CHAPTER 1 1

CHAPTER 1

1.1. INTRODUCTION

There are couple of things sure in life – one is death, second is change and the other is waste.” No one can stop these things to take place in our lives. Be that as it may, with better management we can prepare ourselves up. Here we will discuss about waste and waste management. Every one of us has a right to clean air, water and food. This right can be fulfilled by maintaining a clear and healthy environment. Now for the first question, what is waste?
Any material which is not needed by the owner, producer or processor is waste. Generally, waste is defined as at the end of the product life cycle and is disposed of in landfills. Most businesses define waste as “anything that does not create value”. In a typical man’s eye anything that is unwanted or not useful is garbage or waste. However scientifically speaking there is no waste as such in the world. Almost all the components of solid waste have some potential if it is converted or treated in a scientific manner. Hence we can define solid waste as “Organic or inorganic waste materials produced out of household or commercial activities, that have lost their value in the eyes of the first owner but which may be of great value to somebody else.” (Robinson, W.D.1986).
Generation of waste is inevitable in every habitation howsoever big or small. Since the dawn of civilization humanity has gradually deviated from nature ; today there has been a drastic change in the lifestyle of human society. Direct reflection of this change is found in the nature ; quantity of garbage that a community generates. We can dispose the waste or reuse the waste and can earn money through proper management. Indian cities which are fast contending with worldwide economies in their drive for fast economic development have so far failed to effectively manage the huge quantity of waste generated.
The quantum of waste generated in Indian towns and cities is increasing day by day on account of its increasing populace and increased GDP.
Thus, waste management is undergoing drastic change to offer more alternatives that are more sustainable. We look at these options in the expectation of offering the waste management industry a more financially feasible and socially satisfactory solution to our current waste management dilemma. This study outlines various advances in the area of waste management. It focuses on current practices related to waste management initiatives taken by India.

1.2. DEFINITION

Integrated Waste Management is a system of employing several waste control and disposal methods such as source reduction , recycling , re-use , incineration and land filling to minimize the environment impact of commercial and industrial waste.

1.3. PRIORITIES OF INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT

Despite the fact that it may sound simple to implement integrated waste management by utilizing a variety of waste strategies, it is actually more complex. An outlined arrangement for implementing integrated waste management includes three priorities.
The first priority involves the primary avoidance of pollution and waste by expecting ventures to eliminate or reduce the amount of harmful chemicals used in production, reduce packing materials for products and make products that last longer and are easier to recycle, reuse and repair. This first priority targets large industry and endeavours to reduce the overall waste produced at the source.

Figure 1.1: First Priority focusing on Industries
The second priority targets small businesses and individuals and focuses on secondary prevention of pollution and waste. This step involves educating and encouraging individuals to buy reusable products, repair broken items, recycle, reuse products and compost.

Figure 1.2: Second Priority focusing on Individuals

The third priority is altogether different from the initial two and focuses solely on waste management, including treating waste to reduce toxicity, burying or incinerating waste and releasing some waste into the environment for dispersal or dilution.
As you can now be able tell from the priorities of the integrated waste management system, for the system to work efficiently, more effort and consideration need to be paid to waste reduction. Shockingly, although the priorities were designed by scientists and backed by data, most countries, still tend to focus more on waste management.

1.4. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

? 4R’s: Refuse, Reduce, Reuse & Recycle
• Refuse: Do not buy anything which we do not really need.
• Reduce – Reduce the amount of garbage generated. Alter our lifestyle so
that minimum garbage is generated.
• Reuse – Reuse everything to its maximum after properly cleaning it.
Make secondary use of different articles.
• Recycle – Keep things which can be recycled to be given to rag
pickers or waste pickers (Kabadiwallahs).Convert the recyclable
Garbage into manures or other useful products.
? Segregation at source: Store organic or biodegradable and inorganic or
Non-biodegradable solid waste in different bins. Recycle of all the
Components with minimum labour and cost.
? Different treatments for different types of solid wastes: One must apply
the techniques which are suitable to the given type of garbage. For example
the technique suitable for general market waste may not be suitable for
Slaughter house waste.
? Treatment at nearest possible point: The solid waste should be treated in
as decentralized manner as possible. The garbage generated should be treated preferably at the site of generation i.e. every house.

Based on the above principles, an ideal Solid Waste Management for
a village could be as under.

Figure 1.3: 4R’s Of Solid Waste Management

CHAPTER 2

2.1. COMPOSITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF WASTE

There may be distinctive types of waste such as Domestic waste, Factory waste, Waste from oil factory, E-waste, Construction waste, Agricultural waste, Food processing waste, Bio-medical waste, Nuclear waste, Slaughter house waste etc.

We can characterize waste as follows:
• special waste
• liquid waste
• hazardous waste
• general solid waste (putrescible)
• general solid waste (non-putrescible).

To figure out which of the above classifications applies to your waste, the following steps must be followed in the order below. Once a waste’s characterization has been set up under a particular step, do not go to the next step the waste will be taken to have that classification and must be managed accordingly.

