BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION) SEMESTER JUNE 2018PROJECT PAPER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION (CSZB 4903)TITLE:THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL TABLETS ON YOUNG CHILDREN’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTPREPARED BY:NG SIEW LI(MC1510BC10098)TABLE OF CONTENTContent PageAbstract 1CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.
1 Introduction1.2 Research Problem1.3 Research Objectives1.4 Research Questions1.5 Research Framework 1.5.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
1 Conceptual Framework1.6 Significance of Study1.7 Summary of Chapter 2-33-455566CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Introduction2.
2 Underpinning Theory2.3 Effects of Digital Tablets2.4 Influence of Digital Screen Media on Cognitive Development2.5 Summary of Chapter 778-99-1111CHAPTER 3:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 Introduction3.2 Research Design3.3 Location and Sample of Study3.4 Sampling Techniques and Procedures3.
5 Data Collection and Procedures3.6 Instrument of Study3.7 Data of analysis3.8 Summary of Chapter 1212121313141515CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.1 Introduction4.2 Descriptive Analysis 4.2.1 Socio-demographic information 4.
2.2 The Effects of Digital Tablets on Cognitive Development 4.2.3 Gender Influence of Digital Tablets on Cognitive Development4.3 Summary of Chapter 161616-171818CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.
1 Introduction5.2 Conclusion of Study5.3 Implication of Study 5.4 Limitation of Study5.5 Recommendation of Future Research 1919192020References 21-22Appendix 23AbstractThe purpose of this study was to explore the effect of digital tablets on cognitive development and gender influences on digital tablets. The design of the study was based on phenomenological research. This study was conduct the semi-structure interview with the parents.
The sample of the interview were interviewing three parents, two mother and one father. The tools that used during interview is audio recorder and transcribe into the written form. Results show the effect of digital tablets on three construct of cognitive development, including differences based on the gender. This study concludes by identifying topics and goals for future research and provides recommendations based on current research-based knowledge.
Chapter 1: Introduction1.1 Introduction Digital tablets are one of the gadget that popular among adults. (Goodwin 2012; Murray and Olcese 2011; Orrin and Olcese 2011; Rideout 2011; Tahnk 2011).
Digital tablets are lighter than computer and the screen is bigger than gadgets that popular mobile phone. In addition, digital tablets are portable to bring everywhere and easier to use it. (McManis and Gunnewig 2012). Digital technology is a natural part of young children’s lives.Children filled their free time with screen gadgets rather than exploring nature, play time and hands-on activities.
According to Clements (2002), adults tried to put the technology into child’s world. The children prefer to learn with digital tablets than books. Overuse of digital tablets will affect children to have short attention spans and rely on visual input to the brain. According to Carol Miller (2017), she stated that it is too early to introduce the technology at young age and digital tablets has an effect on their concentration, attention and cognitive development. In this article, it was also mentioned that versatility of the digital tablets produced the opposite reaction for the children.
The improvement of the technology in tablets could change children’s brain more harm than good.Wolfe and Flewitt (2010) found that the amount of time that children accessed and faced tablets could be damaging family time and communication with others. In the early ages, children need to have sufficient time to explore and master the basic skills. The National Association for the Education of Young Children’s (NAEYC) had stated that “young children live in a world with the technology and they grow up with the electronic devices at home” (NAEYC 2012).
These concern influence educators’, parents’ and general public’s opinion regarding children’s uses of digital media. In the book “Introduction to Early Childhood Education “, technology is not aiding mental functioning but rather having a negative effect on ability to think, remember, pay attention and regulate emotion. Some research had been claim and mention the digital tablets is “rewiring our brains” to constant improving and this threat to our society (Greenfield, 2013). The children had exposure and interaction with the digital tablets in the early ages. The ages of child to explore with technology is depending on the adult’s ages and education background. 1.
2 Research ProblemIn recent years, touch-screen tablets have become obviously increasing in young children’s lived experiences (Common Sense Media, 2013). The usage of tablets in the home have increased prominently from 2011 to 2017 which is from 8% to 78% families were using tablets in children’s learning (Common Sense Media 2011, 2017). Besides that, time spent of screen media using mobile device also increase from 4% to 35%. The below figures is the report from Common Sense according to the screen media use and mobile devices in the home, showing increasing number of reports.
