Background Solar energy plays significant roles in economic evolution. The wavelength of sun ray that arrives at earth surface falls between 300 and 2500 nanometer. Approximately 5% of the sunlight arrives on the earth surface as ultraviolet UV rays (with a wavelength between 300 and 400 nm). Around 42% of the solar energy is the visible range (optical human system) of electromagnetic spectrum, with a wavelength between 400 and 700 nm). Additionally, around 53% of the total solar energy falls in the range of infrared rays that has a wavelength between 700 and 2500 nm). The amount of sun heat arriving at the earth atmosphere falls in the infrared range with various wavelengths started from 700 to 1100 nm. This resulting strong high sun ray intensity on various region around the earth, which affects all facilities on these regions, including buildings, structures, oil & petrol tanks and more.Nowadays, with the recent increase in the temperature in the gulf area over the decade, different regions of Saudi Arabia get affected and reached higher temperature records than before.
One of the most important problem and difficulty experienced by all residents of the hot regions in Saudi Arabia is the high temperature, caused by the sun, especially in the summer. This resulting adversely affects in all services throughout the Kingdom. According to the Arab News (Arab News, 2017), the eastern and central region Saudi Arabia have reached record-breaking temperatures, with 53 degrees Celsius for the first time in these regions. This degrees are so close to the official highest temperature ever recorded on Earth on Guinness World Records, which is 56.7 degrees, registered in California in 1913. This increase in the temperature leads to increase the spend of electricity used for air-conditioning. According to our recent reviews of (Alrashed, F.
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, & Asif, M., 2014) and (Demirbas, A., Hashem, A. A., & Bakhsh, A. A., 2017), 60% to more than 70% of the total electricity consumed in Saudi Arabia goes into air-conditioning and cooling, as reported in a survey conducted by the government.
This percentage has increased by 35% over the past decades because the massive utilizing of air-conditioning, especially in summer. Therefore, it is necessary for Saudi Arabia to think in finding radical solutions to reduce the energy consumption, for air-conditioning inside residential buildings and other public and private sector facilities. This research aims at tackling this critical issue in Saudi Arabia by modelling and simulating this physical system using relevant software packages, e.g.
MATLAB and Simulink and then using its resulting data for introducing and manufacturing climate-based reflective paints. The paints consist of polymeric materials with various percentages based on different climate/weather parameters. Its main feature is the high reflectivity to the sun heat intensity, which lead to minimize, or prevent, the amount of heat dispersed inside the buildings and other structures and facilities.
It is worth mentioning that all practical chemical laboratory experiments will be based on the generated optimal material quantities for the simulation of the computational models. 2 RationaleFrom our proposed research perspective, the promising climate-based reflective paints will help to reduce electricity consumption that is used in air-conditioning and cooling the temperature of inside buildings and public/private facilities in urban areas. In particular, reducing the amount of heat dispersed inside the buildings and vital installations, oil tanks, pipelines and containers, as well as pilgrims’ tents.
Besides, it is important to consider how to reduce the effect and damage, caused by high intensity, of outside surfaces of structures like buildings, containers, oil transfer/export pipes, water and petrol tanks that expose to high intensity. The promising outcome of the proposed research can contribute in manufacturing reflective paints that reduce the maintenance cost of these kinds of structures.In the domain of crowd management, furthermore, the promising reflective paints can be used with tents to provide a convenient atmosphere for people who stay in it.
Instead of using a kind of heating systems that consumes energy and cost more.3 Scope of the ResearchThe general boundary of the proposed research can be described as an overlapping area between three major fields of science, namely, Computer Science, Physics and Polymer Chemistry. Computer SciencePhysics Chemistry The Computer science domain offers various programming, modelling and simulation tools and packages that are used for implementing and visualizing linear and non-linear differential equations, and provide all critical approximations that physicists need to create related models.Additionally, simulation packages are used for modelling and implementing chemicals reactions for the polymeric and non-polymeric materials considered in this research. The research gets benefits from some existing Artificial Intelligence techniques, such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). The GA technique is useful when dealing with complex equation problem with many parameters. Researchers in the proposed project simulate the results of elementary materials features.