2.2. STEP 1: IS THE WASTE SPECIAL WASTE ?

‘Special waste’ is a class of waste that has a special kind of regulatory requirements. The potential environmental impacts of special waste need to be managed to minimize the risk of harm to the environment and human wellbeing.
Special waste means any of the following:
? clinical and related waste
? asbestos waste
? waste tyres

Generators of special waste do not need to make any further assessment of their waste if it falls within the definitions of special wastes below.
The main exemption to this is where special waste is mixed with restricted solid or hazardous waste. In these conditions, the waste must be classified as special waste and restricted solid or hazardous waste (as applicable), and managed as both of those classifications.

The meanings of the terms clinical and related waste, asbestos waste, and waste tyres are detailed below.

? Clinical waste means any waste resulting from medical, nursing, dental, pharmaceutical, skin penetration or other related clinical activity, being waste that has the possibility to cause injury, infection or offence, and includes waste containing any of the following:
• human tissue (other than hair, teeth and nails)
• bulk body fluids or blood
• visibly blood-stained body fluids, materials or equipment
• laboratory specimens or cultures
• animal tissue, carcasses or other waste from animals used for medical research

Clinical and related waste means:
? cytotoxic waste
? pharmaceutical, drug or medicine waste
? sharps waste.

Figure 2.1: Clinical Waste
? Cytotoxic waste means any substance contaminated with any residues or preparations that contain materials that are toxic to cells principally through their action on cell reproduction.

? Pharmaceutical, drug or medicine waste means waste that has been generated by activities carried out for business or other commercial purposes and that consists of pharmaceutical or other chemical substances.

? Sharps waste means any waste collected from designated sharps waste containers used in the course of business, commercial or community service activities, being waste resulting from the use of sharps for any of the following purposes:
– human health care by health professionals and other health care providers
– medical research or work on cadavers
– veterinary care or veterinary research
– skin penetration or the injection of drugs or other substances for medical or non-medical reasons

? Asbestos waste means any waste that contains asbestos are the fibrous form of mineral silicates that belong to the serpentine or amphibole groups of rock-forming minerals, including actinolite, amosite (brown asbestos), anthophyllite, chrysotile (white asbestos), crocidolite (blue asbestos) and tremolite.

Figure 2.2: Asbestos Waste
? Waste tyres means used, rejected or unwanted tyres, including casings, seconds, shredded tyres or tyre pieces.

Figure 2.3: Tyre Waste
2.3 STEP 2: IS THE WASTE LIQUID WASTE ?

If you have established that the waste is not special waste, decide whether it is ‘liquid waste’.
Liquid waste means any waste (other than special waste) that:
• has an angle of repose of less than 5 degrees above horizontal
• becomes free-flowing at or below 60 degrees Celsius or when it is transported
• is generally not capable of being picked up by a spade or shovel

If the waste meets the criteria outlined above, it is classified as liquid waste, and no further assessment for classification is required.

Figure 2.4: Liquid Waste
2.4 STEP 3: IS THE WASTE PRE-CLASSIFIED ?

If the waste is neither special nor liquid waste, establish whether the waste has been pre-classified.
Some commonly generated waste types have been pre-classified as hazardous waste, general solid waste (putrescible) or general solid waste (non-putrescible).
Once a waste’s classification has been established under a particular pre-classification below, do not go to the next classification; the waste has that classification and must be managed accordingly.

Hazardous waste
The following waste types (other than special waste or liquid waste) have been pre-classified as ‘hazardous waste’:
• coal tar or coal tar pitch waste (being the tarry residue from the heating, processing or burning of coal or coke) comprising of more than 1% (by weight) of coal tar or coal tar pitch waste
• lead-acid or nickel-cadmium batteries (being waste generated or separately collected by activities carried out for business, commercial or community services purposes)
• lead paint waste arising otherwise than from residential premises or educational or child care institutions
• any mixture of the wastes referred to above

Figure 2.5: Hazardous Waste
General solid waste (putrescible)
The following wastes (other than special waste, liquid waste, hazardous waste or restricted solid waste) have been pre-classified as ‘general solid waste (putrescible)’:

• household waste that contains putrescible organics
• waste from litter bins collected by or on behalf of local councils
• disposable nappies, incontinence pads or sanitary napkins
• food waste ,animal waste
• grit or screenings from sewage treatment systems that have been dewatered so that the grit or screenings do not contain free liquids
• any mixture of the wastes referred to above.

In assessing whether waste has been pre-classified as general solid waste (putrescible), the following definitions apply:
• Animal waste includes dead animals and animal parts and any mixture of dead animals and animal parts.
• Food waste means waste from the manufacture, preparation, sale or consumption of food but does not include grease-trap waste.
• Manure includes any mixture of manure and biodegradable animal bedding, such as straw.

