Biogas Foot Pump Compressor Project essay

Because of this, there is a need to increase the recitalist and availability of this natural fuel source to accommodate increased use. This biogas is produced by biodegrades that are currently in place. At the moment there is no system available to store the gas that these digester produce, so all the gas that is created must be used at the same rate that it is produced. If the gas is not used at this rate the system vents the excess gas into the atmosphere, adding more harmful greenhouse gases and wasting fuel.Currently, to utilize the biogas, any system must be directly attached to the biodegrades. The University of Michigan Bluely is currently building a small-scale digester for testing optimal biogas production parameters and measuring gases produced.

They have asked us to design and prototype a system to compress this gas, essentially making a traditionally stationary energy source portable. Although we will be working closely with the Bluely, John Deere has offered to financially sponsor our project.As the project requirements were initially given to us by the Bluely, and because the system we design will directly interact with their biodegrades, the Bluely biodegrades team will still serve as a primary contact group.

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The system that has been requested as many limitations due to the nature and environment of the location of implementation. Our design must use off-grid power because in many developing countries electricity is not readily available.Since the biodegrades are relatively inexpensive, the compression system must also be inexpensive in order to maintain economic feasibility. Lastly, our final design must be easy to implement. This means that construction must be relatively simple and the components must be easy to acquire, as well as maintain. During the concept generation phase of our project, several ideas were formed regarding the teeth of compression.

After extensive evaluation, our team reached a consensus that we would model our prototype compressor after a piston- cylinder.The final design will provide a large lever (to incorporate a mechanical advantage) which allows users to stand and compress using a downward arm motion and a valve system, which will allow for variable work input for compression. The final prototype will be able to compress the biogas to approximately 35 SSI in a 7 gallon air tank. In addition to the compressor, there will also be a glass jar with steel wool to act as a hydrogen oilfield scrubber in-line with the inlet of the biogas to the compression system.The design dimensions and materials were determined using various parameter analyses and strength as well as lifetime considerations. The design was finalized and constructed In a basic machine shop.

The final design includes a hydrogen sulfide scrubber (to reduce the corrosiveness of the biogas), the frame to support three piston-cylinders, the piston-cylinders, and a high pressure air storage tank. Once constructed, the design was tested to ensure that it could compress gas in the high-pressure tank to 35 SSI and resented at the Design Expo.A copy of this report was circulated to sponsors and other interested parties affiliated with this project. 2 Table of Contents Abstract…

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8 Engineering …

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18 Design Description. 6 Fabrication… 32 Validation 37 Budget..

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… 39 Summary and 41 Referee . 44 Team Member Bios….

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70 3 ABSTRACT Biogas digester are being employed in many rural communities in the developing world to collect farm animal waste and convert it to biogas through anaerobic bacterial processes. Biogas is a clean-burning, renewable fuel that is 60-70% methane and can be used to power household appliances and generate electricity.However, there is no existing method of off-grid compression to allow storage of sufficient amounts of this gas for convenient use in this application. The compressor needs to operate on an off-grid power supply due to the nature of implementation plans for developing world rural areas. After research and consideration, it was determined that this could be achieved through manual input. Several innovative concepts and compression methods were generated and we have decided a piston cylinder system to be the most viable compression method.The best compression mechanism was determined to be a modified bicycle pump because it is inexpensive, easy to acquire, requires sensible effort, and can reach the desired pressure with a reasonable amount of time and effort.

The ideal goal is to compress the equivalent of 6 hours of energy into a storage container that is portable, available, and uses standard fittings. It was decided that an air tank is the most practical and compatible storage container. After testing several bicycle pump models and a 7 gallon air tank, the portability and compression to 35 SSI to be practical and sufficient.Through parameter analysis, optimal dimensions and scaling options for our prototype were cited. The design incorporates a multi-cylinder compression and valve system which allows toggling of high volume and high pressure modes. This will allow the user to stand at a safe distance from the piston-cylinders and apply a downward for onto a lever arm, which will make compression easy given small input forces. A prototype was successfully constructed and was able to compress to 35 SSI with a reasonable amount of time and using a reasonable input force.

From testing, we observed that it took an average of 4. 5 minutes to compress air to 25 SSI, and 10 minutes to compress air to 35 SSI. Our fabrication techniques were relatively simple and universal as were all materials used. The prototype was validated through stress and finite elements analysis, as well as analyses on safety, environmental sustainability, manipulability, material selection, and assembly. This system, including the piston-cylinder system, steel frame, air tank, and hydrogen sulfide scrubber, can be recreated for approximately $350.PROBLEM DESCRIPTION Biogas is a clean-burning, easily produced, natural fuel that is becoming a more important source of energy in rural, developing countries for cooking and heating.

