Anthony David Stephen Smith (September 23rd,1939 –July 19th, 2016) is Professor Emeritus of Nationalism and Ethnicity at the London School of Economics .He is considered as one of the founders of the interdisciplinary field of nationalism studies suggests that our individual self is composed of five elements, namely gender, territory, social class, religion and ethnic identity. In his research paper “What Is Identity (As We Now Use the Word)? “James D. Fearon, a Professor of Political Science at Stanford University, makes an attempt to analyze of the word identity in its current usage in everyday language and social science discourse. Fearon emphasizes that the meaning of the term originated from Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development from the 1950s.
Though, during the late 1980´s and 1990s, as a consequence to the multiculturalism, the use of the term is developed to have a different meaning in certain fields as history, anthropology and most of all humanities. Absolutely, the term started to be overused heavily in discourses on the topics such as race, social class, ethnicity, gender, sexuality and other social categories. Fearon recapitulates his findings concluding that “identity” has a meaning either a social category, defined by belonging rules and apparently characteristic aspects or expected behaviors, or a socially unique feature that a person takes a special self-satisfaction in or views as constant but socially consequential(Fearon 1 ).