ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Factors that contribute to inadequate learning for students in Port Moresby

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Factors that contribute to inadequate learning for students in Port Moresby, in particular Koki Primary School
INTRODUCTION
Ravinda Rena (2011), “there is an urgent need to reform the educational system to achieve universal primary education in Papua New Guinea. Even after 34 years of independence, PNG is still struggling to educate its young population in the public school at elementary – and primary – age children who are faced with numerous challenges in providing Education for All”.
This annotation bibliography is a collection of citations from various authors and journalist to support factors affecting students learning in Papua New Guinea particularly Koki Primary school; Such as teachers qualification for both elementary and primary, lack of learning materials, deteriorating school facilitates, teachers remuneration package including accommodation.
The first reference by Jenny Jones quotes, “Nelson Mandela’s maxim that “no country can really develop unless its citizens are educated”; which is said to have been embraced by the PNG Government.
Listed are nine annotations supporting inadequate learning at primary school leave which have been evaluated.

REFERENCE
Publication|Lowy Institute Web log post. (n.d).Retrieved from https://www.lowyinstitute.org/publications/future-papua-new-guinea-old-challenges-new-leadersAIM/PURPOSE
The aim of this article identifies the key trends and prospect to help shape the country including the education system.
ARTICLE TYPE Conceptual Paper
APPROACH
The author highlights current issues faced in the education sector and mentions policy introduced by the government.
CONCLUSION
(non research only)
It can be concluded that O’Neal government has reintroduced the free education policy and Government has embraced “no country can progress unless its people are educated”.
SIGNIFICANCE
The articular is significant to the topic as it identifies the issues relating to education that needs attention to resolve in the coming future.
STRENGTHS
The article supports the topic as well as it discusses a little about the government take action to resolving these issues in due course.

WEAKNESSES
The author highlighted the Prime Minister Peter O’Niel’s free education policy, however, does not state how the government funds the public schools to meet expenses for learning materials and refurbish deteriorating school facilitates which are also contributing to students learning.

REFERENCE
Education Research International, R. R. (2010, August 23). Challenges for Quality Primary Education in Papua New Guinea—A Case Study. Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2011/485634/
AIM/PURPOSE
The article identifies the need for primary education to improve it standard to provide better education at primary level. It reports the current available resources need for attention to achieve that standard.
ARTICLE TYPE Conceptual Paper
APPROACH
The conclusion the author draws is towards training requirements for teachers, it also reviews the current curricula and for classrooms to be refurbished. The implication is student learning is being affected.

SIGNIFICANCE
The article is significant to the topic as it identifies various variables to the hypothesis factors affecting inadequate learning at primary education.
STRENGTHS
The article describes the aim of the reform in primary schools in order to achieve sustainable quality, universal basis education, and skilled population.

WEAKNESSES
The article does not state recommendations as to how these issues can be resolved.

REFERENCE
Nandawa (2016) The National Web log post. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.com.pg/png-needs-raise-standard-teachers/AIM/PURPOSE
The article describes the selection of candidates for potential teaching training to become professional teachers. It further mentions the need for these criteria to be reviewed for future applicants for training college.
ARTICLE TYPE Conceptual Paper (Newspaper Article)
METHOD
(research only)
Instrument: A survey questionnaire, with 1 opened ended question and a closed ended question to teachers’ salary package.

Sample population: 5 members of teachers out of the 40 teaching staff were selected to complete a questionnaire relating to the topic.
Data collection: quantitative data was collected from the participants as likert scale
Data analysis: the quantitative data variables were assesed by grouping them into agree and disagree. The total was dividual into the total number of participants and then multipled by 100 to to represent the percentage of the sample population of teachers.

FINDINGS (research only) According to the research finding, 40% of the teachers agreed that teachers are qualified while 60% disagreed that not all teachers are fully qualified to teach.

SIGNIFICANCE
The significance of the article implies the author has a good understanding of the selection criteria on how applicants are selected for teaching studies and the level and quality of teachers graduating to take up teaching roles. The author is a Health, Safety and Education Consultant who are a former lecturer at Dauli Teachers College,
STRENGTHS
The strength of the article supports the variable and the research study reveals that a portion of the teachers are unqualified even though the candidates complete formal education to get into teaching college and graduate. These new teachers are not qualified in terms of education level to take on teaching roles and require mentors.

