Bartky women becoming the norm in society. Women

Bartky is trying to convey the
idea that there is another element and motive of oppression that is harmful and
identifying is can be helpful to persons that are oppressed in this way and to
identify the oppressions and understand more about their own identity and about
their own agency and autonomy and thus have a means of liberation from these
kinds of oppressions that cause fragmentation and internalisation of
stereotypes.  (Bartky, p.22)
She bases this account from Frantz fanon’s account in ‘Black skin, white masks’
and explains the ways in which gender oppression causes experiences in 3 kinds
of psychological oppressions: 1) stereotyping, 2) cultural domination, 3)
sexual objectification. (Bartky, p.23)

Stereotyping- This is the first kind of
psychological oppression. It picks out one aspect of a person or groups being
and allows that aspect to stand for and represent who they are as a person;
undermining their complexity and agency. Fragmentation through stereotyping
causes us to see ourselves in a non-unified way. We see ourselves as dependant
because we come to know ourselves more by the stereotypes that are applied to

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Cultural domination- she wants to explain that
women don’t really have a culture of their own. They tend to be aligned with
men rather than other women. It’s a culture that is saturated in sexism. We use
the word ‘men’ or ‘man’ to represent people as a whole, and culture itself has
always been male dominated so in turn we look as general culture as male. We can
see this through literature, and if we look at the most well-known writers, we
automatically think of examples like Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and Edgar
Allen Poe, and many writers being poets, writing about women. As literature has
always been a huge part of our lives we have naturally been brought up reading
about their works and their views on love and women becoming the norm in
society. Women are fragmented beings according to Bartkty because of our male


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