(Common Sense, 2017)307984774539 Figure 1.1: the Usage of Mobile Devices (Common Sense Media, 2017)Usage of tablets are common among the children in this generation and over exposed usage of tablets and eventually effect sleeping time. Dr Tim Smith found that the children were spending five hours in a day on the digital tablets and this affect the sleep pattern of the child. In this article also mentioned that 75 per cent of toddlers actively used gadget on a daily basis.
Over usage the tablets can shortened the sleeping time. He said that reduced sleeping time can affect the child’s brain development in early age. Sleep is important for the development of the brain, especially during the first few years of life, when “neural plasticity” is at its greatest.Dr Anna Joyce, research associate in Cognitive Developmental Psychology, Coventry University, mentioned that adults must focus on the balancing activity (indoor ; outdoor) for the children. The cognitive development of children between 2 to 3 years old can be adversely affected if they use the tablets for long period of time especially an hour before bedtime. At this ages, children should learn and explore in the surrounding. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) warned that technology may affect preschoolers’ developing cognitive skills in 2010. Children above two years should limit their screen activity to two hours per day.
Parent put their mind in e-learning and educational apps for children without any assistance. Parent were replacing the motor skills activity to the finger skills activity. According to the Director of the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development at Seattle Children’s Hospital, Dr. Dimitri Christakis said that the simulating toys or educational games through apps does not help them in the real life. The children are learning with the hands on and physically engage in the situation.
Dr. Dimitri also mentioned that some educational games is useless as they provide the hints while child is exploring the game. It affect the child’s problem solving and understanding skills. Electronic technology is an integral part of twenty first century life, the children are exposed at home as well as at school. Integrating the digital tablets into the classrooms may make a significant difference in children’s developmental or may no effect or actually reduce children’s creativity (Haugland, 2000).
Copple & Bredekamp (2009) said that digital tablets are not a replacement for children’s experiences with real objects and materials but provide opportunity to expand learning. 1.3 Research ObjectivesTo explore the effects of digital tablets on children’s cognitive developmentTo compare differences in cognitive development between boys and girls using digital tablets.1.
4 Research QuestionsHow are digital tablets affecting children’s cognitive development?What are the differences in cognitive development between boys and girls using digital tablets?1.5 Research Framework397565739301.5.1 Conceptual FrameworkFigure 1.2: Conceptual FrameworkIn this study is focus on the impact of digital tablets affect children’s cognitive development. Between the digital tablets and cognitive development is sleeping time.
Sleep is considered to be important for the children in the early ages. Sleep can help to recover body restitution such as energy, thermoregulation, and tissue recovery (Maquet, 2001). Children should have 8 to 10 hours to sleep including nap. Children who are insufficient sleep or loss of sleep usually will decline the cognitive performance (Pilcher and Huffcutt, 1996; Philibert, 2005).
Concentration is a necessary prerequisite of learning. The brain is like a sponge to absorb and release the information. The brain pays attention when the input is joyful and meaningful. (Robin Fogarty, 2009)1.6 Significance of StudyThere are several things that can be done in order to prevent the issues from keep happening. Researcher found some recommendation on how to reduce usage of tablets in the early ages which are engage in more family activities, set a good example and talk to child about the amount of time they spend. Family and physical activities is one of the way to reduce the screen time and build the relationship with the child. For example, playing board games, visit the nature and going for a bike ride.
Planning some family activities can help the children to explore and foster their skills. Hence, children have another way to develop their thinking and concentration. As a parent, they need to set a good example for the children. The child often imitate from the adult. Parents need to be a good listener. The children are willing to share their problem and feeling with parents. For the older child, parents can talk to them about the amount of time they can use the digital tablets.
1.7 Summary of ChapterThis chapter discussed on the background and the problem in this study. From the problem that found, should state the objective and question that related with the topic. This research come out with 2 objectives related to our topic. For the next chapter, will be discussing on the theory and literature review for previous study.Chapter 2: Literature Review2.1 IntroductionIn this chapter is discussed about the underpinning theory and previous study of the research.
2.2 Underpinning Theory2.2.1 Cognitive developmental theory: Jean Piaget Jean Piaget’s (1936) is one of the theory that focused on cognitive development and explains how a child construct a mental model of the world. He stated that the cognitive development as a process which occurs while interaction with the environment. Preoperational stages is focused on aged 2 to 7.
