Chapter desires, interests, choice and attitude to fashion

Chapter I
Shopping orientation is necessary for an individual to choose different styles that will fit an individual’s desires, interests, choice and attitude toward his/her fashion preference. In the world of marketing, these desires, interests, choice and attitude to fashion preference are good opportunities to identify specific needs of customers that give way to the creation of products to fulfill the clients and build strong customer relationships. Retailing involves activities in selling consumer goods to ultimate consumers for personal or household utilization. Interaction, merchandise, selection of products, branding, signages, in-store marketing, music, store smells and other elements affect the shopping preference and retail experience of an individual (Purushothaman and Baiju.J.J, 2017). These store elements and attributes bring basis for customers to be satisfied and be interested in shopping and buying their wants and needs.
According to recent statistics from Euromonitor International, in 2012, market demand on the Philippines clothing market was approximately 7.1 billion U.S. dollars. Statistics also showed that in 2017, the market demand on the clothing market rises up around 11.9 billion U.S. dollars. This denotes that more market opportunities for clothing demand unbolt as year passes by.

Store attribute has a big impact on the consumer purchasing behavior, basically with their satisfaction and expectation. The impact of a store depends on its elements and atmosphere, like good image of the store and pleasant and interesting shopping environment which includes the decors and layout, to increase the customer satisfaction and meet their expectation. This was proven by a study on the effects of store attributes on retail patronage behaviors by Hyo Jung Chang, Hyeon Jeong Cho, Thomas Turner, Megha Gupta and KittichaiWatchravesringkan (2014). This simply explains that a store must satisfy the interest and expectation to be able to gain higher customer satisfaction.

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There is no question that online shopping is heaven-sent to shopaholics, but in a lot of cases, customers still long for that physical shopping experience. This is why Zaril Lifestyle Store, thanks to its unique concept, was named as one of the 25 Exciting New Stores in Manila in 2015 by Zaril Lifestyle Store in Lipa City had its grand opening last June 2016.

The researchers believe that this research study on customer expectation of store attribute will help identify Zaril Lifestyle Store’s weak points to improve and strong points to keep developing and upgrading the services and products it offers and the store attribute itself by identifying the perception and expectation of its customers.
Review of Related Literature
Demographic Profile
In the study of Gavanzo, Singh and Villarosa (2017), they mentioned that personal characteristics of the respondents play an important role in research, for it has an important function to state and provide a solution regarding the problem. The most used demographic question is the age, which is one of the most essential qualities in collecting the views regarding a certain problem. Age is somehow related to the way an individual possesses maturity; age becomes important in studying the response. For some instances, a respondent, aged 20 years old, may react and respond differently from that of a respondent aged 45 years old whereas, a gender could give bigger share of significance on the business’s target market for it to adjust their strategies and campaigns to appeal to the male or female section.

According to Holmlund (2011), the personal expenditure on clothing sized 34 to 44 (XS and XL) ranges from 500 to 7000 Euros. Mostly of the studied women purchased clothes six to eight times every year. Shopping clothing is perceived as positive and interesting, especially for women. She even added that for a clothing to be in good quality it must perfectly fit and must be comfortable to wear. Various women seek for styles that are linked with youthfulness; attractiveness, success, fashionable, but in ways that are attuned to their body size and to the social and cultural perspective of these. Clothes are basis for age ordering: the systematic patterning of cultural expression in accordance to age. Firm variety of clothing are deemed appropriate – or more significantly inappropriate – for people as they grow old and age (Twigg, 2012).

Bakshi et al (2012) suggests that females are more independent in shopping than that of men. Another differentiation of men and women on purchasing behavior is women consider shopping as a social desire whereas male consumers focus more on the main function of the product instead of secondary function. Workman and Cho (2012) advocate that convenience, impulsiveness, search for bargains and brand name consciousness are the basis of today’s young male consumers in apparel shopping.
Guha (2013) implied that involvement of working women in purchasing activities is higher than that of non-working married women’s purchasing habit. They are likely price conscious weigh against those women who are not wage earners. It has also been proved that working women are committed on store loyalty than non-working married women. He even added that women segment is an important basis for market segmentation due to their purchasing habit.

Handa and Khare (2013) stated that the moderating influence of sex has something to do with the connection linking acquisitiveness and participation with fashion clothing. Young men and women have involvement difference with fashion clothing and even more considering their partaking in obtaining fashion clothing, whereas women have higher level of taking part in both cases.