Figure 2.6: Putrescible Waste

General solid waste (non-putrescible)

The following wastes (other than special waste, liquid waste, hazardous waste, restricted solid waste or general solid waste (putrescible)) are pre-classified as ‘general solid waste (non-putrescible)’:

• glass, plastic, rubber, plasterboard, ceramics, bricks, concrete or metal
• paper or cardboard
• household waste from municipal clean-up that does not contain food waste
• waste collected by, or on behalf of, local councils from street sweepings
• garden waste
• wood waste
• waste contaminated with lead (including lead paint waste) from residential premises or educational or child care institutions
• containers, previously containing dangerous goods, from which residues have been removed by washing3 or vacuuming
• drained oil filters (mechanically crushed), rags and oil-absorbent materials that only contain non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons and do not contain free liquids
• virgin excavated natural material
• building and demolition waste
• asphalt waste (including asphalt resulting from road construction and waterproofing works)
• bio solids categorised as unrestricted use
• cured concrete waste from a batch plant
• fully cured and set thermosetting polymers and fibre-reinforcing resins
• fully cured and dried residues of resins, glues, paints, coatings and inks
• any mixture of the wastes referred to above.

In assessing whether waste has been pre-classified as general solid waste
(non-putrescible), the following definitions apply:

Building and demolition waste means unsegregated material (other than material containing asbestos waste or liquid waste) that results from:
• the demolition, erection, construction, refurbishment or alteration of buildings other than
– chemical works
– mineral processing works
– container reconditioning works
– waste treatment facilities
• the construction, replacement, repair or alteration of infrastructure development such as roads, tunnels, sewage, water, electricity, telecommunications and airports
and includes materials such as:
• bricks, concrete, paper, plastics, glass and metal
• timber, including unsegregated timber, that may contain timber treated with chemicals but does not include excavated soil (for example, soil excavated to level off a site prior to construction or to enable foundations to be laid or infrastructure to be constructed).

Figure 2.7: Non-Putrescible Waste

Garden waste means waste that consists of branches, grass, leaves, plants, loppings, tree trunks, tree stumps and similar materials, and includes any mixture of those materials.

Virgin excavated natural material means natural material (such as clay, gravel, sand, soil or rock fines):
• that has been excavated or quarried from areas that are not contaminated with manufactured chemicals, or with process residues, as a result of industrial, commercial, mining or agricultural activities
• that does not contain sulfidic ores or soils, or any other waste.

Wood waste means sawdust, timber offcuts, wooden crates, wooden packaging, wooden pallets, wood shavings and similar materials, and includes any mixture of those materials, but does not include wood treated with chemicals.

CHAPTER 3

3.1 DISPOSAL VS MANAGEMENT

There are regular practices to dispose waste from ordinary people. But disposal of waste is becoming a serious and vexing issue for any human habitation all over the world. Disposing solid waste out of sight does not solve the problem but indirectly increases the same manifold and at a certain point it goes beyond the control of everybody. The consequences of this practice such as health hazards, pollution of soil, water, air ; food, unpleasant surroundings, loss of precious resources that could be obtained from the solid waste, etc. are well known. That’s why it is essential to focus on proper management of waste all over the world. Waste management has become a subject of concern globally and nationally. The More advanced the human settlements, the more complex the waste management. There is a continuous search for sound solutions for this problem but it is progressively understood that solutions based on technological innovations without human intervention cannot sustain for long and it in turn results in complicating the matters further. Management of solid waste which generally involves proper segregation and scientific recycling of all the components is in fact the ideal way of dealing with solid waste. Solid waste management (SWM) is a commonly used name and defined as the application of techniques to ensure an orderly execution of the various functions of collection, transport, processing, treatment and disposal of solid waste (Robinson, 1986). It has developed from its early beginnings of mere dumping to a sophisticated range of options including re-use, recycling, incineration with energy recovery, advanced landfill design and engineering and a range of alternative technologies. It aims at an overall waste management system which is the best environmentally, economically sustainable for a particular region and socially acceptable. This not only avoids the above referred consequences but it gives economic or monetary returns in some or the other forms.

CHAPTER 4

4.1 WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN INDIA

Waste management market has four portions:
• Municipal Waste
• Industrial Waste
• Bio- Medical Waste and
• Electronic Waste Market

All these four types of waste are governed by various laws and policies as it stands the idea of the waste.
In India waste management practice depend upon actual waste generation, primary storage, primary collection, secondary collection and transportation, recycling activity, Treatment and disposal. In India, municipality corporations play an imperative part in waste management in each city along with public health department. Municipal Corporation is responsible for the management of the waste produced in the city, among its other obligations. The public health department is in charge of sanitation, street cleansing, epidemic control and food adulteration. The Executive Officer who regulates and supervises various departments such as public health, water works, public works, house tax, lights, projection tax, demand and a workshop, which, in turn, all are headed by their own department heads. The staffs in the Public health department are as follows: Health officer, Chief sanitary and food inspector, Sanitary and food inspectors, Sanitary supervisor, Sweepers, etc.
The entire task of waste management system is performed under four headings, to be specific, street cleansing, collection, transportation and disposal. The cleansing and collection operations are conducted by the public health department of city Municipality Corporation, while transportation and disposal of waste are carried out by the transportation department of city Municipality Corporation. The entire city can be divided in to different zones. These zones are further divided into different sanitary wards for the purpose of waste collection and transport operations.