In this stage, Preoperational children are able to imagine the future and reflect on the past and actively construct knowledge, much through interaction with peer during sociodramatic play. The child goes through the stages in the same order. Children have the ability to make one thing and understanding the words. The situation or environment should have opportunities to communicate with one another and allowed to experiment on his own. Children not only can use digital tablets to learn, but they also explore indoor and outdoor activities to communicate with environment. Piaget posited that central of cognitive development is “disequilibrium”, the discrepancy between the information being presented and what is believed to be true (Piaget 1928). Peer interaction is an external process where individual are exposed opinions with different perspective of view. While the children using the digital tablets, the process of explore will be happens and automatic will interactive with the digital tablets without any guidance.
The children was began with the observation and imitation in the environment. Other than that, he also states that children learn in stages and there capacity to complete certain tasks depending on their age (Meece, 2002).2.3 Effect of digital tablets Couse and Chen (2010) made a research in studying interaction with tablets in preschool.
The research shows how the children interacted with the tablets when using an app. The conclusion made by Couse and Chen (2010) were that more children used the tablets, the less they asked for help with the tablet. In the research, the researcher mentioned that 2 years old children did not spend as much time in front of the tablets as the older at the age of 5. Eugene A. Geist was observe children naturally interacting with these touch screen devices. In this study was introduced the device to the children as their learning material.
Besides that, the teacher in the classrooms needed to provide little instruction for the 2 years old children to begin actively using the iPads in a productive manner. The researcher also mentioned that the children’s ability to work and explore independently with the device is much greater than traditional computers.In addition, Miller (2005) said that there is no evidence that young children learn better through high technology. The report is links computer usage to a lack of creativity, obesity and lack of outdoor playtime. Currently, children’s lives are increasingly filled with the screen time rather than real time with nature and hand on work. In the UK, an escalation of problems associated with digital tablet use among preschooler children has been reported by the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, including developmental delays in attention span, fine motor skills and dexterity, speaking and socialization.
Hirsch and Blanchard (2009) examined many different digital media that could affect the literacy development of children aged 3 to 5. They looked at different media such as television and video games and concluded that the effect of technologies is as yet unknown. Anand and Krosnick (2005) examined whether the mother and fathers’ education had an impact on the technology in which children engaged. The researchers found that parents with less education watched more television and less gadgets. Marjory Ebbeck, Hoi Yin Bonnie Yim, Yvonne Chan and Mandy Goh (2015) investigates the emerging roles and uses of technological devices by parents/ caregivers and their children (aged under 7 years) in Singapore. In this study is focused on the types of technological devices, daily time spent in devices, benefit and impact when using devices.
Results show that parents/caregivers reported that their young children used technological devices for less than one hours per day. The reason for this results was the parents worried about the addiction and their children’s intellectual development. 2.4 Influence of digital screen media on cognitive developmentRichtel (2010) has been studies the use of technology in the classroom. In the study found out a lot of educator and parent afraid that too early introduce the mobile devices become one of the barriers and distraction which is the children who have trouble focusing on tasks. Lieberman ; Biely (2009) pointed out that while impact of playing games have been researched with older children and adults the issue have not received as much attention for children ages 3 to 6.
They also point out that this is why the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that young children older than age 2 should no spend more than 2 hours per day with any screen-based media. Connell, Lauricella and Wartella (2015) examined the factors associated with parents and child use of media across multiple platforms using the survey. They found out that mothers were more likely to online book or reading while father were more likely to video games with their child. Daniel R.
Anderson ; Kaveri Subrahmanyam (2017) were examine the impact of digital screen devices on cognitive development. In the study was focus on three stages of child’s development which are infancy, toddlers and preschoolers. In this study also mentioned that children between 2 to 3 years old can be adversely affected the cognitive development if they use the devices for long period of time. Channel NewAsia (2017) was reported by host Joshua Lim said that learning apps on mobile devices can teach preschoolers lots of stuff.
All the e-learning designed to turn the toddlers into thinkers. But, they are also highly addictive and they can mess with the brain. He was examine through simple experiment on the effects of screen time. For example test on recite the numbers backwards.