WEAKNESSES
The article is from a newspaper source which is an individual’s opinion; A survey was conduct to support the newspaper article.

REFERENCE
The National. (2013, January 1) Port Moresby. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.com.pg/prioritise-improving-teachers’-conditions/AIM/PURPOSE
The article was purposely written for Government and aimed to review and improve teachers’ salary package and benefit. The article reports of the current benefit and package public servant teacher are on.

ARTICLE TYPE Conceptual Paper (Newspaper Article)
METHOD
(research only)
Instrument: A survey questionnaire, with 1 opened ended question and a closed ended question.
Sample population: 5 members of teachers out of the 40 teaching staff were selected to complete a questionnaire relating to the topic.
Data collection: quantitative data was collected from the participants as likert scale.
Data analysis: the quantitative data variables were assesed by grouping them into agree and disagree. The total was dividual into the total number of participants and then multipled by 100 to to represent the percentage of the sample population of teachers.

FINDINGS (research only)
The research survey findings indicate that 100% of the teachers agreed that teachers’ remuneration package is a contributing factor to inadequate learning to students’ learning.

SIGNIFICANCE
During the research it was discovered that teachers miss classes to go to the Head Quarters to attend to their salary queries. They work long hours too, which are not compensated.
STRENGTHS
The conclusion the author draws is that when teachers’ benefits and package it will improve the education for government school students will as teachers will be happy to teach students with extra effort to their teaching.

WEAKNESSES
The article is from a newspaper source which is an individual’s opinion; And the survey conducted supports the newspaper article, however, the survey was conducted to a sample of the teaching population at Koki Primary School.

REFERENCE
The National (2013, October 17) Port Moresby. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.com.pg/teachers’-qualifications-queried/
AIM/PURPOSE The aim of this article identifies why students who move up to high school are not equipped to take up studies at this level. The article reports that the teachers are contributing to this situation as learning is inadequate at primary level. The conclusion drawn by the author draws is that students’ comprehension is limited to further their education.
ARTICLE TYPE Conceptual Paper (Newspaper Article)
METHOD
(research only)
Instrument: A survey questionnaire, with 1 opened ended question and a closed ended question.

Sample population: 5 members of teachers out of the 40 teaching staff were selected to complete a questionnaire relating to the topic.
Data collection: quantitative data was collected from the participants as likert scale
Data analysis: the quantitative data variables were assesed by grouping them into agree and disagree. The total was dividual into the total number of participants and then multipled by 100 to to represent the percentage of the sample population of teachers.

FINDINGS
(research only)
The research finds indicating that 40% of the teachers agreed while the 60% disagreed. The 60% of the population sample disagreed as it is believed some teachers are not fully qualified to teach.

SIGNIFICANCE
It was found during the survey that teachers become fully qualified when they take up teaching strategy and skills, including administration while teaching in the field.
STRENGTHS
The survey research is relevant to the topic and finding has confirmation that teachers are qualified when they graduate. It can be concluded that head teachers and seniors should mentor fresh graduate teachers.

WEAKNESSES
The article is from a newspaper source which is an individual’s opinion; A survey was conduct to support the newspaper article.

REFERENCE
Loop PNG (2017, February 27). Retrieved from http://www.looppng.com/png-news/school-needs-help-teachers%E2%80%99-accommodation-53336AIM/PURPOSE
The aim of this article is to make aware to the Papua New Guinea Government and Teachers Association of the current accommodation issues faced by the Public Servant Teachers.
ARTICLE TYPE Conceptual Paper (Newspaper Article)
METHOD
(Research only) Instrument: A survey questionnaire, with 1 opened ended question and a closed ended question.

Sample population: 5 members of teachers out of the 40 teaching staff were selected to complete a questionnaire relating to the topic.
Data collection: quantitative data was collected from the participants as likert scale
Data analysis: the quantitative data variables were assesed by grouping them into agree and disagree. The total was dividual into the total number of participants and then multipled by 100 to to represent the percentage of the sample population of teachers.

FINDINGS
(Research only)
The finding of the research survey indicates that 100% of the teachers agreed that accommodation is an issue faced by teachers.
SIGNIFICANCE
The significance of the newspaper article supports the variable and the research supports both the newspaper article and variable accommodation is a contributing factor to students’ inadequate learning.

