CHAPTER 1THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction Change is constant that dealing with it is inevitable.
Sometimes, we’re forced to do such things in order for us to survive in this world. Education is one of the prime movers of the Philippine’s economic and social development. It develops knowledge, skills, positive behaviours and attitudes of individuals to become self – confident, capable and committed to setting goals, making informed choices and acting in ways that improve living conditions. The Licensure Examination is one of the struggles to face by a degree holder in their career track. The main purpose of a licensure examination is to identify persons who possess the minimum knowledge and experience necessary to perform tasks on the job safely and competently, not to select the top contender or ensure the success of the licensee.
Therefore, licensure examination is very different from academic or employment examinations. Academic examinations assess how well a learner can describe or comprehend a term and concepts. Employment examinations can rank applicants who possess the qualifications for the job.
A good licensing examination should be reliable and valid. An examination is considered content valid if it is based upon the results of a job analysis sometimes called an occupational analysis or practice analysis. Contend-related validity is based on the premise that a person who have a licensing examination is knowledgeable in the required content of the job.
According to Scarbrough (1986) states that the extent that examinations play a role in the licensure process, they should meet accepted test standards. Examinations which do not meet standards of validity and reliability, for example, may fail to do an adequate job of assessing those qualities required for competent professional practice and mean that both the public and the applicant are being subjected to dangerous, unfair and potentially illegal practices. The accuracy of the inference made from a test score has long been a concern to evaluation and measurement experts. This concept, known as validity, is complex, controversial and particularly important in licensure test development, evaluation and measurement.
Evidence of the validity of a test is important for at least two reasons. First, it is supposed to provide assurance that those passing the test possess an acceptable level of some requisite competence. The failure to adequately screen applicants and “weed out” those who do not meet the minimally allowable standard (i.e., a false positive conclusion) means that some unqualified applicants will be granted licenses. The public, which uses the services of licensees and assumes they are competent because they are licensed, runs the risk of being harmed. If the public is harmed, the licensing authority (typically the state) is also responsible.
The reputation of the profession may also suffer when the licensure exam allows incompetent applicants to become practitioners. Second, it is supposed to assure the test-taker that the test is a fair assessment of some competence or set of competencies. Candidates for licensure may also be the victims of poor test development processes. They may have invested great amounts of time, money and effort to prepare for an occupation. If qualified individuals are denied a license because of unreliable or invalid tests (i.e., a false-negative conclusion), they are deprived of their right to practice the profession of their choice and the public is also deprived of their services (Shimberg as cited by Scarbrough W., 1986).
Armentano et al. (2007) states that the board examination has the ultimate responsibility to ensure that the examination meets technical, professional, and legal standards and protects the health, safety, and welfare of the public by assessing the candidates’ abilities to practice competently. Once a candidate has passed the licensing examination, the board will grant the license, thus assuring the public that the licensee is minimally qualified to practice at the time of the initial licensure.
A board must understand the purpose of a licensing examination in order to appreciate the process of developing, maintaining and administering it. According to Duque, as cited by Navalta J. et al. (2011), the quality of education in the country is low as stipulated in research findings. This issue particularly on low quality education poses more implication as one strives to deal with globalization, educational reform, technological change and survival issue.The Philippines prohibits any individual from practicing or offering to service the teaching profession without having previously obtained a certificate of registration and a valid professional license from the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) to ensure that the student teachers become competent teachers. This is the main reason why the commission conducts the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) to regulate the profession and to provide license to deserving individuals who passed the Licensure Examination for Teachers (Navalta et.
al., 2011).Hall as cited by Blackford et al. (2012) points out when our country was establishing its roots, the qualifications for becoming a teacher were much more relaxed. If a teacher has and loves knowledge, and has a strong and quick feeling for childhood, a few simple and easily taught rules, devices and a few dozen lessons are enough for the rank and file. People of this era believed that good teachers were born, not made.
The view has markedly changed over the last two centuries; teachers now must pass competency tests to verify they possess enough knowledge to teach our nation’s children. However, this notion of teacher examination is not new and has actually had a cyclic effect during the development of the United States (Angus as cited by Blackford et. al.
, 2012). The study of Salandanan as cited by Dela Cruz, J. et al. (2013), Licensure for teachers provides a valuable framework against which teaching practice can be measured and certified.
It can easily be considered a critical venue to continuing professional growth and development. Research finds that teacher licensure is the most consistent predictor of student achievement. (Darling-Hammond as cited by Fong-Yee & Normore, 2015).Based on Laganao (2017), Teacher Education is one of the many courses that require licensure examination for practice.
