Bricks all the facilities are needed to the

Bricks

The process of manufacturing or making bricks from clay
involves preparation of clay, molding, drying and burning. The bricks are
building materials which are normally available as rectangular blocks. For
manufacturing of bricks, the site should be selected based on some important
considerations such as: the ground where the bricks are being made should be
plain surface. The site should have access to the main roads for transporting
materials. The site where the bricks are being made should offer all the facilities
are needed to the workers. There are four different processes are involved
during manufacturing bricks; which are preparation of clay, molding, drying and
burning. The preparation of bricks making is done in six steps which are getting
the soils that is suitable for perfect bricks, we will need pure clay to
produce good bricks. The top layer of the soil should be thrown away to about
200mm depth as it’s not suitable for the bricks.  After digging out the soil from the ground,
the soil should be spread on the plain surface, clean the soil and make sure
there is nothing else but pure soil. If there anything else on the soil such as
stones or vegetable, it should be removed as it can damage the machines during
the clay mixing. In the modling process, the clay is mold into brick shapes.
The process of molding brick into its shapes can be done in two different ways:
which are hand molding and machine molding. Hand holding is for small scale and
machine molding is for large scale. Now people hardly make bricks by hands
because it’s done by machine. Hand manufacturing is cheap compared to machine
manufacturing. The hand manufacturing process can be done in two different
categories which are ground molded and table molded. Also, the machine molding
process can be done in two different ways which are plastic clay machine and
dry clay machine. After molding the bricks, it then comes to drying because
after molding the bricks contain little amount of moisture in the bricks which
has to be dried otherwise it could crack while burning. The drying of raw
bricks has to be done naturally otherwise it won’t last long and it won’t be
strong. The period of drying time may be 3 to 10 depends on the weather
conditions. Lastly the last process of manufacturing bricks is burning. In the
process of burning, the dried bricks are burned either in small or large scales
up to certain degree temperature. In this stage of the process, the bricks will
gain strength and hardness so it is the main important stage of manufacturing
bricks. The temperature required for burning the bricks is about 1100?c. if the
bricks are burnt beyond this limit they will be brittle and it will be easy to
break which is waste or time and waste of money. If the bricks are burnt under
the limit of 1100?c then the bricks will not gain enough strength and there is
a chance of absorbing moisture from the atmosphere. That’s why the process of
burning bricks should be done properly to meet the requirements of strong and
good bricks.

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P8

Steel

The most
important properties of steel are great formality and durability, stretchable,
good strength and good thermal conductivity. As well as the steel has to be
resistance to corrosion. When choosing a material for specific application, the
engineers must be confident about the material being suitable for the
conditions and environment as it’s important for people’s safety. There are
many different measurement systems used to state the properties of given steel
such as yield strength and Durability using tensile testing. Also Toughness is
measured by impact testing. The physical properties of steel are related to the
physics or the materials, such as elastic modulus, density, poison’s ratio,
thermal conductivity etc. some of the physical properties of listed down below;

Density p =
7.7 ÷ 8.2 kg/dm3

Elastic
modulus E = 190 ÷ 210 GPa

Poisson’s
ratio v = 0.27 ÷ 0.33

Thermal
conductivity K = 11.2 48.3 W/mK

Thermal
expansion a = 9 ÷27 10-6/K

  Concrete

Properties
of concrete are influenced by many different factors mainly due to mix
proportion of cement, sand, aggregates and water. The different properties of
concretes are grades, characteristic strength, tensile strength, compression
strength, durability, creep, unit weight, shrinkage, modular and Poisson’s
ratio.  

The usage of
concrete is mainly for fundamental purposes such as foundations, columns, beams
and floors, hence why it is required to be efficient in taking the masses that
will be put on.  To produce concrete, it
is mixed with cement, additional relevant cementations materials, water, fine
sand, gravel or crushed stones along or without admixtures towards adjusting
the properties, reinforcements created from ridged carbon steel and fibres or
pigments. Moreover, the elements are added evenly than manipulated to
manufacture a concrete of a distinct sturdiness and permanence therefore this
manifests that concrete is ‘fit for purpose’ for the job for which it is
planned.

The strength
of the concretes ate determined by the amount of forces required to crush it.
The concretes are kilograms per square centimetre or pounds per square inch.
The strength of concretes can be affected by many variable reasons such as
moisture and temperature. The strength of the concretes can be improved in many
different ways such as tensile strength can be improved by adding metal rods,
wires and cables.

The modulus
of elasticity of concrete can be defined as the slop of the line drawn from a
stress of zero to a compressive stress of 0.45f’c. 

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