Bartky is trying to convey theidea that there is another element and motive of oppression that is harmful andidentifying is can be helpful to persons that are oppressed in this way and toidentify the oppressions and understand more about their own identity and abouttheir own agency and autonomy and thus have a means of liberation from thesekinds of oppressions that cause fragmentation and internalisation ofstereotypes. (Bartky, p.22)She bases this account from Frantz fanon’s account in ‘Black skin, white masks’and explains the ways in which gender oppression causes experiences in 3 kindsof psychological oppressions: 1) stereotyping, 2) cultural domination, 3)sexual objectification. (Bartky, p.
23)- Stereotyping- This is the first kind ofpsychological oppression. It picks out one aspect of a person or groups beingand allows that aspect to stand for and represent who they are as a person;undermining their complexity and agency. Fragmentation through stereotypingcauses us to see ourselves in a non-unified way. We see ourselves as dependantbecause we come to know ourselves more by the stereotypes that are applied tous.
Cultural domination- she wants to explain thatwomen don’t really have a culture of their own. They tend to be aligned withmen rather than other women. It’s a culture that is saturated in sexism.
We usethe word ‘men’ or ‘man’ to represent people as a whole, and culture itself hasalways been male dominated so in turn we look as general culture as male. We cansee this through literature, and if we look at the most well-known writers, weautomatically think of examples like Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and EdgarAllen Poe, and many writers being poets, writing about women. As literature hasalways been a huge part of our lives we have naturally been brought up readingabout their works and their views on love and women becoming the norm insociety. Women are fragmented beings according to Bartkty because of our maleculture.