Just like Architecture, Engineering, Medicine, and Nursing no graduates of such courses will be allowed legally to practice the course unless they pass the board examination. The government is continuously checking the quality of graduates through these licensure examinations. Specifically, the Teacher Educations Institutes (TEI) has exerted efforts to ensure that their graduates will surely perform well in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) given by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) twice a year for prospective teachers.The Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994 also known as Republic Act No. 7836 is define as an act to strengthen the regulation and supervision of the practice of teaching in the Philippines and prescribing a licensure examination for teachers and for other purposes. A curriculum’s effectiveness is always measured in terms of the graduate’s employability and their passing rate performance in licensure examinations. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) has been consistently monitoring the performance of the Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (Malaluan, 2017). Teacher licensure is under the authority of individual states.
The goal of the initial teacher licensure is to ensure that all students have competent teachers. The Professional Regulation Commission (P.R.C.) is the instrument of the Filipino people is securing for the nation a reliable, trustworthy and progressive system of developing professionals whose personal integrity and spiritual values are solid and respected, whose competencies are globally competitive, and whose commitment to serve the Filipino nation and the whole community is strong and steadfast (Armentano et al., 2007).Statement of the Problem Generally, this study will mainly explore and analyze the Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) graduates of Bulacan State University from 2015 to 2017 in their difficulties or problems encountered in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) and the possible related methods to provide an in depth intervention programs to an issue.This paper aims to find answers with the following specific questions:What is the profile of MAPEH graduates of Bulacan State University for the years 2015 – 2017 in terms of:AgeSexGPA in Diagnostic TestWhat is the trend of the national passing rate and the institutional performance of graduates in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) from 2015 – 2017?How does the performance of the graduates in the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) affect the following:Student/sTeacher/sInstitution/SchoolHow is the performance be described in the following:General Education (Gen.
Ed.)Professional Education (Prof. Ed.)SpecializationWhat programs can be proposed to improve the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) performance of the graduates?Effectiveness and EfficiencyAdvantages and DisadvantagesSignificance of the StudyThe study of the analysis of the performance of the Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) graduates of Bulacan State University (BulSU) in the years of 2015 to 2017 in the Licensure Examination for Teachers is very much essential in order to improve the performance rate of the next batches of students who will be taking the exam.
This will also scaffold the needs of the students to be prepared upon taking the licensure exam through identifying the different factors to improve in order to have great chances of passing in the examination.The findings of this study are considered significant since these will be help to the following:Students/Graduates. This study will help the students or graduates to prepare themselves to prevent the conflict that encountered of the first timers who take the said examination. The study can also help those students in high school that want to take the same profession as MAPEH major. It also helps the performance of the students/graduates’ improved and enhance them to acquire a higher rating in licensure examination.
The results and findings will serve as guidelines toward success in taking the exam for once (as possible). Teachers/Professors. For the teachers or the professors, this study will help them realize that the students with poor performances in their studies are not the only ones to be focused on the preparatory review given for fresh graduates of the MAPEH major.
Aside from the performance of the students inside the teaching environment, there is a lot aspect that they should look at. Motivate them into their studies and should not practice an unequal relationship as well as discrimination in the classroom setting. The result of this study will also help the teachers or the professors to give necessary emphasis to the subjects or field of learning that has needed to be improved to prepare for the LET.Institution/University. This study will be serves as a basis of the institution to think of possible ways to do in preparing their graduates who will be taking the exam. Through this study, the institution will be able to lead into creating scaffolding programs that will diagnose the weakness of their future graduates and do something to improve it before they take a licensure examination. The increase of passing rate of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) graduates will greatly help in the great increase of the performance rate of Bulacan State University College of Education in the Licensure Examination for Teachers that will surely reflect to the concerns of the quality of learning of the said academe.
Parents. The findings of this study would help parents to support their children in pursuing an increase of study habits on preparing for the LET. Parents will be the greatest motivation of a student at home.School Administrators. This study will serve as a basis for the administrator to realize what to do for the incoming graduates. From this study, we can find out if what possible program that they need to take and if it is be effective and efficient to help the graduates who will take the licensure examination. Recommendations and results on the program conducted will provide inputs in formulating policies that will strengthen the home and the institution partnership towards the development of the graduates.
They provide an opportunities and resources for a greater wisdom.Scope and Delimitations of the StudyThe study is intending to benefit the graduates of Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH) to improve their passing rate through the stated factors by the MAPEH major graduates of Bulacan State University from the year of 2015 to 2017 who took the Licensure Examination for Teachers. This study will aim to determine the factors that affect the graduates in achieving the possible passing rate in the examination and find a possible intervention program on the conflicts encountered by MAPEH major graduates. This research is not intending to give focus on the needs of other Majors but to give emphasis on helping the MAPEH major students who will take the licensure exam. The respondents of this study are composed of 50 selected MAPEH major graduates of Bulacan State University who failed in Licensure Examination for Teachers 2015-2017.