4.2 WASTE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES IN INDIA

During the recent past, the management of waste has received significant attention from the Central and State Governments and local (municipal) authorities in India. A number of associations/partnerships are found to exist in the field of waste management in Indian cities. These alliances are public-private, community-public and private-private arrangements. To distinguish the status of existing alliances in the study area, it is first important to distinguish the various characters working in the field of waste management. These characters can be grouped as under:
• Public sector: this comprises of local authority and local public departments at city level;
• Private-formal sector: this constitutes large and small registered enterprises doing collection, transport, treatment, and disposal and recycling;
• Private-informal sector: this constitutes the small-scale, non-recognized private sector and comprises of waste-pickers, dump pickers, itinerant-waste buyers, traders and non-registered small-scale enterprises; and
• Community representatives: in the form of NGOs, etc.

These characters enter into partnerships for providing various activities related to waste management. These partnerships can be as follows:
• Public-private (Local Authority and private enterprises);
• Public-community (Local Authority and NGOs); etc
• Private-private (waste-pickers, itinerant-waste buyers, waste traders and dealers, wholesalers, small scale and large scale recycling enterprises); and
• Public-private-community (Local Authority, private enterprises and NGOs).

Figure 4.1: Waste Management Initiatives in India

National Solid Waste Association of India (NSWAI) is the main driving proficient non-profit organization in the field of Waste Management including Toxic and Hazardous Waste and also Biomedical Waste in India. It was formed on January 25, 1996. NSWAI helps the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), New Delhi in different fields of waste management making policies and action plans and is entrusted the responsibility of gathering information and various data related to solid waste management from the municipalities.

The other administrative system for waste management is identified with Indian government Initiatives for waste management under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small & Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), “Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules (1999) amended and now known as The Plastics Manufacture and Usage (Amendment) Rules (2003), “Draft Guidelines for Sanitation in Slaughter Houses (1998)” by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Non-biodegradable Garbage (Control) Ordinance, 2006, Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, etc.
At the national policy level, the ministry of environment and forests has legislated the Municipal Waste Management and Handling Rules 2000. This law details the practices to be followed by the various municipalities for managing urban waste. Other recent policy documents include the Ministry of Urban Affairs’ Shukla Committee’s Report (January 2000) the Supreme Court appointed Burman Committee’s Report (March 1999), and the Report of the National Plastic Waste Management Task Force (August 1997). In order to get a sense of the current status of sanitation in India’s cities, a survey was initiated by the Ministry of Urban Development as a part of the National Rating and Award Scheme for Sanitation in Indian Cities. The methods used for the survey can be found on the Ministry of Urban Development website. The Government of India announced the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) in 2008. As a part of this, the government proposes to encourage states to develop their own sanitation strategies to tackle their own sanitation problems and meet the goals of the NUSP. The rating and award scheme has been taken up under this policy initiative.

Table 4.1: India’s Waste Management Initiatives

Policy and Regulation
Institutional Framework • Central Level
• State Level
• Other Organizations/Associations
Legal Framework • 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992
• Management and Handling Rules
• Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
• National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995
• National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997
• Water (Prevention ; Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
• Water (Prevention ; Control of Pollution) Cess Act,
1977
Environmental Norms • Existing Environmental Standards
• Recently Notified Environmental Standards
Policy Initiatives • National Urban Sanitation Policy, 2008
• National Environment Policy, 2006
• Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution, 1992
• National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development, 1992
• Law Commission Recommendation
• Ecomark Scheme, 1991

Key Government Programmes
JNNURM • Programme Scope and Structure
• Funding
• Experience So Far
• Experience on Reforms
• Issues and Challenges
Total Sanitation Campaign • Programme Scope and Structure
• Funding
• Experience So Far
• Issues and Challenges
MNRE’s Waste-to-Energy Programmes • Programme Scope and Structure
• Experience So Far
• Issues and Challenges
Other Programmes • Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme
• National Biogas and Manure Management
Programme
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan • Aims to clean up roads ,streets and infrastructure of India’s cities.
• Eliminate open defecation by building toilets

Technology and Practices
Traditional Technologies • Landfills
• Waste Incineration
• Sanitation
Key Projects • Kolkata: SWM Improvement Project
• Kanchrapara: SWM through Citizens’ Participation
• Kollam: MSW Management Project
• Chennai: MSW Project
• Navi Mumbai: MSW Management Project
• Gurgaon: Ultra Modern Waste Management Plant
• Namakkal: Zero Garbage Status
• Suryapet: Dustbin Free and Zero Garbage Town
• Visakhapatnam: SWM Though Citizens Participation
• Thiruvananthapuram: Decentralised SWM
• CIDCO: SWM System at Areas Adjoining Navi
Mumbai
Key Initiatives • Chennai: GPRS Equipped Waste Bin
• Ahmedabad: Tapping Methane Gas
• Goa: Solid Waste Management Corporation
• Nagpur: Bye-Laws to Collect Waste Generated in
Hotels
• Nagpur: Management of Construction Debris
• Akola: CBO for Waste Management
• Yavatmal: Door-to-Door Collection of Solid Waste

Rural Waste Management
Key Projects • Tamil Nadu: Zero Waste Mgt. at Vellore District
• Maharashtra: Slwm at Dhamner Village
• Gujarat: Greywater Mgt. at Fathepura Village
• Maharashtra: Greywater Mgt. at Wadgaon Village
• Nashik: Wastepaper to Pepwood
• Kerala: Post-NGP Initiatives at Kattapana Village