Regarding the perspective on gender, a rationality of ability and identification for fashion enthusiasts, brands are professed essentially in different perspectives in the information that can be made useful in the course of market segmentation for analysis can be done in philosophical way to identify the differences in purchasing behavior on clothing (Khanna, 2012).

Gunter and Furnham (2014) suggested that few financial expenses are predictable on young singles who tend to be buyers of new fashion items. They are oriented in a recreation environment and make purchase of basic needs. On the other hand, young married couples have a propensity of being heavy purchasers of the self needs and family needs as well. Their material goods and liquid assets have a tendency to be relatively low, and be apt to have a disposable income; more time for leisure, self-education and travel, and more than a member in the work force than the full time counterparts with younger children in other stages of the family cycle.

In 2012, A. Joy, J. Sherry, Ventakesh, J. Wang and R. Chan once argued that low-cost clothing collection satisfies young consumers’ desires who have disposable salary due to their ability to generate income. HC Chen and RD Green (2011) mentioned in their study that purchasers, who have low income, highly identify advertising spending than the group of purchasers with high income and high salary shoppers had significantly higher store image awareness than the segment of low income receivers. Consumers with high level of income positively impinge on impulse purchase (W.S. Tinne, 2011).

Customer Perception
Market research is not just an important determinant to fully understand the desires and wants of the customers in identifying their perceptions of the services it offers, but also for improving the competitiveness in the market (J.H. Lee, M. Sagas and Y.J. Ko, 2011).

From the study conducted by Tang, Yang, Chin, Wong ang Liu (2011), products may depart from the perspective of the company expectation when customer perception occurs. This means that customer perception has a big impact in changing how a company expects the effectiveness of the product it offers. Bose and Gupta (2013) et al affirmed that the desired perception of consumer about a brand is important in determining the positioning strategy of a product. Brand image should be related and aligned with brand identity in order to find the effectiveness of the positioning strategy. Illuminating customer perception of service experiences has been always considered to be an important key to the success of service organizations (J.H. Lee, 2011).

Nevertheless, Chen and Hsieh (2011) point out that complete knowledge is being involved in buying process wherein a meticulous environmental factor can hardly be distinguished from the overall environment which gives an impact on consumer perceptions and their buying habits independently. Another study from Omar, Sultan, Zaman and Bibi (2011) empirically proves that an organization should see the customer perception to enthusiastically find out consumers’ preferences for triumphant feedback. The study from Hassan (2014) says that an organization should know how the customers perceive a product to have the information if these purchasers want to settle in the market which will formulate and develop a competitive edge in the market.

Customer perception will help an organization to discover the degree of familiarity of the product in terms of product value perception and how it affects their purchasing process (Silvestrelli, 2017). The study from Blázquez (2014) gathered customer perception data to elaborate her study regarding the consumers’ perspective which made her prove that fashion retailers must propose innovative strategies to connect with their market audience and give them relevant propositions.

Kim and Ko (2012) et al determines that measuring customers’ contributions to a brand is important in defining the purchase intention, whereas customer equity is said to be a behavioral variable that affects the actual purchasing record.

Customer Expectation
In order to lessen and avoid big gaps between customer expectation and their perception, retailers must improve their strategies in giving services to the customers by planning and promoting service standards that uphold customer reliability, consistency in delivering their service and not promising more than what they can give (Phiri and Mcwabe, 2013).
Kamaruddin (2012) mentioned in his study that customer expectation has an effect on customer satisfaction which brings the result of customer loyalty for a customer to repurchase in the future and distress their buying behavior. Customer expectations are pretrial convictions of a product that give basis for standards or references to which product is judged and preferred (Li, 2011). Angelova and Zekiri (2011) added that gathering and knowing the fulfillment of customer expectations will bring the result of customer satisfaction felt in experiencing the company’s performance. A lot of researchers and academicians underscore the essence of knowing the level of customer satisfaction for a company to gain profitability. D.J. Kim (2012) empirically finds the positive pressure and significant relationship of consumer’s trust and expectation on their satisfaction. Post-expectation beliefs, like satisfaction and perceived usefulness, are important foreteller of repurchase decisions and intentions. Emotional reactions will be noticeable when consumer’s expectation of valuable product and service goals or outcomes lasts (N. Scott, 2013).
Companies and organizations must be eager to offer innovative products and services to meet the customer expectations (S. Liu, D. Kasturiratneand J. Moizer, 2012). Kuo, Chang and Cheng (2013) et al proved in their study that service failure becomes an issue when an organization is not capable of meeting the customer expectation. Komunda and Osarenkhoe (2012) also made a clear point that customer expectation is the basis for customer satisfaction. These factors positively impact the strategies of an organization to recover its services and products for better purchase experience. To test the effectiveness of the product, Choi (2014) based the satisfaction from the perspective of expectation of the consumers towards the service. He also cited that these are the important components in proposing a remedy and cure for service recovery.
Store Attribute
Retail store attribute is an important determinant in stressing the customer expectation and satisfaction. Effective implementation of store attribute gives an organization an addition to the customer loyalty and positive repurchase behavior of consumers (Bennur and Jin, 2012). G. Mohan and B. Sivakumaran (2013) proved that investment in the various elements of store environment is required to immediately gain impulse buyers for profitable customer purchase. Store image affects the store choice and loyalty of a customer due to their perception about the store, not just with how an employee treats them, but also the tangible characteristics of the store itself like the layout and the intangible characteristics such as the environment and ambiance of the store (Verma and Madan, 2011).

