Breast an understanding of how the breast

Breast cancer amongst the races                                                                                               1                 In this day and age,the word cancer has been one of the scariest words that one can hear at adoctor’s appointment. Cancer is a serious disease caused by the interruption ofabnormal cells to spread throughout the human body.

It is a life-threateningtumor that develops in one of both breasts. Breast cancer, in particular is amalignant tumor that starts within the cells of the breast. The tumor theninvades the tissue and leads to the spreading of cancer which then leads to thedisruption of the human body overall.

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Breast cancer has been one of the majorcancer that is predominantly experienced by women. Breast cancer occurs inwomen but can also occur in men because men do have breast tissue; however,this disease is well known to occur in women. This paper will further explorethe types of breast cancer and the races of women who are affected by thisdisease.

           To understand breast cancer, you must first have an understanding of how thebreast is formed. There are many tissues within the breast and all of thesetissues are able to be affected by this disease. There are many terms that areassociated with breast cancer and the tissues that are affected by the cancer.Some of which are, carcinoma which is a cancer that begins in the lining layer ofthe breast. According to American Cancer Society, nearly all breast cancers arecarcinomas.

Adenocarcinoma is a cancer that starts in the glandular tissue;this tissue is responsible for the secretion of fluid. This tissue is one whichis responsible for the production of breast milk. Sarcoma are cancers thatbegins in the muscle tissue, which is also associated with the blood vessels ofthe breast however, this cancer is very rare. Breast cancer is broken down intomany stages, from stage 0 to stage 4 breast cancer. The difference between thestages are that each stage represents how noninvasive or invasive the canceris.

The earlier the cancer is detected the better chances of it being treatableas opposed to the most advanced stage which is Breast cancer amongst the races                                                                                              2stage 4. This is the cancer that is very invasive and has spreadto other organs and is resilient to any form of treatment. This unfortunatelyleads to illness and death. It is important to know the stages of breast cancerand all of the treatments that can help get rid of the cancer.           Many questions may arise and one main question is, how does one get breastcancer? According to American Cancer Society, breast cancer causes are unclearhowever, genetics, diet, and chemicals used are a major impact of breast cancer.A woman who has a family history of breast cancer and more likely to develop itas well. Researchers have identified two genes which is associated to breastcancer and they are BRCA1 and BRCA2. Researchers also linked hormone exposureto breast cancer.

An important hormone within a female’s body is estrogen;according to American Cancer Society, this hormone is responsible for thedivision of cells. The more the cells divide, the likelihood of the cellsbecoming abnormal. It is important to know the factors of breast cancer and therace of women who are mostly affected by this cancer and why.           Breast cancer does not discriminate however, women from different racialbackgrounds have different rates of factors that increases their risk for breastcancer. Some of these factors are, age, body weight, first menstrual cycle,hormone use, breastfeeding, number of childbirth and lifestyle. According toSusan G. Komen, Caucasian had the highest rate of getting breast cancer,followed by African American women.

As previously stated, childbirth is afactor that decreases or increases the chance of breast cancer. Susan G. Komenstates, “For example, compared to Hispanic/Latina women and Black/non-Hispanicblack/African American women, white/non-Hispanic white women are more likely tohave children at a later age and to have fewer children.

This factor increasesbreast cancer risk”. In accordance to childbirth, the process of breastfeedingdecreases the chance of breast cancer; with African American women and Breast cancer amongst the races                                                                                      3Hispanic women having children at younger ages and alsobreastfeeding, this gives them a better chance of decreasing their chances ofdeveloping breast cancer. Overall, African Americans women have a slightlylower chance of breast cancer compared to White women. Now here is the twist;yes, African American women have a slightly lower chance but with age, theprobability increases. Among the ages of 40 and younger, African American womenhave a higher rate of developing breast cancer compared to white women.According to Susan G. Komen, the reason for this claim may be due toreproductive and lifestyles.

Statistics shows that African American women arediagnosed with breast cancer at a young age; by the age of 60, white womenchances of breast cancer increase. From 2008-2012, breast cancer incidencesincreased 0.4% in African American women and 1.5% per year in white women.Evidence shows that breast cancer rates vary by race/ethnicity. Statistically,in 2006 white women who were diagnosed with breast cancer was 182,130 and thedeaths due to this was 34,320 as opposed to African American women who had atotal of 19,620 and the death due to this was 5,670. The rates do vary eachyear.

There are three subtypes of breast cancer.This subtype is diagnosed by the presence of the tumor being presented or thelack of the receptors known as hormones. According to Susan G. Komen, thepresence or the lack of the receptors known to fuel most breast cancers whichare estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth.

The successfultreatments for breast cancer for breast cancer targets these receptors. Hormonereceptors are responsible for receiving messages from the hormones estrogen andprogesterone. These hormones are conjoined to receptors that provides the functionswhich allows the cells to grow, multiply and function in its proper manner.Breast cancer cells also have these hormone receptors which is responsible for Breast cancer amongst the races                                                                                          4responding well to treatment. Unfortunately, in African Americanwomen, statistics shows that they are more prone to being diagnosed with triplenegative breast cancer.

