Causesof civil warIbelieve the civil war was fought for many reasons and is not held to just one.If I had to choose one main reason it would be because of the future ofslavery, States rights, western expansion and the bleeding in Kansas. This warwas fought by the Northern and Western states and territories to preserve theUnion, and the South fought to create Southern independence as a newconfederation of states under its own constitution.Slaverywas of great importance to the south because of the southern economy.
The southwas an agricultural-based economy whose biggest yields were cotton and tobacco,depended almost entirely only slaves for labor (Slavery without submission).Northern workers felt that slavery hurt wages and took land that could have beenused by poor whites to sustain an economic independence, whereas Southernersargued that ending slavery would destroy the southern economy (SectionalCrisis). In 1790, a thousand tons of cotton were being produced every year inthe South. By period, 500,000 slaves grew to 4 million. 1860, it was a milliontons. (Slavery Without Submission) Themajority of labor landowners bought African slaves to work their massive plantations,and even small time farmers often used slave labor.
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As the region expanded,industries expanded too, particularly those needed to process the mass amountof crops or extract natural resources. These industries often employed poorwhites as well as slaves, either owned or used. As the use of slaves lowered inthe North over time, it increased in the Southern states. This was because itwas smart for the landowners to use slaves instead of hiring white laborers whomight cost more, strike, or quit, as to where slaves couldn’t. Their plantationsdepended on increased production of export crops on increasingly tired soil. Thetobacco plant in itself requires massive amounts of water, and other nutrients tostay alive. The plant “tired” the soil by taking all of the importantnutrients away from the soil.Inaddition, the south wanted slave states to expand into the west while the northwanted to make western states free states.
Additional territories gained fromthe U.S and Mexican war heightened the slavery debate. Abolitionists fought tohave slavery pronounced illegal in those territories, just like the NorthwestOrdinance of 1787 had done in the territory that became the states of Ohio,Indiana, and Illinois. Slavery supporters feared that if the institution wereprohibited in any states carved out of the new territories the political powerof slaveholding states would be diminished, possibly to the point of slaverybeing illegal everywhere within the United States. Pro- and anti-slavery groupsrushed to populate the new territories. TheRepublican party was opposed to westward expansion of slavery into these newstates and when Abraham Lincoln, who was a member of the Republican party, wonthe 1860 election, the southern states saw this as a major loss to their cause.
(YAWP) Southernerswere sure that the North meant to take away their right to govern themselves,abolish slavery, and destroy the Southern economy. Having exhausted their legaland political options, they felt that the only way to protect themselves fromthis Northern assault was to no longer be a part of the United States ofAmerica. After South Carolina seceded in December of 1860, it demanded that theUnited States abandon its military forts in Charleston Harbor.
On April 10,1861, knowing that resupplies were on their way from the North to the federalgarrison in the harbor of Charleston,South Carolina, Confederate forces in Charleston demanded the fort’s surrender.The fort’s commander, Major Robert Anderson, refused. On April 12, theConfederates opened fire with cannons. At 2:30 p.m. the following day, MajorAnderson surrendered. War had begun.
Lincoln called for volunteers to put downthe Southern rebellion. Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee,refusing to fight against other Southern states and feeling that Lincoln hadpast his presidential authority, reversed themselves and voted in favor ofsession. The last one, Tennessee, did not depart until June 8, nearly a weekafter the first land battle had been fought at Philippi in Western Virginia.(The western section of Virginia rejected the session vote and broke away,ultimately forming a new, Union-loyal state, West Virginia. Thedebate over which powers belonged to thestates and which to the Federal Government became heated in the 1830s.
The disagreement of whether slavery would beallowed in the new territories forming as the nation expanded westward. TheMissouri compromise tried to solve the problem but this only temporary calmedthe storm that was a brewing. Congress passed a bill grantingMissouri statehood as a slave state under the condition that slavery was to beforever prohibited in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36thparallel, which runs approximately along the southern border of Missouri. Abolitionistin the north made southerners believe that their way of life was under attackand slavery would soon be illegal. Nat turner’s rebellion, a violent slaverevolt in 1831 gave southerners the argument that slaves were dangerous andthat being said slavery was stopping Africans to create conflict.(StatesRights)As long as there were an equal number of slave-holding states in theSouth as non-slave-holding states in the North, the two regions had evenrepresentation and neither could overpower the other. Each new territory that applied to be a state threatened to disruptthe balance.
Southerners argued for states’ rights and a weak federalgovernment but it was not until the 1850s that they brought up the issue ofsecession. Southerners argued that, having ratified the Constitution and havingcomplied to join the nation in the late 1780s, they had the power to appeal theagreement and threatened to do just that. Inan effort to keep the balance of power in Congress between slave and freestates, the Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 adding Missouri as a slavestate and Maine as a free state. The Missouri Compromise marked a major turningpoint in America’s sectional crisis because it exposed to the public just howbig the slavery issue had grown. Thedebate filled newspapers, city halls and Congressional records. Whichultimately created rebellion in the southern states. Antislavery andpro-slavery positions from that point forward repeatedly returned to thearguments made during the Missouri debates. Legislators battled for weeks overwhether the Constitutional framers intended slavery’s expansion or not, andthese contests left deep scars.
Even seemingly simple and straightforwardphrases like “All Men Are Created Equal” were hotly contested all over again.Questions over the expansion of slavery remained open, but nearly all Americansconcluded that the Constitution protected slavery where it already existed.(Sectional Crisis) The Missouri Compromise was criticized by many southernersbecause it established the principle that Congress could make laws regardingslavery; northerners, on the other hand, condemned it for acquiescing in theexpansion of slavery south of the compromise line. Evenso the act helped hold the Union together for more than thirty years.
Itwas repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which established popular ruleregarding slavery in Kansas and Nebraska, though both were north of thecompromise line. Three years later, the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott casedeclared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, on the ground that Congresswas prohibited by the Fifth Amendment from depriving individuals of privateproperty without due process of law (13-5). The Kansas-Nebraska Actallowed each territory to decide the issue of slavery on the basis of popular rule.
Kansas with slavery would violate the Missouri Compromise, which had kept theUnion from falling apart for the last thirty-four years. Theaftermath of the act led to the period of violence known as Bleeding Kansas.Many people from Kansas would argue that the civil war ultimately started in1855. This is when pro-slavery citizen’s rushed into Kansas to try to establishthat territory as a slave state. In doing so they looted, burned and killed inorder to intimidate the abolitionist. They were met by anti-slavery Kansans, aswell as many other abolitionist like John Brown, who solely went to Kansas tofight against slavery.
Though Kansaeventually came in the country as a free state in 1861, the events there helpedspread the idea of violence as a solution to the slavery problem. , The uses ofpropaganda by both sides increased tension which ultimately led to the civilwar.So overall there weremany reasons the civil war happened, mostly all of them lead back some way toslavery. The civil war was a turning point in America history. The Civil Warwas one of the most deadly wars in American history. More Americans died thenin all other wars combined. Sons fought against fathers and the nation was torn apart. The nation wasreunited and the southern states were not allowed to secede.
(States Rights)TheSouth was placed under military rule and divided into military districts. Southernstates had to apply for readmission to the Union. The Federal government proveditself superior over the states. Essentially this was a war over states’ rightsand federalism and the victor was the power of the national government. Slaverywas effectively ended.
While slavery was not outlawed until the passing of the 13th amendment, the slaves were set freeupon the end of the war. Industrialism began as a result of the increase inwartime production and the development of ne