Lee, Mun and Johnson (2013) confirmed that experiencing recreational dimensions makes customers enjoy their shopping experience, thus, an organization must create store image and atmosphere that enables the customers to shop and pick their finds comfortably. Consumer’s choice of store is associated on how he/she perceives a store and how this customer is being affected by the store environment and component (Al-Kaidah and AL Qurashi, 2011). Improvement dimension in store attributes is included in the gauge to provoke the shopping enjoyment; shopping stores should be offering other values that would be able to attract more shoppers (Y.T. Wong, 2012). An organization must prioritize the store personnel interaction and store atmosphere; these are the greatest factors to consider in gaining customer satisfaction according to the study from Chang, Cho, Turner, Watchravesringkan and Gupta (2014). Chan and Tan (2016) assumed that the retailer’s control on characteristic of a store (e.g., lighting, color, design layout, background music, appearance, etc.) should be given a great emphasis to have an impact on the consumer’s emotions.

Lifestyle of the target market must be considered for the organization to identify the suitable store image and attribute that will fit the consumer’s buying needs and behavior. It was also mentioned that considering the lifestyle and store attributes brings loyalty from the customers (Samani, Hashim, Golbaz and Khani, 2011). Retailers shall decide their greatest pick in choosing the perfect mix of the product and store attributes that will fit the buying behavior of consumers regarding their lifestyle and their growing consciousness as shoppers (Shukla, Vyas and Pandya, 2015).

Conceptual Framework

Demographic Profile of the RespondentsPerception and Expectation in Zaril in terms of:terms of:
– Age- Service Quality
– Sex- Store Attributes
– Status
– Occupational Status
– Monthly Income
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework
Figure 1 demonstrates the framework of the study. It represents the independent (demographic profile) and dependent variable (purchasing experience with Zaril regarding its store attributes). The researchers first formulate the questions to determine the demographic profile in terms of age, sex, status, and occupational status, and the customer expectation on Zaril Lifestyle Store for basis on continuous improvement. The target respondents would be people who shop on Zaril Lifestyle Store for the data gathering. Computation and data analysis will take place to know the significant difference between perception and expectation when grouped according to profile variable and to determine the relationship between the socio-demographic profile and store attribute.

Objectives of the Study
The study aims to determine the customer expectation and insight on store attributes of Zaril Lifestyle Store. More specifically, this study aspires:
1. To identify the socio demographic profile of the respondents based on their
Occupational Status
Monthly Income
2. To determine the level of perception and expectation of customer purchase
3. To determine the significant difference between perception and expectation when grouped according to profile variable
4. To determine the relationship between store attribute and socio-demographic profile
Chapter II
This chapter shows the methods and techniques that are necessary for the achievement of the objectives of the study. It is composed of eight major components: Research Design, Research Locale, Respondents of the Study, Research Instrument, Sampling Method, Data Gathering Procedure, Ethical Consideration, and Data Analysis.

Research Design
Quantitative method is used to quantify the study problem by creating data that can be tallied by using statistics. It is used to measure attitudes, behaviours, and other variables in knowing the result of the survey to uncover facts that can lead to the improvement of the store.

Quantitative research is a method used to elaborate phenomena based on numerical data analyzed through mathematical methods, especially statistics (Yilmaz, 2013).

Research Locale

Figure 2. Zaril Lifestyle Store
This study will be conducted in Zaril Lifestyle Store located at J.P. Laurel Highway, Lipa, Batangas 4217. The location was chosen because of the target respondents of the study are the people receiving the services and products of Zaril Lifestyle Store.