Industrial Solid Waste Mgt.
Key Projects • Andhra Pradesh: 3.66-MW Power Generation Project
• Uttar Pradesh: 6-MW Biomass Cogeneration Power
Plant
• Other WTE Projects
• Kolkata: Waste Minimisation of Small-Scale
Industrial Units
• Himachal Pradesh: Waste Treatment Plant

Liquid Waste Management
Key projects • Municipal Liquid Waste
• Other Noteworthy Water Reuse and Recycling
Projects
• Industrial Liquid Waste

4.3 CLEAN INDIA “SWACHH BHARAT MISSION”

On 2 October 2014 a Swachh Bharat Run was organized at the Rashtrapati Bhavan. As per the announcement from the Rashtrapati Bhavan around 1500 people participated and the event was flagged off by President Pranab Mukherjee. Participants in the run included officers and their families.
The Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi launched this campaign officially on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi and he himself cleaned the road. About 3 million government employees, school and college students of India participated in this event and it is considered as India’s biggest ever cleanliness drive.
The modules of the programme are:
• Construction of individual sanitary latrines for households below the poverty line with subsidy (80%) where demand exists.
• Conversion of dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines.
• Construction of exclusive village sanitary complexes for women providing facilities for hand pumping, bathing, sanitation and washing on a selective basis where there is not adequate land or space within houses and where village panchayats are willing to maintain the facilities.
• Setting up of sanitary marts.
• Total sanitation of villages through the construction of drains, soakage pits, solid and liquid waste disposal.
• Intensive campaign for awareness generation and health education to create a felt need for personal, household and environmental sanitation facilities

The Narendra Modi Government launched the “Swachh Bharat” movement to solve the sanitation problem and waste management in India by ensuring hygiene across the country. Emphasizing on “Clean India” in his 2014 Independence Day speech, PM Modi said that this movement is associated with the economic activity of the country. The prime objective of the mission is to create sanitation facilities for all. It aims to provide every rural family with a toilet by 2019.

The Pledge for All
PM Narendra Modi has urged each and every one to pledge the following as a part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan:
“I take this pledge that I will remain committed towards cleanliness and devote time for this. I will devote 100 hours per year—that is two hours per week—to voluntary work for cleanliness. I will neither litter nor let others litter. I will initiate the quest for cleanliness with myself, my family, my locality, my village and my work place. I believe that the countries of the world that appear clean are so because their citizens don’t indulge in littering nor do they allow it to happen.
With this firm belief, I will propagate the message of Swachh Bharat Mission in villages and towns. I will encourage 100 other persons to take this pledge which I am taking today. I will endeavour to make them devote their 100 hours for cleanliness. I am confident that every step I take towards cleanliness will help in making my country clean.”—Narendra Modi, Prime Minister, India.

Figure 4.2: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

4.4 INITIATIVES TAKEN BY PRIVATE COMPANIES

There are various private companies that are providing complete solutions for waste management. For example Subhash Projects and Marketing Limited (SPML) is a leading Engineering and Infrastructure development organization with 26 years in Water, Power and Infrastructure. Today SPML is surging ahead in Urban Infrastructure, Solid Waste Management, Water and Waste Water Systems, Cross Country Pipelines, Ports and SEZs, through BOOT/PPP initiatives. “SPML Enviro” is an integrated environment solution provider arm of Subhash Projects and Marketing Limited (SPML). It provides complete solution in relation to collection, transportation ; disposal of municipal / hazardous waste, segregation and recycling of municipal waste, construction ; management of sanitary landfill, construction ; operation of compost plant and waste to energy plant at the Delhi airport and Hyderabad Airport. SPML Enviro has invested in the necessary resources and partnerships to provide solid and water treatment solutions. It expertise includes solid waste-to-resources’ solutions – universal, industrial and medical waste. SPML Enviro has teamed up with PEAT International, North Illinois, USA, a waste-to-resources company specializing in treating and converting waste to usable resources. PEAT’s proprietary Plasma Thermal Destruction Recovery (PTDR) technology is an environmentally friendly process, that converts wastes into non-toxic synthetic gas (which is a valuable source of alternative energy) and other useful end-products. The PTDR is a proven, cost-effective, environmentally clean and commercially viable solution for waste remediation. SPML Enviro together with its joint-venture partners, has proven capabilities to successfully execute projects on turn-key basis involving Okhla sewage treatment plant, Delhi Jal Board, Bewana common effluent treatment, Delhi State Industrial Development Corporation, Delhi State Industrial Development Corporation, Yelahanka primary/tertiary sewage treatment plant, Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Okhla common effluent treatment plant, Sewage treatment plant, Mysore, Karnataka water supply and sewerage board, etc. SPML has also formed a joint venture with the US based Company INSITUFORM Technologies (INC.). INSITUFORM is a pioneer in sewer rehabilitation projects worldwide. The Company brings with them a No Dig Technology, which eliminates replacement of old sewers. In this, pipe within a pipe concept – a liner is inserted into the sewer, which makes it as good as new.
4.5 INITIATIVES TAKEN BY INDIAN CORPORATE