This means that African American women does not havethe receptors needed to target the cancer. This is known as estrogenreceptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative. However,although this type of cancer is resilient to treatment, it does respond well tochemotherapy.

This is the most aggressive cancer which African American womenare more likely to develop because even after treatment, it tends to recur. Notonly is it aggressive but the survival rate decreases as well. Researchers aswell as pharmaceutical companies are looking for treatments that can targetthis cancer. According to Susan G. Komen, some lifestyles are to blame for thisaggressive subtype.   According to the American Cancer Society, in2015, white women have a 395 chance of surviving breast cancer than blackwomen.

Now that we established lifestyles, we have to point out the financialdifferences between both ethnicities. To do the required screening for breastcancer which is called mammograms, these women must first have adequate healthinsurance. As confirmed by a study observed by the daily news, there is aracial disparity surrounding access to follow up care and appointments.Majority of the White women have access to proper health care that can coverthem and help with proper treatment. As opposed to African American women, theyare not offered proper care due to lack of health insurance or even lack ofadequate health insurance.

According to a study done (Health Insurance Coverageand Racial Disparities in Breast Reconstruction in Breast Cancer patients)health insurance coverage affects the care given to uninsured women. Mostlywomen of color who are under public coverage were less likely to receivereconstruction. Furthermore, minority women on public coverage are most Breast cancer amongst the races                                                                                     5disadvantaged. Susan G. Komen reported in her study, a mainreason behind differences in mammography screening rates in the U.S. is the healthinsurance.

It is very important to tackle every cause and effect that thisdisease has on the lives of these women affected. In 2015 women ages 40-65, 31percent of women who were not fortunate enough to have health insurance wereable to have a mammogram done in the past 2 years while 68 percent of thosewith health insurance were able to have a mammogram done in the past 2 years.There is a clear difference and huge gap between the women who have healthinsurance and those of the women who does not have health insurance hence isthe reason why the lack of health insurance plays a major for breast screeningdisparities not necessarily for one race only but it is predominantly AfricanAmerican women who are usually faced with this situation. Mentioned previously,breast cancer rate is slightly low among African American women than in whitewomen however, breast cancer mortality is higher in African American women andthe factors that are present are a main reason to why the mortality rate ishigher. The diagnosis of breast cancer is usually found later on in AfricanAmerican women making the survival rate very low. African American women areusually diagnosed at a later age because some women are not entitled to propermedical care so these vital doctor visits are limited.

Finding breast cancer atan early stage increases the survival rate greatly. This is why the AmericanCancer Society recommends women to begin having yearly mammograms and doctorvisits because the earlier one is screened, the better chance they have to becancer-free. Statistic shows that breast cancer mortality was 42 percent higherin black women than in white women. Prior to the affordable care act, AfricanAmerican women rarely had access to breast cancer screening as opposed to whitewomen who had access to regular breast cancer screenings.

Women who are poor orunder insured are less able to get access to Breast cancer amongst the races                                                                                     6decent screening and treatments. According to American CancerSociety, black women now have slightly higher rates of mammography use thanother women and this statement holds true. It is unfortunate because not onlydoes the lifestyle of one race determine their risk of breast cancer but alsothe financial status as well. An article was written on “Woman’s healthmagazine” by Zahra Barnes, which dedicated to breast cancer awareness month. Theauthor Zahra Barnes states, “When you hear the words “breast cancer” you maythink of a middle aged white woman clad in a pink T-shirt and adorned with pinkribbons, crusading for the awareness of the deadly disease”. It was once saidthat breast cancer was a white woman disease and statistic clearly shows thatthis statement does not hold true because any race of women is at risk of beingdiagnosed with breast cancer. This disease is not biased however, as rehearsedin this essay it is very important to link breast cancer to one’s lifestyle.

Whether the affluence is due to poverty, poor eating habits, alcoholism, or anyother risk factors, breast cancer is not biased. One article published by MarlynAllicock, PhD, MPH, and co, “African American women’s perspective on breastcancer: implication for communicating risk of basal-like breast cancer”, theauthor made a great argument which was the forefront for breast cancer is notblack women, but white women. One participant of the study mentioned, “Or eventhose walks where you see the people in pink, there’s never any Black people inthose pictures, either”. This led to the author bringing up a perfect pointwhich is the lack of representation of African Americans in breast cancerinformation and activities. It is unfortunate because most women fail to be involvedin these activities, causing them to be misinformed and ultimately diagnosedwith breast cancer at a later stage. It is very important to be aware of all ofthe forms of breast cancer that are found in both races, African Americans and Breast cancer amongst the races                                                                                     7Caucasian alike.

A statement made in the article was, “It iswhite women who are diagnosed more, but the African Americans, we die more”. Thisis why it is very important to have yearly check ups and understand the riskthat are associated with this life-threatening disease.  In conclusion, breast cancer is a disease thatcan affect any race both men and women alike.

Due to the mortality linked withbreast cancer, researchers have been encouraging all women to get screened andtake advantage of yearly mammograms. This disease can be prevented by changingone’s lifestyle and to the best of their ability keep their body free fromtoxicants such as alcohol, chemicals, unnecessary medication and staying on ahealthy diet. 


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