Anaerobic bacteria that break down the biomass produce this fuel. Currently there is no way to store the gas that these digester produce, which means that to utilize this energy source, the stove or other device must have a direct feed to the biodegrades. If all of the biogas produced is not used, the system will vent this gas, which is composed primarily of methane, into the atmosphere.Aside from the loss of fuel, methane is approximately 23 times worse for the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Although it degrades far quicker in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide, it is till a huge concern for the environment as we face climate change problems.

The University of Michigan BLUELY has proposed and been granted funds to recreate a smaller biodegrades, similar in design to current digester in the Philippines. In doing this they will 4 be able to measure biogas output, test for optimal conditions, and troubleshoot any potential problems in implementing these in other areas.We Were given the task of designing a compressor system that will be able to compress the biogas using an off-grid power supply and make it portable and convenient.

This allows storage of any excess fuel that would otherwise be vented as well as making the option of a single biodiversity shared communally, a feasible power source. Our ideal project outcome was a system which combines scrubbing, compression and storage of biogas for portable and future use. Main criteria for the system are simplicity and safety. We aimed for a cost under $400 to create the prototype with all supplies being universal, off-the-shelf components.

In meeting these criteria, our design and implementation methodology can be recreated relatively easily in any country. BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND RELEVANT LITERATURE The range of application of biogas technology with which we are working is currently being limited to applications in the developing world such as India, Africa, and the Philippines for uses such as cooking fuel and heating homes [1 , 2]. Biogas is defined as the mixture of methane and carbon dioxide produced by the bacterial decomposition of sewage, manure, garbage, or plant crops [3].

There is not currently a large corporate market for this small- scale approach to biogas generation, as it is not as lucrative as larger scale approaches as well as other forms of fuel. Due to this fact, most of the information gathered was academic in nature, the most useful source of which was a presentation for a Biogas conference, which took place in 2000 and was given by Ron Shannon Of Australia Most research in this area is currently being done to explore biogas generation through anaerobic digestion in an effort to develop inexpensive and effective methods for promoting digestion of animal and human waste.Anaerobic digestion is the breaking down of organic matter by microorganisms in an oxygen poor environment, and results in biogas There are two different types of getters as well, Mesospheric and Thermometric, which refers to the temperature at which they operate and the corresponding bacteria which thrive in that environment Mesospheric digester operate near CLC (OFF), and in warmer climates often require no additional heating. Thermometric digester operate around DDCD (OFF), and thus require additional heating and are often only practical for large industrial uses.For the production of biogas, organic material, such as animal and plant waste is placed along with water into an oxygen free tank, or in some cases plastic membrane for digestion.

Figure 1, below, shows a common mechanism for gas collection in a continuous digester, utilizing the variable volume design of a geometer in order to accommodate the increasing methane. In this case, the gas outlet is located at the bottom of the tank, as it is easier to install in the case of a solid walled digester and does not require elasticity in design.The organic matter is fed into the vessel and the resulting gas is outlet through a pipe that inlets above the waste liquid levels in the tank. Similar mechanisms are achieved using plastic membranes, which are contained in secure enclosures in the round 5 Figure 1 . A schematic of an organic waste digester including a modified geometer [4] Another area of research includes attempting to simulate and model methane generation from different types Of waste in different environments in order to better understand the process [7, 8].There are currently multiple US patents for biogas digestion technology, many dealing with bodiless generation, although some are biogas specific regarding construction of digester.

USPS 7,186,BIBB k, Anaerobic Digester System for Animal Waste Stabilization and Biogas Recovery, addresses the design of a flexible bladder sister, which is the form incorporated in our biodegrades, as well as transmission of the biogas from the bladder to a storage container, but it does not address any methods of compression.LISPS Method and Apparatus for Treating Animal and Wastewater, addresses uses of biogas as well as details regarding digestion methods and in line 41 of the claim it suggests that the biogas can be compressed for storage, but does not specifically outline compression methods to be used. One notable patent in the area of bio-diesel usage that should be mentioned is LISPS 5501 185*, Biogas driven generator set, which outlines a method to use biogas in a bio- diesel engine, and includes a pumping process to boost the pressure of the biogas for pumping into engine regulator.In addition to biogas generation, another important aspect of biogas compression is the scrubbing of the biogas in order to remove impurities that are generated during the digestion process such as CO (carbon dioxide) and HAS (hydrogen sulfide). There are many different methods of biogas scrubbing, each with varying degrees of effectiveness. Many methods of scrubbing the biogas of single or multiple impurities are discussed in Kappa’s work although few methods seem economically feasible for small scale developing world operation.

The scrubbing is viewed as very important as hydrogen sulfide is highly corrosive to the cooking and heating systems that would utilize the biogas, and the presence of carbon dioxide makes the gas more difficult to compress and store, although it does not increase the volatility [9]. A simple method for hydrogen sulfide utilizing steel wool in a glass bottle is modeled in Figure 2, and seems to be the most viable option for low cost, easy implementation hydrogen sulfide removal [4]. Figure 2.Model device for homemade hydrogen sulfide scrubber [4] In this method of sulfide removal, the gas reacts with the steel wool, creating black iron sulfide. The iron sulfide generation begins at the bottom of the container, and once the steel wool is 75% black (I.