The purpose for this is to test the memorization skills between drawing and learning app’s children. Next is a concentration test to compare both different learning’s child. As a result, Dr. Aishworiya Ramkumar found that the more time children spend watching any form of screen time content, the lower the executive function skills of children. She also said that the more time a child spends on screens, the less they will have interacting with the peers. This will affect the brain of the child is irreversible.In the book, “Brain-Comparison Classrooms”, Robin Fogarty (2009) mentioned that Sousa (2000) discuss about the male and female brains are different.
The male and female brain are physically different. In terms of processing information, the female brain seems to process language earlier and more easily. Besides that, King & Gurian (2006) stated that more than 100 structural differences between male and female brains. Males and females process sensory input differently using different parts of the brain. Attention also has a developmental window.
If you do not develop your ability to focus and pay attention, it gets compromised. If you do not develop your imagination and creativity, those are permanently compromised.From the Journal in Psychology, “Smartphones and Cognitive Functioning” by Henry H.
Wilmer (2017) stated that the current review of the gender difference in using the smartphones has persisted. He stated that boys spent more time (64 minutes a day) in using smartphones than girls (30 minutes per day). Thus, the gender gap is should be concern and will affect the child development. According to Clements (2002) mentioned that scaffolding is needed when children use digital tablets. Adult should constantly encourage and demonstrate to the child while doing. Thus, a balance between the adult guidance and children self-directed exploration had proven to be successful. 2.
5 Summary of ChapterThis chapter had been discuss about the underpinning theory and literature review related to the study. For the next chapter, the topics that will be discussed about is research design, location and sample of study, sampling technique and procedure. Other than that, data collection and procedure, instruments and method of analysis also will discuss in next chapter.Chapter 3: Research Methodology3.1 IntroductionThis chapter will explain the method adopted by this research. This chapter will provides a detailed description on the research design, location and sample of study and sampling technique used for the interview.
Besides that, this chapter will mention a detail explanation of data collection method, research instruments and method of analysis.3.2 Research DesignThe design for a research is the plan for the actions of how the research will answer the research question and collect, measure and analyze the data. (Recker, 2013) Hafeezrm (2011) stated that the definition of research design is a roadmap for researchers. Research design is the crucial part of the research as it include four important consideration which are the strategy, conceptual framework, identification of whom and what to study on and the tools and procedures to be used for collecting and analyzing data. (Punch.
K, 2001) In this study, the researcher used qualitative research method. The design of the research was based on phenomenological research. Phenomenological design is focus on the individual lived experience and describe what all participants have in common as they experience a phenomenon (Moustakas, 1994). This description consists of “what” they experienced and “how” they experienced it. Creswell (2002) recommends that 3-5 participants be used for phenomenological research.3.
3 Location and sample of study The research study was conducted an interview session. For this study, the targeted sample is with three parents. The researcher was randomly selected the parents around the mall and interview through phone.
3.4 Sampling Technique and procedureHere is where to explain how to select the respondents for this research. The respondents that were chosen are random parents.
In this study, the sampling technique that were used is the convenience sampling. Convenience sampling is a type of the non-probability sampling that relies on data collection from population members who are conveniently available to participate in study. 3.5 Data Collection and ProcedureThe researcher applied two methods of data collection techniques. This was done in order to collect the data according to address the research objective of this study.3.
5.1 Primary dataThe primary data that was used in this study is used interview, the research randomly interview the participants. The researcher with prepare written question to the interviewees. Therefore, face-to-face interviews were employed and used structure interview. In addition, the question were well structures, planned and organizes in line with the objective of the study. The interview’s participants is adult-participant. The interview question focused on the effect of digital tablets affect children’s cognitive development.3.
5.2 Secondary dataThe secondary data is a collection of data from the various journal from the past studies that was published in online database such as Eric, Google Scholar and ProQuest. In addition, researcher also gathering data from library materials such as various type of books related with the study. By using secondary data, the researcher can get new knowledge and helped the researcher to complete this study.3.6 Instrument of StudyThe researcher is going to use an interview question to measure the data that will be collected.
