Before world in the 19th century. Darwin then

Before Darwin was born people had the belief that God created the earth and everything else, and people mainly believed in the religious teachings and Holy Scriptures, for example, Bible, Quran.

In Christianity they believed that God created the world in 7 days, they believed that first light was created, and the sky, dry land, plants, trees, moon, stars, sun creatures, animals and finally humans were created in the image of God.  Whereas in Islam they also have similar beliefs that God created the earth, heaven, animals, plants, trees, humans. And from the beginning, people believed in whatever they were taught. Many people that lived in England acknowledged that certain ideas regarding the natural world as given. They believed that species didn’t link to a single family tree; they said they were unrelated, unconnected and unaffected as the moment of their formation.

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But since Darwin’s theory was published, some people changed their views about creation but some people still don’t believe Darwin’s theory as they believed that Darwin’s theory conflicted religious beliefs and views also at that time Darwin didn’t have much evidence to support his ideas so people and scientist didn’t really believe in him but now his ideas are widely accepted by scientist and believed in what he researched as there is a lot of evidence. Charles Darwin was an English naturalist; Darwin studied the different variation in animals and plants through a 5 years voyage around the world in the 19th century.  Darwin then studied even more plants and animal species.  After 30 years of research that Darwin did he finally planned his theory of evolution by natural selection in 1858.  Darwin clarified evolution as 1 “descent with modification” the scheme that species transform over time, shares a general ancestor, and gives increase to species which are new.

The method that Darwin suggested for evolution is natural selection as resources are very less in nature; organisms which survive and reproduce will be able to leave extra offspring than their peers which leads traits to increase in rate over the generation. 1 “Natural selection causes populations to become adapted, or increasingly well-suited, to their environments over time.” Natural selection can rely on the environment and involve existing heritable difference in a group.  Darwin’s main point in his theory was to tell people that an individual in a species illustrates a broad variety of variation, and this variation was because of the different genes they have. He also said that individuals with features were able to live and reproduce in the environment, and the genes which allowed these individuals were successful and the genes were passed to their offspring.

  And individuals who didn’t fit into the environment were less likely to survive or reproduce in the environment. This meant their genes were not passed on to the next generations. Darwin had the biggest evidence which allowed him to explain the evolution by natural selection. Darwin’s reproduction of evolution by natural selection allows him to describe the sample he had seen through his travels. In Galapagos species like finches had common ancestors which meant they could broadly look like. 2 “If groups of finches had been isolated on separate islands for many generations” but every group had been uncovered to a very diverse environment in which diverse heritable traits may be favoured for example different volumes or shapes of beaks for using diverse food sources.

  And these causes might have led to the creation of different species on each island. Each finch had evolved a new size of beak or a new shape. Another evidence which Darwin used to support his theory was fossils. Mainly all the evidence for transmutation came from the fossil record. 3 “Fossils show how much, or how little, organisms have changed over time.” He used the idea of fossil and was able to get to his point and idea.

 Charles Darwin was not the only person to come up with the idea of evolution. A French scientist called Jean-Baptiste Lamarck he established a theory in the beginning of 19th century. His theory was based on two main points which said 4 “the law of use and disuse the law of inheritance of acquired characteristics, the law of inheritance of acquired characteristics”.  Lamarck theory was that a character that is used more by an organism develops sturdier and greater. And the characteristics of an organism which are not used at all will vanish ultimately.

He also said that any feature of an organism which is developed through use is conceded to its offspring. After Darwin, there was a lot more evidence since for example, DNA scientist was able to inspect the DNA from diverse species of organism and use the data produced to see how closely connected the two species are towards each other. 5 “By collecting a lot of this data, scientists can compare the results with conventional ideas about how organisms have evolved” and what they found out that DNA supports the idea of evolution. They also found other evidence since Darwin times. Ref 1: https://www.khanacademy.

org/science/biology/her/evolution-and-natural-selection/a/darwin-evolution-natural-selection Ref 2: Ref4 Ref 5 http://www. Task 2 (M1)The question which science is now able to answer:Is there treatment for cholera?  How far is sun from earth?Can a person live on the moon?The question which science has not yet answered:What is the universe made out of? What is at the bottom of the black hole? Where will we put all the carbon?The question which science may never answer?Where is God?Where is heaven?What is the purpose of death?From the first category, I picked is their treatment for cholera as science is able to treat cholera and they are able to show why cholera occurs and what the side effects are.

The first person to discover cholera was Filippo Pacini who is an Italian scientist. He was the first person to conduct autopsies on people who died from cholera. Pacini had 3 “his microscope to look at the intestines and other tissue samples from the victims”. During his experiment, he saw on the slides a comma-shaped bacillus. Pacini than named bacillus, Vibrio and after this discovery Pacini shared his work in a medical document on his microscopic results which were pathogen related to cholera in 1854.

And throughout this time another scientist called John Snow who believed that he discovered cholera and when Snow saw his work he wasn’t sure of his findings and Pacini was also not aware of his findings. But at the end, both scientists were the finders of cholera. This means people who have cholera have a chance to survive as there are cure and treatment available for people who are affected. As science said that cholera is treated very easily as they use oral rehydration salts which is to replace the lost fluids which are the main reason for the cure.

But if the case is very serious they use 1 “intravenous administration of fluids may be required to save the patient’s life.” Also, there are antibiotics to help people who are severely ill and this antibiotic helps them to reduce diarrhoea, and there are zinc supplements which simply reduces diarrhoea in children who have cholera. From the second category, I picked what is at the bottom of the black hole? Which science has yet not answered this question as the black hole is a section in space 2″where the pulling force of gravity is so strong that light is not able to escape”. The sturdy gravity happens as the matter has been pushed into a small space. This density could happen at the end of a star’s life.

Some of the stars which died out are because of black holes. As in black hole, even light cannot escape as black holes are invisible but space telescope can find black holes with the help of special instruments which are stored in the telescopes.  And with this telescope scientist are able to see the behaviour of the material and stars which are very close by to black holes.

Albert Einstein was the first person to develop his theory about black holes in 1916 with his common hypothesis of relativity. After a few months later another scientist called Karl Schwarzschild found out a solution which described the GF (gravitational field) of round mass and point mass. But even with so much technology scientist have not yet answered what is at the bottom of the black hole, well the main reason  is that there is no technology which could go inside the black hole as even light cannot escape it.  Also, other scientists have said that 4 “we cannot observe it because anything that goes in, cannot come out again even light and radio waves cannot escape the gravity of a black hole”. Which shows finding out what is underneath it is very hard almost impossible. From the third category, I picked where is a god? Science may never answer this question because this question cannot be answered through some method or looking into the space to see if God is there.

Science work is very different as they start of writing a hypothesis and writing up any observation relating to the work they are trying to find, but this question you cannot write a hypothesis or observe anything, as they haven’t got a clue if God exists or not.  All scientists agree that all scientists agree, 5 “There is nothing that any of us could observe that would prove that there can’t possibly be a God” Also some people say they have seen God but science would say it’s a natural occurrence which one day science will prove that it’s a natural phenomenon.  There are some scientists who believe that God does exist. However, there is no scientist which could possibly say that they believe in God as they have verified during an application of the scientific technique. 5 Ultimately belief in God is a decision to go beyond what can be proved scientifically.

Plus there is no technology which could tell science that God exists or where God is? Reference: Ref 1: Ref 2: Ref 3: Ref 4: Ref 5: 


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