E. 75% of it has been turned into iron sulfide); the wool should be removed and replaced. The used wool can be reused after exposure to air. This oxidized the wool to rust, which can be reused in the system, as it will react with the hydrogen sulfide [4]. For carbon dioxide removal, as well as additional hydrogen sulfide removal a teeth of water spray cross-flow can be used [4, 9].

In this method the biogas enters one end of a tube and experiences water streams flowing in the opposite direction, effectively removing a good deal of carbon dioxide from the gas. This design can be varied and the wastewater can be re-used in the process Scrubbing has also been a strong area of technical development and patenting. USPS 71 60456*, Method and equipment for processing of organic material, outlines the use of a second chamber and ammonia in order to remove CO from biogas. Complementary, LISPS 6709592*, Removal of lawful compounds from wastewater, outlines a dual chamber digester method for sulfide removal.

SHIPS 6221652* Process for biological removal of sulfide, outlines a method in which and aqueous washing liquid is treated with sulfide oxidation bacteria. There is also a patent for a method of wet scrubbing, discussed above for the removal Of CO, which outlines the process and design by which this would take place. CUSPS 7033822k, Self- contained and streamlined methane and/or high purity hydrogen generation system, outlines a method for hydrogen specific generation using anaerobic congestion as well as mixed gas to power a gas driven generator in order to further compress the gas for hydrogen removal.

Although this patent heavily refers to mixed gas compressors and their use, it does not discuss the method for compression in any sort of detail. Although much work has been done in research and development of methods to produce as well as scrub biogas, and compression is often mentioned, no work was found regarding the actual method of compression of the gas, which leaves our project many options of methods. In industrial uses, classic industrial air compression techniques are often used, however in his 7 small scale, off the grid usage, different methods of compression and driving compression need to be determined.PROJECT REQUIREMENTS Combined weight Ease of implementation weight Weight of importance to safety In order to find a solution to the previously described problem, it was necessary to gain information regarding the requirements specific to this project. The project requirements were obtained through a meeting on 1 5 January 2008 with our Bluely contact, Jeffrey Schlemiel. During the meeting the project team discussed the need for a compressor, applications f implementation, and the resources available to a typical community in the Philippines.After the meeting with Schlemiel, the project team discussed our newfound understanding of the problem, including what was expected of us and what we believed we could accomplish. In order to plan and prioritize our approach, we filtered out the ARQ reorients of the project versus the wishes of the sponsor.

Ideally, we would be able to complete all of the requirements and wishes, but obviously the requirements take precedent because of constraints on time and resources.Table 1, below, was generated in order for he design team to get an idea of what the project requirements are and how important each requirement is as it relates to the project as a whole. Requirement Possible Solutions $400 target 7 10 17 Low cost of materials without sacrificing safety Overall system safety 106 16 Tank rupture valve, safe connections, user away from biogas Portable tank volume -33 Reasonable tank capacity, tank easily carried Ease of construction 58 13 Design simplicity, DID construction, easy to be constructed properly Pressure vessel safety 10 2 12 Factor of safety, rupture valve, pressure gauge on tankTarget pressure achieved 9 3 12 Pressure gauge on tank, possibly color-coded, warning whistle Less sulfide in biogas 94 13 HAS scrubbing, steel wool universal container fittings Standardized fittings, fittings easily available Off-the-shelf materials -77 Materials easily accessible Ease of connections 84 12 Direct feed and splitter, valves easily managed and reliable Human-powered compression 7 9 16 Easily operated by weaker users, user away from biogas Less CO in biogas 5 10 15 CO scrubbing potassium sulfide Table 1 .Diagram depicting each project requirement, the associated safety ND ease of implementation weights (I?unimportant or easy, ID?important or difficult, respectively), and the related solution. Designates no weight.

The design requirements shown on the left of Table 1 were given a combined weight, which is a combination of safety and ease of implementation.For example, pressure vessel safety was given a combined weight of 12 because it is very important for safety (1 0), but relatively easy to 8 implement (2); as opposed to less CO in biogas, which was given a combined weight of 1 5 because of its moderate importance to safety (5) and gig difficulty of implementation (10). Note that less CO in biogas is the only design requirement that the project team is most likely to not implement into the final design. Although CO scrubbing would be useful for easing compression, the cost Of using a CO scrubbing system is too high.For this project, keeping an inexpensive, simple design was key, which essentially rules out the use of an expensive, intricate CO scrubbing system. Engineering specifications were generated in order to complete the design requirements. The “combined weight’ of the design requirements can be dewed as “importance of requirement”, with the exception of CO scrubbing. This version of a SF lacks a correlation matrix, which would help relate the solutions with each of the project requirements.

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