Athens and Sparta are the two largest Greek city-states of the Ancient world. At that time, they were in an intense rivalry. They were both thriving cities, who were at their pinnacle of success. They were the most influential regarding culture, military, and trade in the western civilization.
Though they have some significant differences, they are also strikingly similar, in the was that they had both impacted the Peloponnesian War. The way that they contrast would be the effect of geographical isolation, but initially, they had the same foundation. The Peloponnesian War was due ton the fact that Sparta had began to fear Athens power, especially regarding the Megarian Decree (a set of economic sanctions, proposed by Pericles, against Megara, one of the leading causes of the Archidamian War.) This was an Athenian economic sanction against one of Sparta’s allies, Megara.
The sanction was against the state, and it would prove extremely harmful for its economy since, without the wealth of the Athenian government, their value in the trade would decline. This warrant forced Sparta to demonstrate the power they held in a war zone. Ultimately, the Peloponnesian War started because of many ideological, as well as cultural differences between Sparta and Athens. Ancient Athens was a ground-breaking city-state, the central city of ancient Greece in the first millennium B.C. what’s more, it’s a renowned center for knowledge and mental development.
It has the longest history compared to any city in Europe, and it has been continuously occupied for more than 3000 years. Initially ruled by a king, it resembled a considerable lot of the other city-states surrounding it. However, the power of the king receded to the council beneath him, composed of wealthy nobles, know as the Areopagus.
The Areopagus obtained their power from profit that accumulated from wine and oil production, which of course require some funding at first. Because of this, a detrimental cycle had began. Wealthy Athenians were always the ones in control of the government, which left the poverty-struck citizens with little choice but to sell their families, and even themselves into the slave trade. Later, however, this was brought to an end by the tyrant Solon, whose reforms led to a government based on four tiers of social classes, which radiated some democracy. Shortly after, another tyrant, Peisistratus, caused more change that was focused on social improvements. After his son lost power, Cleisthenes began to create a series of significant reform that would eventually yield the start of Athenian democracy.
These reforms included the declaration that would allow all Athenian and Attican men to be official citizens, an established council whose members were elected by Athenian citizens (rather than a pot of rich nobles), and a law that allowed only the Athenian Assembly to have the political power to declare war. The final part of democracy was ostracism, which disabled would-be tyrants from seizing power by exiling them before they gained to much power. Athens had something the other poleis did not, which was its harbor, allowing it to trade with the other city-states located on the water and other nations in the Aegean Sea easily. The birthplace of democracy, Athens’ achievements in cultural and political reform are said to have laid the foundation for the development of western civilization.