In India, there are various initiatives taken by many corporations. For example
• HCL Info system believes that the producers of electronic goods are responsible for facilitating an environmental friendly disposal, once the product has reached the end of its life. HCL Info system supports the ongoing initiative for separate e-waste legislation in India. HCL has been working on an easy, convenient and safe Programme for recycling of e-waste in India. HCL has created the online process of e-waste recycling request registration, where customers (both individual and corporate) can register their requests for disposal of their e-waste. Apart from corporate customers, HCL has extended its e-waste collection program to retail customers also through its HCL Touch spread points spread across the country HCL extends the recycling facility to its users regardless of the fact, when and where they purchased the product.
• Nokia India launched a ‘Take Back’ campaign to promote recycling of electronic waste, where customers can drop their old handset in the company’s stores and win gifts. The take-back campaign is aimed at educating mobile phone users on the importance of recycling e- waste. As a part of this initiative, Nokia encourage mobile phone users to dispose their used handsets and accessories such as charges and handsets, regardless of the brand, at any of the recycling bins set up across Nokia Priority Dealers and Nokia Care Centers.
• ITC Ltd has chosen energy management, environmental & waste management and social & farm forestry as major focus areas for CSR. Specific processes include recycling/reuse of paper mill back water for dilution of bleached pulp, recycling of paper machine primary clarifier outlet water for miscellaneous uses, etc.
These are few examples to show that Indian corporate is not behind in producing initiatives related to waste management.

Figure 4.3: Initiatives Taken by Indian Corporate

4.6 CHALLENGES IN INDIA

Key issues and challenges include lack of collection and segregation at source, scarcity of land, dumping of e-waste, lack of awareness, etc. Simple dumping of mixed waste is the practice followed practically everywhere and especially in the developing countries as they cannot mobilize financial resources for applying expensive technology propounded by the developed countries.
In India, “The new Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules 2000”, which came into effect from January 2004, fail, even to manage waste in a cyclic process. Waste management still is a linear system of collection and disposal, creating health and environmental hazards. Urban India is likely to face a massive waste disposal problem in the coming years. Until now, the problem of waste has been seen as one of cleaning and disposing as rubbish. But a closer look at the current and future scenario reveals that waste needs to be treated holistically, recognizing its natural resource roots as well as health impacts. Waste can be wealth, which has tremendous potential not only for generating livelihoods for the urban poor but can also enrich the earth through composting and recycling rather than spreading pollution as has been the case. Increasing urban migration and a high density of population will make waste management a difficult issue to handle in the near future, if a new paradigm for approaching it is not created.
A strong need felt on private sector participation in waste management but we can not ignore the risk of private sector participation. Risks of private sector involvement may include a lack of transparency, a commercial failure that would then lead to disturbance of public services, or low cooperation between stakeholders. Another important questions is that how effective are the public-private partnerships? We remember that Chennai based corporation and French conglomerate Onyx partnered for garbage collection. But we really don’t know how effective it was in practical sense. The Corporation paid heavy amount for garbage clearance. But there were complaints against the company. In any case the company was simply collecting garbage and dumping it on the dumpsites. There is no engineering miracle in collecting and dumping waste. The way forward is proper waste management policies which must be adopted and responsibilities of each are defined in proper manner and correctly watched, if the municipal authorities get the private companies (like onyx) to composting and recycling wastes rather than just dumping it.
There have been a variety of policy responses to the problem of urban solid waste in India, especially over the past few years, yet sustainable solutions either of organic or inorganic waste remains untapped and unattended. For developing countries, recycling of waste is the most economically viable option available both in terms of employment generation for the urban poor with no skills and investment. All policy documents as well as legislation dealing with urban solid waste mention or acknowledge recycling as one of the ways of diverting waste, but they do so in a piece-meal manner and do not address the framework needed to enable this to happen. Critical issues such as industry responsibility, a critical paradigm to enable sustainable recycling and to catalyze waste reduction through, say better packing, have not been touched upon. Recycling of only some types of materials like plastics, paper and metals is not enough. Many types of new materials mainly used for packaging are not, or indeed cannot be, recycled in the low-end technology being employed. Besides, there are serious issues of poor occupational safety provisions of the waste pickers as well as workers.
In India, new and expensive technologies are being pushed to deal with our urban waste problem, ignoring their environmental and social implications. It is particularly true in the case of thermal treatment of waste using technologies such as gasification, incineration, pyrolysis or pellatisation. Indian waste content does not provide enough fuel value (caloric value) for profitable energy production. It needs the addition of auxiliary fuel or energy. Such technologies put communities to risk and are opposed widely. For example, the United States has not been able to install a new incinerator for the past five years, while costs for burning garbage have escalated astronomically with rising environmental standards in other countries. While the more developed countries are doing away with incinerators because of high costs (due to higher standards of emission control), developing countries have become potential markets for dumping such technologies.

