THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACK GROUND
Rice is the most important staple food of the world’s population in daily life, especially in Asian Countries. It is the main rice by rice mill made after machining and processing of various processes of the finished product. According to Food and Agriculture Organization, 2004 the preparation of milled rice for consumption, the transformation of milled rice to other products, and the utilization of broken rice, rice bran, rice hulls and husks, and rice straw provided additional employment opportunities for a large number of people. The plant has many different variations, but is generally a short living plant, with an average life span of 3-7 months, depending on the climate and the variety according to Rice Association. It is not a water plant but substantial amounts of water are required for the planting. Cultivated species of rice are considered to be semi-aquatic annuals. The height of the plant can range from 0.4m to over 5m in some floating rice’s (International Rice Research Institute). When rice is harvested it is called “Paddy”. A paddy is a complete seed of rice and one grain of paddy contains one rice kernel. Each paddy has many layers; the outermost layer is the husk. According to Rice Association husk consists of 2 interlocked half shells. Each protects one half of the paddy. The husk is composed of silica and cellulose. The next layers are bran layers. Each layer is a very thin film of bran. Bran is mainly composed of fiber, Vitamin B complexes, protein and fat, it is the most nutritious part. At the base of each grain is an embryo, which will grow into a new plant if planted. The inner part of the grain is the rice kernel, which is composed of mainly starch. Rice starch is composed of mainly 2 types of starches, amylose and amylopectin. The exact mixture of these determines the cooking texture of the rice (Rice Association).
Rice by-products, such as rice straw, rice bran, rice germ, and broken rice, are extensively abundant agricultural wastes from rice industry, and the percentage of their production depends on the milling rate and type of rice. Among all rice by-products, rice bran has been extensively studied. Most of the rice by-products, including rice husk and rice bran, are used as animal feeds (IRRI). Brewer’s rice, which is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran and rice germ, is also used almost exclusively in the production of beer.
The strategy of the International Year of Rice is simple yet ambitious. By promoting the establishment of National Committees for Rice Development, the Year will act as a catalyst for country-driven programmes throughout the world (Mr. Jacques Diouf, 2004). The aim of this is to engage the entire community of stakeholders, from rural farmers to the scientific institutions that mapped the rice genome, in the mission to increase rice production and promote the rice by-products in a manner that promotes sustainability and equity.
This review of Mr. Diouf was performed with the objective of enhancing the understanding of some of the relevant literature on rice production, the milling process and rice by-products, as well as the benefits associated with these by-products. “Possible properties in rice by-products that might have positive health effects were discussed, including compounds to improve the lipid profile and blood glucose level and to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells” he said.
“The institutional environment for rice production has undergone major changes since the Green Revolution”(Food and Agricultural Organization). Thirty years ago, the public sector dominated agricultural development. Today, the private and non-governmental sector plays a much greater role. This change is partially due to the fact that new developments, such as bio-technology, have created new challenges and issues within agricultural production systems. These challenges include disputes over the ownership of rice milling and agricultural technologies, especially genetic resources, the need to meet agreed-upon biosafety standards, and the need to promote education and awareness as to the environmental and human safety of the aforementioned developments. “Rice is not only a key source of food, it is also a major employer and source of income for the poor” (FAO). Rice-based production activities provide employment for several hundred million people who work either directly in rice production or in related support services. With the harvest of the rice crop, activities shift to post-production operations: harvesting, threshing, drying, milling, storage and trade of rice provide employment for millions more people.Sustainable rice-based production is the key to the improvement of the livelihood not only of small rice farmers in developing and rice-producing countries, but of poor families in urban centres in many countries worldwide.
In the Philippines, rice remains as the agricultural commodity with foremost political and economic significance. Philippines were acclaimed as one of the countries that have recorded as the fastest gains in rice production with 2.8% increase from 2010 to 2015(Department of Agriculture). Before, the rice by-products was considered as waste of rice mill industry and one of the consequences of industrial food production activities is the generation of high volumes of waste, whose disposal can be problematic, since it occupies large spaces, and when poorly managed can pose environmental and health risks for the population. According to Philippine Rice Research Institute that rice industry is an important activity and generates large quantities of waste. The main solid wastes generated in the rice production cycle include straw, husk, ash, bran and broken rice. As such, the aim of this article is to present a review of this cycle, the waste generated and the identification of opportunities to use them. Owing to impacts that can be minimized with the application of rice husk ash as a by-product, this work is focused on the recycling of the main wastes. “In order to achieve that, we performed theoretical research about the rice production cycle and its wastes” (PRRI, 2015). The findings point to the existence of an environmentally suitable use for all wastes from the rice production cycle. As rice, bran and broken rice have their main use in the food industry; the other wastes are highly studied in order to find solutions instead of landfilling. Straw can be used for burning or animal feeding. The husk can be used for poultry farming, composting or burning. In the case of burning, it has been used as biomass to power reactors to generate thermal or electrical energy. This process generates rice husk ash, which shows potential to be used as a by-product in many different applications, but not yet consolidated.
