## Chapter 1/2B) (Sampling Rate) N=?Vn?^2/R (Noise Power)

Chapter 1
Introduction
5 G is basically a structure of cells of conjugative radio system in which one cell contains sub micro cells like Femto, Pico and Micro cells. There are two types of communications, indoor and outdoor, indoor communication uses Wi-Fi, Femto cell whereas outdoor communication uses RRH and Base station unit (BBU) and uses optical fiber communication between BBU to MSC (mobile switching center). VLC (Visible Light Communication) Frequency is (400-490 THZ). This technology uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and LTE (Long term evolution), the 1st cell of Satellite and second cell of RRH (Radio Remote Heads) 3rd cell of BBU (base band units), 4th cells Bus and Train service. The distributed antennas are used to cover the service .Behind the system of antennas, MIMO (Multi input multi output) and optical fiber connected to all of the system of RRH, BBU AND PSTN System.
The 1st cell of Seattleite and second cell of BBU (base band units) and 3rd cell of RRH (Radio Remote Heads) and 4th cell is used for Bus and Train service for internet facility. The distributed antenna’s covers all the four services mentioned above.
1.1 Promising Key 5G Wireless Technology
V {t1} ;V {t2} (Signal Voltage)
(t1-t2 ; 1/2B) (Sampling Rate)
N=?Vn?^2/R (Noise Power)
S=?Vs?^2/R (Signal Power)
±Vn = ±?Vn (Noise Voltage Range)
? =V’s/Vs (Form Factor)
P t=S+N (Total Power=Signal +Noise)
?Vt?^2=?Vs?^2+?Vn?^2 (RMS Voltage)
2^b=Vt/Vn
2^b=(?(?Vt?^2/?Vn?^2 ))
2^b=?((?Vn?^2/?Vn?^2 +?Vs?^2/?Vn?^2 ) )
2^b=?((1+(S/N)) )

b =Log2(?((1+(S/N)) ))
H=Mb=M.Log2(?((1+(S/N)) ))

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only \$13.90/page!

order now

I= (M/T) Log2(?((1+(S/N)) )) (I=information)
M/T=2B
C= Maximum information Transmitted, This is called Shannon Equation

C=2Blog2(?((1+S/N) ))=Blog2(1+S/N)
C=Blog2(1+S/N)

According to Shannon theory”. Total system channel capacity Csum, where B (Bandwidth of ith channel) and S is(signal Power of ith cannel and N(Noise Power). To increase Csum we can increae the network coverage Via heterogeneous network with macrocel,microcell,small cells,M Femtocell, number of subchannels MIMO spatial modulation DAS,interference management and bandwidth via conjugate radio network and VLC (OPTICAL FIBER). The output is Green communication.
1.2 Device-to-Device communication (D to D)
In 5G we use D to D communication, this communication e.g blue tooth but the range of Bluetooth is 10m ,this is not only D to D but vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to X. In this local data sharing, Relying and multi-hop communication. This communication change from cell to cell .In 5G high data rate and high efficiency is available.

Fig -1.1 Devices- to- Device Communication

1.3 Massive multiple-input multiple-output
A large number of antennas in the form of arrays which are connected in circular form cover the range of 360 degrees. The services of different networks are joined this network and the same services can be achieved at its output.

Fig 1.2- 5G Basic Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Network Architecture
5G network uses a lot or a large number of Antenna’s array. One of the difficulties in this system is that we have to keep its spectrum from 3GHZ TO 30GHZ cmW, 30GHZ TO 100GHZ mmW and the bandwidth 10 GHz to 60 GHz for data rate.

Fig 1.3- 5G Basic Network Reference DU Telecom UAE And 5G Korean Telecom K.T
1.4 Architecture of C-RAN
Services whose sources are 1…Satellite, 2. Earth station and PSTN (public source telephone network) are released in cloud which sends it to BBU (base band unit) and RRH (radio remote head) and small and macro cells. The architecture is shown below.
Following fig shows cloud and fog cloud network whereas next part of the fig represents front hual and back hual communication .Back hual encompasses PSTN network and front hual network is RRH and BBU is the slice between the two.
It defines the key features of ultra-dense 5G cellular networks, which contains ultra-high ratio of speed, ultra-low latency, and massive connectivity. New Front haul interface. RRH (Radio Remote Heads) ,BBU (Base Band unit),PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) and RLC (Radio Link Control) ,MAC (Medium Access control),PHY (Physical Layers),RF (Radio Frequency).In C-RAN all RRHS are connected to BBU via common Public Radio interface. In 5G radio IP capacity 20Gbps per sector UHD Video streaming available.