4.7 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE IMPROVEMENT

The political will is the first priority. Generally Government bodies and municipalities give priority to present problems which they face but do not think for future problems due to environmental decay. Their view is that, they will solve problems when they will face it but not now. Because doing something for environment does not provide political gains or assure next time seat. Now questions is that how can we change this mentality? We believe there should be a positive approach for a long time planning and implementation. Legislation and its effective enforcement is a key to sustainability for which the framework requires to be established.
Efforts to improve waste storage and collection are required. This can be done when each household and locality are provided standard bins that are placed outside for ease of collection. In areas where this is not appropriate, centrally located waste collection points should be established that are shared by a number of households. Wastes need o be increasingly sorted at the source, to separate materials that can be recycled and to educe the amount of wastes requiring collection and disposal. Co-operation is required among communities, the informal sector, the formal waste collectors and the authorities. An effective Solid Waste Management system should aim at minimizing manual handling and 100 % collection ; transportation of solid wastes should be achieved.
In solid waste management, one thing became very clear that segregation at source is to be practiced. There are lots of initiatives to manage wastes but goes in vein because of not identifying wealth in wastes. In India, we cannot afford sanitary land filling as land is precious here and there are lot of municipalities who do not have land as trenching ground. The source segregation needs lot of study on human behavior against waste littering. A continuous sensitization programme is to be planned according to the sentiments of the residents towards their city and ultimately it will work as wonders. If waste segregation is practiced, the potential threats can be minimized directly. Besides, the quality of materials retrieved will be better due to absence of mixing. The pickers can thus, fetch better money on the materials retrieved besides having lesser threats of catching diseases, cuts and wounds encountered in the usual practice of waste picking.
The adoption and transfer of the technologies from the developed countries without adapting them to the local or regional perspective would be fallacious on the part of the developing countries. Therefore, the technical aspects for a waste management would have to take into account many points for planning and implementation of strategies according to situation of the country. It would call for the strengthening of the management sector which has to go hand in hand with technical planning.
General public can play a very important role. Public participation is necessary for a proper waste management system. Changes in the habits of segregation, littering, can change the approach towards wastes. For example in a heritage town of West Bengal, there was a movement related to waste management. Within a span of two years it successfully sensitized residents for segregation at source and not littering in open areas. Now the city is really becoming clean and other people are also participating in the movement.
In order to improve the system efficiency and increase the coverage to 100 percent in each city, it is recommended to explore alternative arrangements for collection of waste like involving private operators. A mechanism to generate revenue from the citizens should also be developed. However, the approach to public-private partnerships pursued in the developed countries cannot be replicated for Indian towns in general. This approach can only be implemented after some modifications taking into account the local conditions.
There may be separate parallel decentralized schemes by the government. Financial support by the community based on decentralized schemes will provide the right impetus for the development of waste management method. For example the municipality of Bangalore has a parallel scheme, “Swaccha Bangalore”, which levies mandatory fees for all households, businesses and educational institutions to increase its financial resources. These user fees imply that the residents will expect the municipality to provide proper waste collection services. It integrates them into the overall waste management strategy in all localities thereby helping to reduce the amount of wastes going outside the locality. The levying of waste collection and disposal fees should be based on waste generation rates and according to the economic standard of the area, whilst considering the nature of the waste wherever necessary. However, these fees should not be levied solely to meet the financial lacunae for management and the equipment demand.
In India waste management could materialize only if service delivery will be linked to private sector participation. “It is imperative that the private sector comes forward and enables the public sector stakeholders to devise appropriate frameworks that result in a win-win for both sides.” Although there are some initiatives taken by corporate but there is strong needs that all corporate must come forward to take first step. At least they should manage their industrial waste rather littering and throwing in the rivers as we can find many examples in Indian cities like Kanpur, Varanasi, Agra, etc. The private sector could also play an important role in building the capacities of municipal bodies. Solid waste management, along with recycling, presents plenty of opportunities for partnerships. For example, EXNORA is an NGO in Chennai that focuses on the environment through their solid waste management program, which works in municipalities throughout Tamil Nadu.
In fact, despite the lack of proper legal and financial support by public agencies, the informal sector has a firm standing and gives an invaluable service to a large section of the society in relation to waste management. There is an urgent need to understand the vital role of this informal sector engaged in municipal solid waste management, study their socio-economic conditions, and to integrate them with the formal sector to achieve sustainable solid waste management on one hand and improve their living conditions on the other.
The possible future policy options available with the policy makers for management of municipal solid waste are to promote either/all of the existing alliances between private-private enterprises, private-public enterprises and private-public-community. The selected scenario should be based on socio-economic, environmental and health considerations. It should fulfill the basic goal of recycling the maximum waste generated, creating maximum employment through cleaner methods without bringing any threat/reducing the potential health hazards to the lower rung of the waste recycling sector and improving their socio-economic conditions, as well.
Another option is to promote formation of micro-enterprises among the waste-recycling sector through various policies. It is observed from various case studies of developing countries like Latin America, Egypt, etc. that if waste pickers and recyclers get official recognition from the local authorities and they organize themselves and institutionalize their activities, there is an overall improvement in the living conditions of these people. Micro-enterprises in the field of solid waste management sector are a new process in India and only few examples are available. The Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), Ahmedabad, India successfully improved the living conditions of women paper pickers, by organizing them into cooperatives and by searching for easily accessible raw materials in bulk quantity.
There are several missing links and many loose ends both in terms of management, technology and professional skill. The solutions need thorough understanding, for example, deployment of competent persons qualified in solid waste management (real hard taskmasters and not people who turn up with a handkerchief to cover their nose to keep the stink away), application of efficient combination of waste handling equipment’s in cost effective manner and streamlining of the handling of waste at various stages throughout its journey from source of generation to ultimate safe disposal site, without intermediate dumping and accumulation of waste for days together. A flawless continuous flow sheet of waste management has to be developed. Matching financial support, discipline and attitudinal change in all concerned will obviously be the key for effective and successful waste management in India.
In India the landfill, sometimes described as `sanitary landfill’, does not go beyond filling up of low-lying areas with stinking waste conveniently bypassing the recommended requirements for `sanitary landfill’. In the end, anything that is emptied at dumping or landfill sites continues to cause serious environmental depredation. The developed countries do boast that they handle their waste in a more scientific manner at landfill sites by laying the dumping grounds with a vulcanized plastic sheet to avoid leaching of toxic digested and undigested waste into the ground underneath. In our countries authorities practicing landfill do declare that they assiduously implement requirements for recommended landfill to assuage citizen concern.
The quantum of solid waste is ever increasing due to many reasons. Plastics waste is a significant portion of the total municipal solid waste (MSW). Recycling of plastics should be carried in such a manner to minimize the pollution level during the process and as a result to enhance the efficiency of the process and conserve the energy. Newer techniques related to recycling and reuse of plastic can be adopted.
Any new paradigm should include a cradle-to-grave approach with responsibility being shared by many stakeholders, including product manufacturers, consumers, communities, the recycling industry, trade, municipalities and the urban poor. The Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation, as well as Agriculture, should develop the market for compost, and if required provide subsidies for compost manure – first to provide organic soil nutrients to the farmers and to solve the urban waste problem which continuously is polluting land through uncontrolled dumping.
In order to make proper waste management activity sustain in true sense, following other points need to be given attention to –
• Region specific planning: Looking at the geographical, topographical and cultural diversity of the country it can be divided into five regions such as Northern region, Eastern region, Western region, Central region and Southern region. Each of these regions has different structure. Hence all the activities should be planned ; implemented on regional basis.
• Planning from below: To make Waste Management a success in true sense, the planning as well as implementation should start from general public level planning followed by block level planning, district level planning and state level planning.
• Involvement of self-help groups, youth groups and small entrepreneurs: The general public level waste management units can be run by self-help groups, youth groups or small entrepreneurs. This will help in making the Programme self-supportive and sustainable.
• Well planned and effective training policy: Technical training at all levels (General public to state) forms the backbone of a successful waste management Programme. Adequate training must be given to all those concerned prior to actual launching of the Programme in the field.

