BricksThe process of manufacturing or making bricks from clayinvolves preparation of clay, molding, drying and burning.
The bricks arebuilding materials which are normally available as rectangular blocks. Formanufacturing of bricks, the site should be selected based on some importantconsiderations such as: the ground where the bricks are being made should beplain surface. The site should have access to the main roads for transportingmaterials. The site where the bricks are being made should offer all the facilitiesare needed to the workers. There are four different processes are involvedduring manufacturing bricks; which are preparation of clay, molding, drying andburning.
The preparation of bricks making is done in six steps which are gettingthe soils that is suitable for perfect bricks, we will need pure clay toproduce good bricks. The top layer of the soil should be thrown away to about200mm depth as it’s not suitable for the bricks. After digging out the soil from the ground,the soil should be spread on the plain surface, clean the soil and make surethere is nothing else but pure soil.
If there anything else on the soil such asstones or vegetable, it should be removed as it can damage the machines duringthe clay mixing. In the modling process, the clay is mold into brick shapes.The process of molding brick into its shapes can be done in two different ways:which are hand molding and machine molding. Hand holding is for small scale andmachine molding is for large scale.
Now people hardly make bricks by handsbecause it’s done by machine. Hand manufacturing is cheap compared to machinemanufacturing. The hand manufacturing process can be done in two differentcategories which are ground molded and table molded. Also, the machine moldingprocess can be done in two different ways which are plastic clay machine anddry clay machine. After molding the bricks, it then comes to drying becauseafter molding the bricks contain little amount of moisture in the bricks whichhas to be dried otherwise it could crack while burning.
The drying of rawbricks has to be done naturally otherwise it won’t last long and it won’t bestrong. The period of drying time may be 3 to 10 depends on the weatherconditions. Lastly the last process of manufacturing bricks is burning. In theprocess of burning, the dried bricks are burned either in small or large scalesup to certain degree temperature.
In this stage of the process, the bricks willgain strength and hardness so it is the main important stage of manufacturingbricks. The temperature required for burning the bricks is about 1100?c. if thebricks are burnt beyond this limit they will be brittle and it will be easy tobreak which is waste or time and waste of money. If the bricks are burnt underthe limit of 1100?c then the bricks will not gain enough strength and there isa chance of absorbing moisture from the atmosphere. That’s why the process ofburning bricks should be done properly to meet the requirements of strong andgood bricks. P8SteelThe mostimportant properties of steel are great formality and durability, stretchable,good strength and good thermal conductivity.
As well as the steel has to beresistance to corrosion. When choosing a material for specific application, theengineers must be confident about the material being suitable for theconditions and environment as it’s important for people’s safety. There aremany different measurement systems used to state the properties of given steelsuch as yield strength and Durability using tensile testing. Also Toughness ismeasured by impact testing.
The physical properties of steel are related to thephysics or the materials, such as elastic modulus, density, poison’s ratio,thermal conductivity etc. some of the physical properties of listed down below;Density p =7.7 ÷ 8.2 kg/dm3 Elasticmodulus E = 190 ÷ 210 GPaPoisson’sratio v = 0.27 ÷ 0.33Thermalconductivity K = 11.
2 48.3 W/mKThermalexpansion a = 9 ÷27 10-6/K ConcretePropertiesof concrete are influenced by many different factors mainly due to mixproportion of cement, sand, aggregates and water. The different properties ofconcretes are grades, characteristic strength, tensile strength, compressionstrength, durability, creep, unit weight, shrinkage, modular and Poisson’sratio.
The usage ofconcrete is mainly for fundamental purposes such as foundations, columns, beamsand floors, hence why it is required to be efficient in taking the masses thatwill be put on. To produce concrete, itis mixed with cement, additional relevant cementations materials, water, finesand, gravel or crushed stones along or without admixtures towards adjustingthe properties, reinforcements created from ridged carbon steel and fibres orpigments. Moreover, the elements are added evenly than manipulated tomanufacture a concrete of a distinct sturdiness and permanence therefore thismanifests that concrete is ‘fit for purpose’ for the job for which it isplanned.The strengthof the concretes ate determined by the amount of forces required to crush it.
The concretes are kilograms per square centimetre or pounds per square inch.The strength of concretes can be affected by many variable reasons such asmoisture and temperature. The strength of the concretes can be improved in manydifferent ways such as tensile strength can be improved by adding metal rods,wires and cables. The modulusof elasticity of concrete can be defined as the slop of the line drawn from astress of zero to a compressive stress of 0.45f’c.