As claimed by Kahn and McAlister,brand awareness and brand loyalty are impossible to be built solely withadvertising. While promotions appear to be better at drawing consumerattention, most research studies, however, have concentrated on pricepromotions only.1Furthermore, in order to determine if the moderation impact of price ornon-price promotions is greater on the antecedents of brand loyalty such asbrand trust, brand reliability, and brand intentions, non-price promotionsshould be also taken into account.
2Until the late 1900s that scholars began noticing non-price promotion.3 Besides the lack of non-pricepromotions research, other studies share common drawbacks. For example, salespromotions tended to be hindered by the deficiency of the theoretical approach.Promotions was criticized for being too narrow that solely coped with one typeof promotion at a time.
Behaviorists were criticized for confining empiricalwork and choosing promotions theoretically.4 Finally, the long-termeffect of promotion activities has been debated for years.5This debate may be due to the fact that most studies are on price promotions,and while price promotions are blamed to erode brandequity because they emphasize on price1;and uncommitted consumers are mostly economic incentives driven which leads topromotion driven buying behaviors.2Empirical studies indicate that promotions indirectly affect brand loyaltythrough consumer satisfaction3.However, other researchers believed that sales promotions would triggernegative impact on brand such as price sensitivity4,brand switching, and lower repeat purchase rates5.The drawbacks and the inconsistency in previous research findings call for anew empirical study involving both price and non-price promotions on the studyof relationship between them and brand loyalty.