CONCLUSION

It is suffice to say that we require a more stringent integrated and strategic waste prevention framework to effectively address wastage related issues. There is an urgent need to build upon existing systems instead of attempting to replace them blindly with models from developed countries. To prevent any epidemic and to make each city a healthy city-economically and environmentally, there is an urgent need for a well-defined strategic waste management plan and a strong implementation of the same in India. To achieve financial sustainability, socio-economic and environmental goals in the field of waste management, there is a need to systematically analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the community as well as the municipal corporation, based on which an effective waste management system can be evolved with the participation of various stakeholders in India. The public apathy can be altered by awareness building campaigns and educational measures. Sensitization of the community is also essential to achieve the above objectives and we need to act and act fast as every city in India is already a hotbed of many contagious diseases, most of which are caused by ineffective waste management.
All these above said suggestions are given in relation to India and will be effective only when we individually feel the responsibility of making environment clean. As general public, we can not do much in policy and regulations formulation, adoption of newer technologies related to recycling and other waste management options but we can play a very important role in this process if we can adopt only few tips.
Here are a few tips to achieve this goal.
• Keep our self-informed: It is important that we are in the know about what is happening on the environment front. Read about how untreated sewage is thrown into the rivers, attend public lectures about air pollution, ; keep in touch with new policies that affect our environment. The more informed we are, the better equipped we are to fight such issues.

• Consume less: Motto: Refuse…..Reduce….Reuse… Recycle .This means consuming fewer resources, reusing whatever we can and finally recycling what cannot be reused. This process greatly reduces the garbage.
• Say ‘No’ to plastic bags: One of the biggest sources of pollution in Indian cities is the ubiquitous plastic bag. Refuse to accept one. Instead, carry a cloth shopping bag with us.
• Separate our garbage: India has one of the world’s most efficient recycling mechanisms. Use the service of our raddiwalla. Newspapers, bottle cans and other such recyclables can fetch us money and in the process we can help to save the environment. Rag pickers, too, perform a vital function for the city. Kitchen garbage (biodegradable) should be separated from non- biodegradable waste.

• Compost our organic waste: Start a vermiculture bin. We can convince our neighbors to start a vermiculture bin also to produce manure.

• Stop burning garbage: Ask our neighbors to desist from burning solid wastes. It may seem harmless but smoke emitted from leaves contributes to air pollution. Also, when there are plastic in the heap, it emits dangerous toxic fumes. Leaves can be converted to fertilizer through composting & plastic can be recycled.