Zaril Lifestyle Store’s unique concept is to put up a “department store” that serves as the physical store for some of the best online shops in the country. The intelligent fashion sense of the Lipeños is the factor that the company considered in establishing their first provincial branch in the Philippines. Customers who seek for high quality fashionable goods of low cost are the target market of the Zaril Lifestyle Store.

Respondents of the Study
A total of 96 individuals who are availing and shopping at Zaril Lifestyle Store will be the respondents of the study. This is limited to purchasers who are of legal age, mainly from 18 years old and above. ( Ask your statistician how she computed the number of respondents, and how many G-power)
Attached the result of G-power computation
Sampling Method
Convenience sampling is the technique applied in order to gain initial primary data regarding the expectation and perception from customer perspective. This involves getting participants wherever the researchers can find them and wherever is convenient. Researchers prefer this sampling method because it is fast, inexpensive, easy and the subjects are readily available
Research Instrument
To gather data, the researchers will use a self-made questionnaire to gather primary data of this study. The formulated questionnaires are composed of four parts. Part I targets to know the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, status, occupational status and monthly income. Part II aims to identify the level of perception and expectation on customer purchase which includes nine questions. Part III has twenty four questions that intend to determine the level of expectation of customers on store attributes. Part II and III will be evaluated by the respondents through the Likert Scale, wherein, 4 stands for ‘strongly agree,’ 3 for ‘agree,’ 2 means ‘disagree,’ and 1 as ‘strongly disagree.’ Lastly, Part IV focuses on the feedback for improvement which includes six questions. To further guide the respondents in answering the survey questions, instructions are present.
To test the reliability, 30 respondents were asked to answer the survey. Cronbach’s Alpha was used to test its reliability. Alpha was developed by Lee Cronbach to provide a measure of the internal consistency of a questionnaire. It is expressed as a number between 0 and 1; acceptable values of alpha ranges from 0.70 to 0.95.

Table 1: Cronbach’s Alpha test result
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
.929 23
Table 1 shows the Cronbach’s Alpha result in testing the questionnaires’ reliability which has a result of .929. It indicates that this result is within the passing range of 0.70 to 0.95. Therefore, the questionnaire produced in this study is reliable and acceptable.

Data Gathering Procedure
Data needed in the study will be obtained from the survey. According to Yilmaz (2013), results of closed-ended questions identify a general pattern of respondents’ reactions towards an action or program. Survey questionnaires will be distributed by the researchers with the help of Zaril Lifestyle Store’s manager.

The researchers seek the approval of the company by giving the supervisor a letter which she signed to show her approval regarding the study that the researchers will conduct. Stated in the letter are the topic of the study and the approval of the thesis adviser of the researchers. After this, they formulated questions that will help the study to explain the perception of consumers towards the service quality and the expectation concerning the store attribute of Zaril Lifestyle Store.

Ethical Consideration
The researchers require the respondents to answer the questionnaires with full honesty. In return, the researchers will promote the anonymity and confidentiality to protect the rights of the respondents.
The researchers initially submitted permission to Zaril Lifestyle Store to conduct a study about the retail store and to also seek for their kind help for the researchers to easily communicate with the target respondents. This was done to prove and make the study fairly and to give the store ideas on how important their customers are in giving insights about the store that will give the study the basis for its continuous improvement.

The researchers will also assure the respondents that the purpose of the study will not put them at risk in doing the procedures.

Data Analysis
The researchers analyzed the questionnaire results and come up with a conclusion. First, the researchers collected information by gathering data regarding the demographics of the respondents. The researchers also provided a recommendation box for the respondents to write down what the store needs to improve on. Frequency and Percentage Distribution, Weighted Mean & Composite Mean, Chi-square and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) will be used to gather information and data.

Frequency distribution is a statistical data that displays the frequency of variables in the study such as age, sex, status, occupational status and monthly income.

Weighted mean is the process of combining two or more means in different groups and sizes to compute them in order to obtain the grand mean or overall mean. Composite mean is used to measure the variables based on multiple data. This will be applied to further elaborate the level of respondents’ perception and expectation on purchase.

Chi-Square shows the relationship between two categorical variables. In statistics it has two variables, numerical (countable) and non-numerical (categorical). The sum of squared standard that deviate the distribution is equal to being summed. This tool will be applied in analyzing the significant difference between perception and expectation when grouped according to profile variable.

ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is a statistical procedure used to test the degree to which two or more groups vary or differ in an experiment. This will be applied in determining and analysis of the relationship between store attribute and socio-demographic profile.

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Attach copy of company letter
Attach result of questionnaire
Attach Cronbach result
Attach Gpower
Attach result of plagiarism co Leonore


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