These physical features (properties) are selected, first, by physicists to be implemented in GA. The results from GA will be used as input to ANN to determine the optimal percentage of the combination of chemical materials and compounds with optimum reflectance depending on optical and physical properties. The polymer chemist, in particular, is involved via conducting lab experiments that aim at studying and examining some chemical and polymeric materials, considered in the research, along with determined percentages of the simulated elementary materials. Many a combination process are carried out using chemical instruments to manufacture different samples The physicist creates the measurement procedures for all samples using different devices such as spectrometers, VIS, UV, IR measurements, etc.
These measurements help with choosing the high reflectivity materials which may be used in the manufacturing of the reflective paints and coatings as well as hardness, cohesion and adhesion measurements.4 Circumstance that the project will be carried out byThe research will be conducted by some academic researchers from different disciplines, required to accomplish the work, to achieve valuable outcomes. The main work of the project is located in Saudi Arabia. All relevant data, such as data about the climate and weather or electricity consumption or production across the country main stations can be collected, analyzed and studied within the kingdom. Analysis, design, implementation and testing the proposed computational models with relevant GA and other AI techniques are performed, mainly, by the computer scientist researches in the team. Moreover, the selected polymeric and non-polymeric materials, as well as the physical properties will be selected, prepared and examined by the chemist and physics members in the team using instruments covered by the project budget that is funded by the Dean of Scientific Research in Umm Al Qura University.5 Expected resultsThe grand outcome of the research is exploring the optimal materials and their percentages that are used for manufacturing and producing Climate-Based Sun Heat Reflective Paints (CB-SHRP) and coatings, based on the scientific measurements and standards.To achieve this outcome, several important sub results must be fulfilled first.
Computationalmodels, which is based on one or more Artificial Intelligent (AI) methods, will be designed/adopted in different occasions. For instance, a mathematical model for computing solar radiation for a place based on the location and other climate and weather parameters, as the works mentioned in (Hepbasli, A., , Z., 2011).
Moreover, intelligence models can be used also to compute the optimal percentages (amount) of considered materials that provide the best thermal reflective rate and longer lifespan. The resulting algorithms will be implemented using methods, such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to discover improved paints and coatings provide more than 90% sun heat prevention and with a low absorption and high diffuse reflection that suit the climate in the Kingdom.Additionally, different polymeric particles with a paint carrier and other chemical compounds will be made practically, based on the results obtained from the estimation models.These chemical polymeric materials and compounds are mixed with substrates from metals, woods and concrete to manufacture samples of the Climate-based Sun Heat Reflective Paints (CB-SHRP).6 Beneficiaries of Project OutcomesThe outcomes of the proposed research can bring several benefits to different government and private sectors in Saudi Arabia, such as the energy and electricity, oil, water and gas, building and construction, Haj and Umra services. The manufactured Sun Heat Reflective Paints (CB-SHRP) can be used to reduce the high cost and the massive amount of energy consumed by air-conditioning and cooling systems indoor for controlling the intensity in Saudi Arabia.7 Correlation of the Project with Research Priorities:• Support the knowledge economy and introduce marketable products to the market.
• Enhance the quality of life and services in Makkah by reducing the load over electricity stations, especially in the summer, when they consume massive amount of energy to deal with the high temperature.• Introduce a high-quality service to pilgrims in the summer seasons of Haj and Umra.• Improve the medical services and support healthier life style.8 Saudi Vision 2030, Afaq and Developmental Plan of Umm Al Qura University:The overall outcomes of the project are consistent with the Saudi Arabia vision 2030 ambitious. Accomplishing the proposed research project will contribute toward the work of localizing manufacturing sectors and expanding entrepreneurship and enterprise opportunities. This can be achieved by establishing a new SME with a propriate production line of SHRP products to the local and regional markets, considering the impact on manufacturing cycle efficiency and product quality.
The main objectives of the proposed research project are in the line with the strategic Afaq and the development plan of UQU that aims at increasing scientific research capacity, patents and innovations and improving its quality. Sponsoring and funding our proposed project can support the research team to contribute more in the National Transformation Program 2020.