Between and has high beginning expenses. Contour plowing

Between the 1930’s and the 1960’s a period of development in research and technology led to greater agricultural production worldwide. Some of these new technologies included hi-yield crops, synthetic fertilizers, agro chemicals, and modernized machinery.Hi- yielding followed as a process of higher crop yield per area, dwarfness, better response to fertilizers, and finally early maturation. This created a major increase in cereal-grain production worldwide. Farmers began using fertilizers in order to boost the growth of plants. Fertilizers can either directly be additives in which supply the plants with nutrients or they could enhance the effectiveness of the soil. Other examples like modern machinery boosted the period of farming that took place to grow these plants and caused it to become shorter and more efficient. Although the Green Revolution affected both agricultural and biodiversity, the primary objective was to provide food to developing countries and to bring social stability. The Green Revolution contributed to economic growth of many nations by boosting the incomes of many farmers , the use of electrical energy and consumer goods. This also led to an increase in commerce and trade.After the green revolution, the agricultural industry aimed to improve farming techniques globally. These efforts towards sustainability improve every day food consumption and malnutrition worldwide by providing enough crops to meet the global standards. Some examples of these farming methods include crop rotation, irrigation farming, contour plowing, intercropping, integrated pest management, and nomadic grazing. The primary objective and advantages of irrigation is to provide enough water for crops and to improve the living conditions of many people worldwide. Considering the fact that a certain amount of water is required for successful crop growth and if it does not rain enough then this may lead to water insufficiency for the plants to reach maximum growth. On top of that, irrigation also adds to the wealth of a country and also makes it easier to grow cash crops. However, disadvantages of irrigation include increased leakage of water,makes local temperature damp, and has high beginning expenses.  Contour plowing is a method of plowing along the contours of the land in order to minimize soil erosion. By slowing the water flow, it causes the topsoil to remain. The major advantage of this method is the preservation of nutrients, which leads to requiring less fertilizers and artificial irrigation. The main disadvantages of this method is that it is labor intensive and the fuel costs are very high. Integrated pest management integrates practices for controlling pests that may harm crops. This method helps farmers keep the good pests and manage them to the benefit of their own crops. Drawback from this method may includes continuous monitoring and extensive periods of time. Crop rotation is referred to when crop species in a field are rotated from season to season. This method reduces soil erosion, increases the quality of soil, reduces water runoff, and finally provides a variety of crops that can be grown. Disadvantages of this method include the need of different equipments, requires high levels of skill and knowledge, and some crops may result in an increase in profit which may lead to an unsustainable economy. Last but not least, intercropping is when two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote a synergistic interaction. A couple of the disadvantages of this method may include crops leading to poor yields which may cause damage to the soil and it requires high expenses. Advantages of this method include high yields of crops which may lead to greater profits for the farmers and a more sustainable economy. All of these methods include pros and cons to how they affect the atmosphere, economy, or even the severe cases of malnutrition worldwide. All of these farming techniques primary objectives are towards achieving sustainability worldwide and also providing enough crops to meet consumption demands. 


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