The province of Nueva Ecijais known interms of high technology that was used to produce high quality of rice and rice by-products. One of the top producers of rice here in the Philippines was Nueva Ecija which also known as the “Rice Granary of the Philippines”. According to Philippine Statistics Authorityin Nueva Ecija alone, the region supposed the leading palayproducer;farmlands were registered at 196,390 hectares in 1991 but are now 223,853 hectares. The province was there to be one of the distributors of palay which is going to be processed in other location, either province or region. Nueva Ecija is now using a modern and the newest technology, they have been applied the system and processing of rice mills in other country to become innovative.
In the case of Bulacan, the Municipality of Pulilan has the problem as the focus of the study, because of the problem of the rice milling industry in the whole municipality. Almost of the Rice Millers in Pulilan is using an old type of machine to milled rice and produced only limited rice by-products. There were eight (8) registered rice mills in Pulilan and yet only two (2) of them are modernized and using a High Technology for milling and utilizing industrial innovation practices.Out of eight (8) Rice Mills in Pulilan, only two are using a modern rice machine that can produce quality rice by-products after milling, it was owned by Mrs. Emma C. Bajet located in Brgy. Cut-cot, Pulilan, Bulacanand the other one was owned by the Municipality of Pulilan located at the Brgy. San Francisco, Pulilan, Bulacan and yet it still none operating. The rest of the Rice Millers in Pulilan was producing only Ipa, Darak, and Binlid because of an old type of machine that they are using, some of them are doing only over holing the machine to maintain the capability of these to work and to manufacturepalay. Thus, this study attempts to assess the rice millers in Pulilan, Bulacan who is utilizing industrial innovation practices in producing quality rice by-products.
Statement of the Problem
The General Problem of this study is how may the quality of Rice By-products from rice milling in Pulilan, Bulacan be achieved through industrial technology integration to contribute with SDG 9?
Specifically, it seeks answers to the following questions:
1. What by-products are produced from the chosen Pulilan rice mill producers?
2. How may the following factors be described in producing quality rice by-products:
2.3 Innovation, and
3. What industrial technology innovation practices may be proposed to further enhance the production of quality rice by-products of rice millers in Pulilan, Bulacan?
Significance of the Study
This study is beneficial to the following:
Municipality. The study will provide new information for the Municipality of Pulilan, Bulacan about new ideas and methods of rice mills who produce quality rice by-products.
Local Government. The study will give new ideas to create new projects for the local government, especially in the industry that can produce by-products. They can use this study as one of the related studies with other industry who promotes quality by-products.
Market Industry. This study may help the market to develop by means of promoting and selling quality rice by-products from rice mills.
Rice Millers. The study will help the millers to learn and know the benefits of quality rice by-products, and to have new ideas and methods about milling.
Department of Trade Industry (DTI). This study will not only sustain the economic growth, but it will also make a difference in terms of exporting and importing statistics, and further advance the economic growth.
Department of Science and Technology (DOST). This study will help formulate policies and projects in the fields of science and technology to support the national development by developing our technologies that will be used in Rice Milling Industry.
Department of Agriculture (DA). The study will help the department to promote the agricultural and fisheries development and growth, because Philippines is known on its Agricultural Industry.
Future Researchers. This study will help the future researchers to gain new knowledge and learn the importance of quality rice by-products of rice milling, this study can also use as a reference of the future researchers in their related studies.
Scope and Delimitation of the study
This study will focus in all registered Rice Mills in Pulilan, Bulacan specifically those who utilized industrial innovation practices in producing quality rice by-products with the help of the new technology. The span of this study started on August 2017 and will end on June 2018.
This study attempts to assesed the total population of rice millers in Pulilan, Bulacan their methods and strategies, facilities and practices, forms of innovation, problems and proposed solutions to problems.