Original items Adopt & Adapt”Do you use iPad in your education in your department?” Does your child use digital tablets daily?”Do all preschool teachers use the iPad at your department?” Does your child do any outdoor activities?”If you should guess, how much do you use the iPad each week?” How long have your child been using the digital tablet?”Is there any specific apps you are using in your education?” Is there any specific apps that your child uses in the tablets? Give an example “Who oversees what applications that will be used in your department?” Who oversees what applications your child uses in the tablet?”Do you have any guidelines of which applications you can use in your education?” Do you give proper guidelines to your child?”Do you choose adaptive application towards the curriculum before using them?” Do you find/test the application that is suitable with the child’s level before he or she uses them?”Do you have any education about how to use the tablet in the preschool?” Do you think the tablet affects your child’s sleeping time?”What do you think about using the tablet as an educational tool in the preschool?” After your child uses the tablet, does he or she show any changes? For example, logical thinking skills, concentration or memorization”What do you think is the purpose of using the iPad in the preschool?” How do you think the tablet can affect the cognitive of the children?Adapted from Fanny Johansson and Lina Gustafsson (2016)3.7 Data of analysisThe interviews served as an introduction to the digital tools children had access in their homes and how many hours they used. The interview questions were designed in English Language but to ensure proper responses from the participants, the interview process was also conducted using the mother tongue language (Malay/Mandarin). The use of the mother tongue language was used for those individuals who could not understand English.
After interview, the researcher transcribe the information and do the analysis. 3.8 Summary of ChapterThis chapter had been discussed on the research methodology that was used in this study. This is from the research design, location and sample of study, sampling technique, data collection, instrument research and method of analysis. For the next chapter will be discussing on the result of the study and data analysis.Chapter 4: Result and Discussion4.1 IntroductionIn this chapter is to explain the participant’ socio-demographic information, the effect of digital tablets on cognitive development and gender influence of digital tablets on cognitive development.4.
2 Descriptive Analysis4.2.1 Socio-demographic informationParent A is a mother of three children, aged eleven, seven and two years old. This is two boys and one girl. Parent B is a mother with her daughter aged four years. Parent C is a father with three children aged seven, five and three years old.
This is two daughter and one son.4.2.
2 The effect of digital tablets on child’s cognitive developmentAfter the interview, the researcher noticed that Parent A and Parent B give the children to play the digital tablets every day and start introduce the tablets since they are 2 years old. Parent C stated “My children only used the tablets to watch the cartoon during school holiday or weekends”. All the parents were trying to limit the child to accessing technology but it is failed and they can explore and access by themselves.
Parent A said that “My children find the tablets around the house and play without any monitor from adult”. She also mentioned that she found out the children had changes in concentration to do the work after a few month by using the digital tablets. According to Richtel (2010), she found out too early introduce the devices to the child can become one of the barriers in learning for the children. Although the parents know that technology had bring a lot of negative issues for the children but they are just limit the time for the children to have the screen time. Parent C had shared his experience when the children was young. He said that, “the children need to watch the cartoon before sleeping time.
If not, the children don’t want to sleep and start tantrum.” The researcher was surprisingly ask in detail how the parents solve the problem. He said, “Every day, I was tell the story to the child in the bedtime and at the end it is work to the child.” For three parents’ conversation, the researcher noticed that the children is often to use the YouTube to watch the video and play some adventurous games. The parents not really give the guide and assist the child while using the digital tablets. American Academy of Pediatrics (2010) recommends that young children older than age 2 should no spend more than 2 hours per day with any screen-based media.From the question 2, Parent A and Parent B mentioned her children loves to explore and do outdoor activities such as play badminton with peer, go playground to play the seesaw, swing and others.
Besides that, Parent B mentioned that sometimes they will bring her child with other cousin and picnic in park. Parent C said his children not really go outside and involve outdoor activities. They just play the toys and games inside the house with the siblings. Dr Anna Joyce mentioned that adults must focus on the balancing activity (indoor & outdoor) for the children.
At this ages, children should learn and explore in the surrounding.From all the respondent, they mentioned that the children started using the digital tablets when they are toddlers. From Parent A’ view, she said that the tablets is just the tools to stop her child in crying when they were young and now they are using the tablets to watch the video from YouTube and playing games. Parent B was using the iPad in learning apps such as solve puzzle, reading apps, super ABC and variety of learning apps. Most of the learning apps is Parent A installed it for her daughter. Parent C was using digital tablets to watch the cartoon such as Doreamon, Disney and other kid cartoon. This is like the interactive tablets to let them learn the new things. Dr.
