. from figure 4.8 it shows that (32%) of the respondent were a victim of property crime.
The first objective, being to examine the types of crime occurrence recorded and its frequency. From figure 4.9 the type of crime recorded was seen to be violence/thefts with (45%) closely followed by (31%) property crime.
The second objective being to identify the existing indigenous knowledge and practices used in combating crime in suleja, and this was achieved by asking respondents what type of indigenous practices employed in the area, of which majority (38%) of the respondent agree that the use vigilante is the most commonly used, as shown in figure 4.10. the findings also looked at asking if the vigilante is mostly common in the area, which a majority of (34%) agrees that the vigilante is mostly common as shown in figure 4.11. Figure 4.12 shows that majority (42%) of the respondents adopt the use of dogs for combating crime in their areas. The findings also revealed that (32%) of the respondents agrees that the police are usually available in their area, this is shown in figure 4.13.
The third objective looked at the effectiveness of indigenous knowledge and practices used in combating crime in Suleja. From the findings it shows that (31%) of the respondents disagree that the use of dogs for crime prevention is effective as shown in table 4.1. Study findings show that in table 4.2 (41%) of the respondents agree that the use of vigilante is effective. From the study, a majority of (31%) disagree with the effectiveness of the police. Which was closely followed by group of (30%) agrees that the police are effective, as shown in table 4.3. From table 4.4 it was observed that a majority of (43.3%) of the respondents believes that the use of burglary is effective. This was closely followed by (29.0%) a group who strongly believes that the use of burglary is Very effective. Table 4.6 shows that most of the respondent in the study area strongly agree with the effectiveness of local authority in the area with a mean of 3.12, but this perception is not applicable to all areas as it varies from one location to another in the study area. In the cause of this research it was observed that most of the commercial areas uses the local authority more than the residential areas, the residential areas uses more of the vigilante especially areas that are dominated by populations of the youth in that location and then assisted by the police and this was seen in table 4.5. Table 4.6 shows Perception of the most common indigenous knowledge and practices. It was observed that the most common indigenous knowledge and practices in the study area is the use of vigilante with a mean of 2.27 averages. From the research it observed that the use of vigilante is more applicable in the residential area. Most of the respondent in the area attest to the fact that in the residential area it easy to recognize the vigilante when they are on duty and that give the resident of the area more confidence in their job.
Based on the finding of this research, indigenous knowledge is significant not only that it can provide effective alternatives to Western know-how but can also give extra options to indigenous people when finding solution to the problems of insecurity and crime prevention in their various communities. From the research findings, it is very apparent that much can be learned from the indigenous knowledge practices of local or indigenous people. All the government institutions, policy makers and planers should pay greater attention to this priceless fortune of knowledge that is threatened by extinction in the urban area. If we continue to move towards technology development and forget the use of traditional practices to conventional transfer of technology approach, we all may have to learn many things from our indigenous experts, the gurus of indigenous knowledge. The research has demonstrated the effectiveness of indigenous knowledge and practices and the various practices adopted and how they have helped the people in the past.
The frequency of crime wave and its intensity has been on increasing not only in remote areas but also in urban areas as well Therefore, critical needs for safety and security through different means in order to make urban areas environmentally livable. The spread of crime in urban areas are becoming a prime incident and a proper consideration by all stakeholders such as; the government, the security personnel and the communities? participation in crime reduction is appropriately necessary. Therefore it is recommended that;
• Various institutions, policy makers, planers should pay greater attention to this priceless fortune of knowledge that is threatened by extinction in the urban area.
• Since the police cannot fight crime alone, it is important that policy makers, institutions and planers should develop programes that will educate the people on a better was of effective and applicable use of indigenous knowledge and practices in their various areas.
• Security agencies should harmonize their operations to form a strong bond with other local security such as the vigilante and as well as the members of the communities whereby information are effectively shared and utilized for efficient security service delivery.
• Since indigenous knowledge is easy to understand and has been effective over the years, it is recommended that this knowledge should be encouraged and promoted so as to effectively assist in combating crime.