Fig 1.4- Front haul constrained Cloud Radio Access Network.
Following figure shows a comparison between 4G and 5G network. In 4G CRAN, RRH and BBU are used for air interface that is RF which lies between BBU and RRH which provides IQ data service. BBU consists of physical layer, MAC address, RLC and PDCP. Whereas in 5G radio or air interface is MAC, in the second part of this figure RLC is the radio or air interface.

FIG -1.5 Network Architecture of C-RAN 5G Physical Layer to PDCP
1.5 Security for (C-RANS)
The security of 5G is very important for User Company and for the system. There are different schemes used to save the system and save the system from hacker. A lot of cryptography schemes are used for security.
Some common attacks are given below.
Mobile malware attacks targeting UE (user equipment)
HeNB Femusetocell attacks
The Physical layer of 5G not working by hackers and some software problems.
Protocol Attacks on HeNB
This software prohibits Mobile Processor working .It attacks Mobile hardware.
Attacks on Mobile Operator’s Core Network.
DOS Attacks the coverage of the system leads to stoppage of working.
1.6 Encryption and decryption
Cryptography has been the most widely used technique to protect information from

Fig 1.6 – 5G Basic Network Architecture Encryption and Decryption.
Encryption
In encryption a sender sends message which is changed with a secret key then original message is called cipher and this technique is called encryption.
Decryption
Also called decoding .The key enter in encryption is deleted and original message is restored, this technique is called decryption.
Substitution cipher
Plain text H E L L O T H E R E I S P A K I S T A N H O C K E Y
Cipher text W Y A C Q G I K M O E S U X Z B D F H J L N P R T V

Plain text HELLO THERE IS PAKISTAN HOCKEY
Cipher text. WYACQGIKMOESUXZBDFHJLNPRTV

Choose two distinct prime numbers A and B
Compute n = A*B
Compute z = (A – 1) (B -1)
Choose an integer e such that it is relatively prime to z (both e and z have no common
Factors).
Find d such that e × d ?1 (mod z) (in other words e × d ? 1 should be an integer multiple
Of z).
The pair (e, n) is then released as the public Key and pair (d, n) is used as the private
Key.
Output Result
The encryption of message M gives the Cipher text C = Me × Mod (n).
The decryption is done by computing M = Cd × Mod (n).

Cyber security standards
IEEE 1686: IEEE Standard for substation intelligent electronic
Devices (IEDs) cyber security capabilities
IEC 62351: Power systems management and associated information
Exchange – data and communications security

1.7 – Future Uses of(C-RANS) Cloud Radio Access Network and Mobile Edge Computing in 5G through IOT (Internet of Things).
5G is working with different cells combinations. It increases data rate which is used in advanced technology. Most of the sensors are connected with the network and in advanced medical devices connected with 5G.All hospitals and important departments are connected with 5G. Some examples are given below.
Vehicle control with 5G
Smart and Hybrid vehicles will be available in market in 2020. The control of these vehicles is V2V and D2D and it will be possible to use sensors to control all functions in Vehicle, like Google Road map and use of tracker.
Emergency communication
The second use of 5G communication in emergency like 1122 in Pakistan, and also sends all video details with live video communication to operator . The second one is to find the Train service like (orange train) and Bus service with the help of 5G.
Factory automation Technology
Using 5G technology we can drive bus with automation of advance technologies .All machinery is controlled by internet and use of robots working in factory.
Ultra-High-speed train
With the help of 5G tickets of train can be purchased, use of internet in train. live Google Map of train stops, the arrival and departure time.
Large outdoor events, shopping malls
With the help of 5G one can see live CCTV Video not only but also control the People with robots and Guide the People.
Media on demand
All types of information available on media .one can see 10000 channels approximately.

Emerging Technologies cities (E-Tech Cities)/Smart cities
Living style will be changed up to 100% in 2020.All cities cover through CCTV the security is much better than now. The cities are greener than RO Plants install and smart vehicles on roads. Built train working city to city. Medical city introduces in all cities. One Medical city has 10000 hospitals. We can give any types of ads in Media city.

figure 1.7 Emerging Technologies in Home (E-Tech Home)/Smart Home
Using 5G technology one can use sensor and robots and smart metering, we can control A.C and Fan and Heaters and etc . When we enter home all lamps get on one by one and the temperature of air adjust automatically .CCTV monitoring available on mobile phone. No need of home servant, all homework can be control by robots. Artificial intelligence monitoring and control the system of home.

Figure 1.8 Smart City
?

