Individuals Ely heavily on schemas, as they allow us to efficiently make sense of the world, they quickly allow us to form expectations, and make meaning of newly incorporated information. However once a schema has sufficiently developed new information is encoded if it matches with our schemas/core beliefs. When distortion arises in schema development, and schemas develop in a maladaptive manner, consequences for an individual can be severely harmfully and lead to mental disorders that include major depression and general anxiety disorder (Corey, 2009; Dobson, 2012).
This paper explores how CT works to change and alter distorted schemas, through cognitive restructuring. It is acknowledged that cognitive therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CB) are extremely similar in nature in fact CT is considered a subsection of CB; however when practical this paper focuses on Aaron Beck’s model of Cognitive Therapy. Overview of Theory History Cognitive Therapy (Aaron Beck) and CB (Ellis) were developed independently of one another but both emerged in the 1 9605 (Corey, 2009).
Both therapy models branched and grew from Behavior Therapy and Social Learning Theory, which made the assertion that people think before they act. CT gained recognition for its impact on depression in the late sass. This early research demonstrated that CT was not only effect at combating depression, but that it was established as equal to the leading psychopathology medications prescribed at during the time (Dobson, 2012).
This breakthrough in early research helped develop CT into what it is today, one of the most successful psychotherapies. Theory Health and Wellness. The foundation Of Cognitive Therapy (CT) is based on the assumption that how we think affects how we feel (our emotions), which then influences our thoughts and Behaviors (Corey, 2009). Health and wellness defined by cognitive therapists is related to one’s ability to think realistically and rationally about themselves, their environment and their future (Dobson, 2012).
A healthy individual will have developed realistic schema(s) that represents an accurate perception of their environment and events that take place in their environment; these accurate perceptions lends one an ability cope or manage the demands presently in their environment (Dobson, 2012). Dysfunction. Cognitive therapist are under the assumption that psychological distress is caused by inaccurate, irrational or distorted ignitions about stimulus, which then gives rise to distressed emotions, which give rise to a maladaptive behaviors and moods (Corey, 2009).
CT will denotes that dysfunctional Schema(s) are at the basis of core of psychological problems and that negative appraisals tend to be automatic and relatively reflexive in nature (Dobson, 2012). At a very basic level, an event or trigger will activate a distorted schema, this schema will be used to appraise the event, and consequences of this process are negative emotions and behaviors. This consequently strengthens inaccurate schema forming a perpetuate cycle of maladaptive inaccurate cognition. Client-counselor relationship.
The client-counselor relationship is built on the foundation of therapeutic values (Corey, 2009). This relationship follows and educational model with the counselor acting as the teacher and client as the student (Dobson, 2012). The teacher must be knowledgeable and engaging and the student must be active and committed. Enormous value is place on being collaborative relationship as teamwork between the counselor and client is demonstrated on all aspects of the therapy process. These processes include identifying; therapy goals, problem areas and suitable inventions (Corey, 2009).
The counselor will use expertise to provide rationale for direction of therapy however; the counselor will do so in an inclusive collaborative manner as a way to establish client autonomy and responsibility for the process Of change. Role of counselor. For cognitive therapy, the counselor must first work to establish a therapeutic relationship by genuinely demonstrating empathy and sensitivity towards the client and their issues (Corey, 2009). The establishment of a therapeutic leads to increased likely hood of developing an active partnership.
The counselor then assumes the role of educating the client about the nature of their robber, including identifying distorted cognitions and demonstrating the connection between thoughts feeling and actions (Corey, 2009; Dobson, 2012). Role of client. The clients main roles are that of being an attentive learner and active doer. For therapy to be effective, it is expected of the client to be active and attentive as the process of therapy is educational in nature and collaborative in style. Clients are expected to reflect on the learning process during therapy, and to put these lessons into action.
The Therapy Process Change process. The process of change for CT revolves around restructuring ore schemas surrounding oneself, their environment and/or their future (Dobson, 2012). A distortion in schema will be identified through the therapy process. Counselor and client will explore interventions and evaluate possible solutions through homework assignment and evaluations of real life experience. The counselor and client will work together to develop skills with intent on altering inaccurate schemas or work tougher to develop an ability to manage and overcome distortion in cognitions (Dobson, 2012).
CT has a fundamental philosophy that people can learn to become their own therapists through skill development. Goals. Clients enter CT with a specific problem through orientations to therapy both the client and counselor mutually agree upon specific goals to be the focal point of their effort. At a fundamental level, these goals consist of teaching and developing a set of skills for clients to use in the event of psychological distress, that are a direct result of distortions in cognition (Dobson, 2012).
Specific goals of therapy include identifying triggers or events that spark maladaptive cognitions and their associated schemas (Corey, 2009; Dobson, 2012). Evaluate the accuracy of these thoughts and their schemas; if inaccurate employ techniques directed at developing accurate perceptions. CUTS ultimate goal is to eliminate systematic cognitive distortions by restructuring them in a realistic accurate manner. Techniques. Cognitive techniques focus on recognizing and exploring a client’s beliefs about themselves, their world and their future and altering them if they are maladaptive in nature.
Cognitive therapies aim is to assist clients in developing alternative ways of interpreting daily events. Here are some featured techniques Rational Role-Play. A technique used to diminish maladaptive responses to one automatic thought by cognitive therapists. Therapist instructs the client to verbalize their automatic thoughts, which are then verbalized back to the client, giving the client an opportunity to respond to their initial thought in an alternative realistic manner. Problem Solving Therapy.