Dimitri Christakis said that the simulating toys or educational games through apps does not help them in the real life. The children are learning with the hands on and physically engage in the situation.4.2.3 Gender influence of digital tablets on cognitive developmentParent A mentioned that she received complaint from the teacher about the progress for her son.
Her son has poor concentration and cannot sit long period in the class. Parent A shared with researcher about her son’ problem. She also mentioned that her son and daughter have different interest in digital tablets and she said, “Her son is more addictive in games compare with her daughter.” Parent C also mentioned that my son was just five years old and very addictive in watching the cartoon. After watch the cartoon, his son will imitate the action and poor in problem solving.
Sousa (2000) discuss about the male and female brains are different. The male and female brain are physically different. In terms of processing information, the female brain seems to process language earlier and more easily.
Other than that, Parent B said that her daughter loves to play puzzle games and educational games while Parent C said his son loves to watch cartoon from YouTube or any cartoon/movie apps. From the book “Learning Theories, An Educational Perspective”, King & Gurian (2006) in Dale H. Schunk (2014) found out girls preferred puzzle, spatial relation and educational games, whereas boys preferred violent action and sport games. After the interview and collected all the data, the researcher can conclude that digital tablets give the different impact to the boys and girls in their cognitive development. Boys is more explore on adventure, stimulation and racing while girls is more explore on fantasy, puzzle and role playing.
This can affect the children’s cognitive development with difference interest. 4.3 Summary of ChapterIn this chapter had been discussed on the result of the finding and discussion about the effect of digital tablets on children’s cognitive development. For the next chapter will discussing conclusion, implication, limitation of the study and recommendation for future research. Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation5.
1 IntroductionIn this chapter will conclude the study, implication and limitation of the study. Recommendation for future research also will discussed. 5.2 Conclusion of StudyIn the conclusion, digital tablets is most likely to increase not decrease as children grow. Young children are growing up into a digital age when they was young. We cannot insulate children from technology, but we need to ensure that they are not harmed in technology. From the parent’s perspective, digital tablets is provides convenience especially busy lifestyles.
Parents also assumed that their children enjoyed playing with technology. Excessive usage the digital tablets can affect children’s development and disturb children’s sleep patterns. The parents need to understand young children’s media use is not necessary to integrate with any knowledge.
American Academy of Pediatrics (2012) recommendation that screen time be discouraged for children under the age of 2.5.3 Implication of StudyThere are some implications for parents and caregivers to consider about the impact of the digital tablets. Children need to develop their gross motor skills to compensate for the use of digital touch screen devices. For the children who are more to learning apps, this opportunity should include outdoor play such as swimming and climbing to develop and coordinate different physical skills.
The parents also should know how to choose the learning apps. 5.4 Limitation of StudyThere are several limitations in this study. One of the limitation is insufficient time to finish the task.
The study need to complete in short period time which is within three months. Other limitation is budget and transportation. The researcher need to use own money for transportation.5.5 Recommendation for Future ResearchFor the future study, the number of interviewer should be increase. So that can do more comparison between boys and girls. Other than that, this study can use different method (interview and observation) to collect data and analyze.
This can help to get the results more validity and reliability. The observation period should in continuous to see the changes of the child. Reference AAPChildren Now. (2000). Girls and gaming: Gender and video game marketing. New York: Children Now.
Retrieved May 7, 2002, from http://www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnwinter2001.htmlCommon Sense Mediahttps://www.channelnewsasia.
com/news/video-on-demand/why-it-matters/can-e-learning-make-you-dumb-9378062NAEYC., & Fred Rogers Centre (2012). Technology and interactive media as tools in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8.
Washington, DC: NAEYC National Association for theEducation of Young Children; Latrobe, PA: Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children’s Media, Saint Vincent College. http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/PS_technology_WEB.pdfAppendixDemographic questionAge:Gender:Education Background:How many child you have?What is your child’s gender?Interview questionDoes your child use digital tablets daily?Does your child do any outdoor activities?How long have your child been using the digital tablet?Is there any specific apps that your child uses in the tablets? Give an exampleWho oversees what applications your child uses in the tablet?Do you give proper guidelines to your child?Do you find/test the application that is suitable with the child’s level before he or she uses them?Do you think the tablet affects your child’s sleeping time?After your child uses the tablet, does he or she show any changes? For example, logical thinking skills, concentration or memorization How do you think the tablet can affect the cognitive of the children?