Chapter 2
Related Literature and problem statement
2.1 Literature Review
Information Technologies have gained importance in our daily life having profound economic impact. Media entertainment like video to more sensitive and safety critical applications, e-health first responder service and etc. Due to Internet of things every Physical Object becomes possible to purchase like cloth, cars and trains etc. 1
Cisco forecast for IP Network will change the net world .Internet traffic is increasing day by day and has become more dynamic for traffic pattern. Video communication is 80 % To 90 % of total traffic 6 .The Mobile traffic is increases day by day as well. The Net Generation network used for increase in Mobile and IOT traffic .In 5G use heterogeneous network (Het Nets) with very high speed Broadband and green communication play important role in 5G. Changing 4G to 5G a new concept of cloud technologies is introduced, by which a new vehicle against new setup is bestowed television service to next generation networks. Consumers will be able to use Digital Satellite or DTT (Digital Terrestrials Television) by the end of 2020 with increase in internet speed. 2
The cellular network shifted to new network like Femto/Pico base station, fixed Mobile Relays, cognitive Radio and distributed Antennas and small cells, MIMO Antennas and LTE (Long term evolution) are used 9
The standardization of new air interface for 5G is expected to gain momentum after the international Telecommunication union radio communication sector (ITU-R) meeting the next world radio communication conference (WRC) held at 2015. As a consequence fiber link with a data rate of 10gbps is achieved. 3
A greater change in Internet of things and 5G communication is observed from Mobile Cloud Computing towards Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) 4.The vision centralization of computing, storage and network management in the clouds referring to data center (a back-bone) and IP network. However in recent years, a new trend in cloud RAN (radio network access) of mobile edge computing 5G through internet of things. The latency and critical task now better 33. In 5G works with small-cells network and multi-antennas and millimeter-wave communication promise to provide user gaga-bit wireless access through next generation network from 1G to 4G higher wireless speed voice center to multimedia center. In 5G virtual reality and ultra-high definition video streaming is displayed 24. The 1G use AMPS technologies which provide mobility, whereas 2G provides GSM (Global system for mobile communication) and GPRS (General packet for Radio Services) through Roaming. In 3G UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication system) and CDMA (Code division multiplexing access) use for capacity and quality improving. In 4G LTE (Long term Evolution) and WIMAX (Worldwide interoperability of Microwave Access) the IEEE Standard 802.16 WIMAX. The data rates of 1G 2KBPS is found .The data rate of 2G-14.4 KBPS, the data rate of 3G-2MBPS, the data rate of 4G-1GBPS and data rate of 5G is above 10GBPS.In 1G uses analog cellular technology, 15 2G uses Digital narrow band circuit data, 3G uses Digital broadband packet data and 4 G to 5G Digital broadband on high speed 1GBPS to 10GBPS and higher. Web standard 2G (www), 3G and 4G (www-IPV4) and 5G (Wwww-IPV6) .1G to 2G Horizontal Hand Off 3G to 5G Horizontal and Vertical Hand Off .5
2.2 Conclusion of Literature through Table
1G 2G 3G 4G 5G
1970-1980 1984-1990 1990-2002 2002-2010 2015-2020
Features
Analog Service /No Data Service Use Digital Radio /GSM/GPRS/MMS Fast Data Rate/High data capacity/IPTV Voice over IP/ Packet Switching/IP Telephone/HD TV Access to different wireless technologies
Data Rate
2Kbps 6.4-14.4Kbps 2Mbps 1Gbps 10Gbps/Higher
Standers
AMTS

2G-GSM
2.5G-GPRS
2.75G-EDGE IMT2000
3.5HSDPA
3.75 HSUPA LTE Undefined Standard

Conclusion of Literature through Table
1G 2G 3G 4G 5G
Web Standard
———– www www(IPV-4) www(IPV-4) Wwww(IPV6)
Technology
Analog Cellular technology Digital narrow band packet data 20Kbps Digital Broadband packet data 1Mbps Digital High Broadband packet 300Mbps IP Local/Wide Area Network
Switching
Circuit Circuit with Air Interface Packet Packet/Message
Switching Packet and Message Switching
Hand OFF
Horizontal Only Horizontal Only Horizontal and Vertical Horizontal and Vertical Horizontal and Vertical
2.3- Device to Device Protocols
NFC (18092:2004) Frequency use 13MHZ Data Rate 424KBPS
ZigBee (802.15.4) Frequency 2.4GHZ Data Rate 250KBPS Range 200Meters
LTE Data Rate 100 MBPS Range 100KM.
2.3.1-Network Field Communication NFC Protocol (Device to Device Communication Protocol)
This protocol 31 is connected wireless devices Range frequency 1356MHZ.The Bit Coding define in below there are two type communication Active communication and passive communication.
Active Communication
Servers and client connect and sending resaving Data called active communication. Active communication modes define by few lines.
1-Installer sends RF collision avoidance sequence 1.1.1.
2- The Installer select transfer speed.
3- Installer send attribute request.
5-Parameter change.
6-Active communications establish.
Passive Communication
When the interface send request for connect server and clients. It is define in few steps.
1-Installer sends to RF collision avoidance in sequence 1.1.1
2-Send signal to signal devices detection.
3- To check NFC Protocols in different application.
4-To install signal device detection by request.
5-Send attribute request.
7- Send parameter selections request.
9-Transport data through transport protocols.
10- Installer active sequence in passive communication mode.