Straightforward technique that involves a client generating as many different ways solve a specific problem without worrying about efficacy of said solutions. This technique encourages alternate thought and opens the client up to different ways of solving problems and thinking about problems. Humor. Using jokes and humor to create alternative perspective on negative thoughts. Therapists will direct humorous jokes towards a specific thought and not client. This sudden change in dialogue dynamics allows clients to see different perspectives on negative thoughts.
Evaluation Research. CT is one of the most researched and established psychotherapies and current research is establishing its efficacy in a variety Of setting concerning psychological disorders. A recent meta-analysis investigated the clinical efficacy of CT versus exposure therapy for a range of anxiety disorders, as these are the two most common interventions in treating anxiety disorders (Souring, 2011 Souring, (201 1) concluded that cognitive therapy was a significantly superior treatment vs. exposure therapy concerning Social phobias.
Research regarding the efficacy of CT has been around for 40 years, in that time CT has established itself as a highly effective psychotherapy against major depression and anxiety related disorders (Corey, 2009; Dobson, 2012) Multicultural considerations. Cognitive Therapy is focused on helping individuals examine their core beliefs and doing so by emphasizing the uniqueness of the individual. The therapy process is a collaborative in nature and designed to understand client goals, which again are unique to client sugarless of their culture.
Researchers have shown how CT uses its individual approach to span cultures and clients by demonstrating its growth in popularity in various countries and population (Dobson & Katie, 2000, Hays, 1995). Hays’ (2009) review of multiculturalism applications of CB demonstrated its applicability to a wide range of ethnicities. She noted that counselor must be competent with the cultural dynamics that affect their clients. A competent counselor must understand core values of an individual client and themselves.
Strong knowledge of counselor bias, cultural bias knowledge for other cultures must be present before effective treatment can take place. Future Developments Future. Con dative therapy has established itself as one of the premier therapeutic approaches in combating mental disorders, but there is still progress to be made. Future of CT calls on researchers and practitioner to delve deeper into complex nature of therapy itself. Evaluations into the processes of change have not been clarified.
Specifically, what technical aspects of CT intervention are most effective, and how does its overall efficacy of CT vary from disorder to disorder. Current research has also demonstrated that combining Cognitive Therapy with traditional pharmacopoeia has not been demonstrated as effective when compared to monetary (Dobson & Katie, 2000). Future research may aim to study the causal relationships to get a better understanding on the interplay of physiological and biological treatment mechanisms. Counselor-advocate.
CT center on restructuring core beliefs/schema and in recent years, it has become apparent that the percentage of eating disorders and body image disorders for both males and females has continually risen (Cash & Leverage, 1996). It is understood that children and adolescents are exposed to media that depict beauty and health in a finite number of ways, which are not realistically or healthily obtainable. Nevertheless, these standards still exist and cause problematic schema development for youth and adolescents concerning health and body image (Cash & Leverage, 1996).
To address this issue affecting a high percent of our nation’s youth and adolescents I would make it a point to education our communities and schools on ways to reestablished what constitutes health and beauty. Expand the knowledge and work with students and parents on ways to develop accurate schemas relating to health and beauty. GUY’S social justice mission. Seattle University has a social justice mission in essence aimed at educating individuals to become leaders who confront injustice and advocate for those who are undeserved in our communities.
CT is focused on the individual, personal level; the problem exists within the client and the solution is focused on an internal change with in the client. CT does not develop self-advocacy skills, for oppressed or discriminated upon individuals; therefore it does not align with Seattle university social justice mission. Application Client group. Research has demonstrated the efficacy of CT for broad arrange of psychological problems. It has also to a lesser extent-established efficacy for working with individuals of all ages and of various populations (Corey, 2009; Hays, 1995).
Extensive research on CT for the adult populations has proven to be effective treatment of major depressive order, generalized anxiety disorders, social phobias, substance abuse, and obsessive-compulsive disorders (Corey, 2009; Dobson 2012). For children and adolescents CT has proven to be effective in problems related to aggression, anxiety, social anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social ideation and eating disorders (Corey, 2009; Dobson 2012; Frigged & McClure, 2002). cognitive therapy by design is flexible and can be tailored to the individual so it should come to no surprise that it spans not only disorders but also populations. With that noted the strength of CT still resides is its ability to support adults who suffer from depression (Dobson, 2012). Counseling setting. CT is gaining applicable application to a variety of psychological disorders that span age and ethnic demographics as previously noted (Corey, 2009). However, research on CT demonstrates it is most applicable in a clinical setting working with depressed adults (Colleague, Castrato, Cruncher, & Blackburn, 1998).
This may be due the fact that most researchers and influential practitioners who work with CT operate in a clinical setting. This may by default as individuals who work in schools and agencies are not prominent contributors to the literature. Personal Reflection Likes and dislikes. There is a lot to like about CT; it has a high efficacy for psychological disorders, it has established an abundance of techniques, and it is a time-limited therapy. Reasonably like how CT equips clients with tools and skills to combat their problems post therapy.
CT provides clients with self- help strategies and techniques they can use out in the real world. When a problem arises, knowledgeable clients can efficiency and effectively combat it. Find this ability to be one’s own therapist to very powerful. Dislike its disregard for societal impacts on mental health. Research has shown that children and adults who grow up or live in poverty or who have a low socioeconomic status suffer from more mental health problems that those who don’t. It also neglects to understand the fundamental underpinning that effects the psychological health of minorities who face societal oppressions.
I think greater good can come from understanding the underpinning. Limitation. One limitations associated with Cognitive therapy is its narrow approach to solving client problems. Cognitive therapy focuses directly on the individuals here and now cognitions and that changing the client’s thoughts does not address the foundational causes of abnormality. This narrow limitation is also demonstrated in CT ability to address or acknowledge environmental and societal influences that may affect distorted cognitions. Strength. What is seen as limitation can also be seen as a strength.