Flow Chart of Activation Protocols in Passive Communication –NFC

Flow Chart Activation Protocols Active Communication Mode
Abbreviation of Active and Passive communication NFC Protocols
ATR Attribute Request
ATR – RES Attribute Response
WUP –REQ Wake Up Request
WUP- RES Wake Up Response
PSL Parameter Selection Request
RSL- Req Release Request
DSL Deselect Response

2.3.2- ZigBee
ZigBee support master to master and master to slave communication system. Working of ZigBee self-organizing and self-healing producer .ZigBee networks are extendable with help of Routers. It works in building with connected of nodes. ZigBee is low cast connected in Mesh.13
(RFID) Radio frequency Identifications tags and sensors make ZigBee network .ZLL (ZigBee Light Link) protocols use. Routing in ZigBee MANet Algorithm use routing protocols ZLL. ZigBee is full function Device (FDD) routing with Reduced Function Device (RFD).ZigBee plays important role in future Home automation, Smart light and traffic management.
2.3.3-LTE Long Term Evolution
LTE introduce by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) to fulfill the demand of packet base mobile broadband communication, OFDM use downlink and (SC-FDMA) signal-Carrier Frequency division multiple access in use uplink. The mobile set access randomly with BTS uplink and downlink signals .In uplink physical random access channel (PRACH) establish with some coding .Problem Resaving Attenuation .This problem solve by code ducting procedure. The code ducting solve by (MAI) Multiple Access Interface. This method not solve in LTE.
(GLRT) Generalized like ratio test use in LTE. This process automatically corrects error in signal and solves coding.
Multiple frequency band provide wider bandwidth reduce inter cells improving handover save energy advance MIMO achieve high data rate. Mobile operator reduces capital and operating expenditure. Developing Heterogeneous network (Het Nets).Enhanced inter cell interface coordination (EICI) for improving performance.

2.4- D2D Attacks
DOS Attacks (Denial of Service Attacks)
Service of system not working .No program executes. System is abnormal and no command execute. Hackers attempt to block user from accessing the service. The hackers can control the server to authenticate request that have invalid return address or hackers can full control on the server by fail cryptography scheme and block all service of the server . Example The system traffic not working. Hacker can access system security and block the traffic. Ping of death is called DoS attacks. Ping flood is simple example of DoS attacks.
Buffer Overflow Attacks
System is not working properly .Data is Overflow. System in abnormal condition. To put extra information in the system to overflow into memory space, corrupting or over writing in the Data. Stack overflow is example of buffer overflow. In the software that cannot be loading not run in the system. Injection attacks this is example of buffer overflow attack. The system not execution programs this attack in Web Security.
Sensitive Information disclose
System is hack information is stolen. Cryptography use for save from hacker. This attacks in Web application where can hackers can access to hack any Website and block the website and collect all information. Sensitive data exposure any hackers can get and use your Tokens, credit card by sensitive data exposure.
2.5–Device to Cloud Protocols 8
XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Protocols)
COAP (Constrained Application)
2.5.1 Advance Message Queuing Protocol (Device to Cloud Protocol)
This Protocol 17 is working with combination object model and communication model to connect the link and provide advance connection to connect other network.
The main propose to connect interface with system and provide different links
The working with three model 1.communication model, 2 object model and 3-Architecture model 27.
Communication model
The all Data send and resave in queue to remote units.
Object model
It is provide interface to connect client to the server.

Architecture model
Centralized and Decentralized Brokered Pub-Sub Service.
De-Centralized Brokered Pub-Sub Service
To connect the different servers through bus bar to different client to server connected bus bar.

Fig -2.2- Advance Message Queuing Protocol
2.5.2 – Extensible Messaging Presence Protocols XMPP
This is communication protocols for message –oriented middleware on extensible markup language. This facilitates real near time operation. This is communication between two servers or one server and client. XMPP provide basic messaging and routing features it works on LAN. To work on XMPP use by logging a account. The Whats App is use XMPP Protocol and Google and Facebook use XMPP Protocol. Whats App use your mobile internet or WIFI use any customers paying for use WhatsApp. XMPP is open protocol use for messages and presence information in close real Time.
Basic Structure of Stanzas

x

Hi!
I'm Gerard!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out