STRENGTHS
The result of the research survey reveals that accommodation is problem for many teachers who reside and teach in port Moresby. The conclusion can be drawn from this article that less attention is given to teachers’ accommodation, this has caused teachers to look for work in other fields; therefore, primary schools are losing quality teachers.

WEAKNESSES
The article is from a newspaper source which is an individual’s opinion; A survey was conduct to support the newspaper article.

REFERENCE
The NationalThh. (2014, July 24). The national Port Moresby. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.com.pg/five-new-classrooms-for-ncd-schools-soon/
AIM/PURPOSE
The aim of this article is to give hope to the schools as the government plans to build new classrooms and are scheduled for constructions for selected government schools.
ARTICLE TYPE Conceptual Paper (Newspaper Article)
METHOD Instrument: A survey questionnaire, with 1 opened ended question and a closed ended question.

Sample population: 5 members of teachers out of the 40 teaching staff were selected to complete a questionnaire relating to the topic.
Data collection: quantitative data was collected from the participants as likert scale
Data analysis: the quantitative data variables were assesed by grouping them into agree and disagree. The total was dividual into the total number of participants and then multipled by 100 to to represent the percentage of the sample population of teachers.

FINDINGS
100% agree that materials and infrastructure is an issue that contributes to students learning
SIGNIFICANCE
The research findings indicate that a majority of the infrastructure are deterioration and much attention. The Government has scheduled construction of new classrooms in five National Capital District schools is ready to start. The primary schools are Koki, Kila Kila, St Francis, Kaugere and Daugo Primary on Fisherman’s Island.

STRENGTHS
The result supports that deteriorate infrastructure contributes to students learning as a result learning environment contributes to students learning due buildings in poor state.

WEAKNESSES
The article is from a newspaper source which is an individual’s opinion; A survey was conduct to support the newspaper article.

REFERENCE
Mowana (2013, May 10). Retrieved from http://asopa.typepad.com/asopa_people/2013/05/tough-issues-for-png-education-still-unresolved.htmlAIM/PURPOSE
The aim of this article is for Papua New Guinea Teachers Associate and the Government to be aware and improve the current education curriculum thought in government schools.
ARTICLE TYPE Research Article
METHOD Instrument: A survey questionnaire, with 1 opened ended question and a closed ended question.
Sample population: 5 members of teachers out of the 40 teaching staff were selected to complete a questionnaire relating to the topic.
Data collection: quantitative data was collected from the participants as likert scale
Data analysis: the quantitative data variables were assesed by grouping them into agree and disagree. The total was dividual into the total number of participants and then multipled by 100 to to represent the percentage of the sample population of teachers.

FINDINGS
20% agree while 80% disagree that the current curriculum is beneficial to the students.

SIGNIFICANCE
The articular illustrates that the current education curriculum is a failure. It also supports the variable current education curriculum is not beneficial to students learning.

STRENGTHS
According to the article the OBE has failed to produce an improved education system in Papua New Guinea.
WEAKNESSES
The article is a research an online blog. It refers to statistics that were collected to support the article, however, does not illustrate the references.

REFERENCE
(n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/png/children_3857.htmlAIM/PURPOSE
The aim of this article is to make aware of government schools lacking learning materials and learning environment is poor which is causing students to lose interest in school.
ARTICLE TYPE Research Article
METHOD Instrument: A survey questionnaire, with 1 opened ended question and a closed ended question.
Sample population: 5 members of teachers out of the 40 teaching staff were selected to complete a questionnaire relating to the topic.
Data collection: quantitative data was collected from the participants as likert scale
Data analysis: the quantitative data variables were assesed by grouping them into agree and disagree. The total was dividual into the total number of participants and then multipled by 100 to to represent the percentage of the sample population of teachers.

FINDINGS
40% of the teachers agree and 60% disagreed that teachers are unqualified. Also 100% of the teachers agreed that lack of learning materials
SIGNIFICANCE
The article supports the variables, lack of learning materials and unqualified teachers are contributing to students learning and to some extend school student leaving schools.
STRENGTHS
The strength of the survey supports variable and article that other internal factors constraining participation relate to the quality of the school and learning environment such as the presence of the teacher, teachers’ attitude and capacity and the levels of resources for teaching and learning such as books and teacher guides and/or resource materials”.

WEAKNESSES
The article is from an online blog research source which does not illustrate research on how percentage was gathered. Therefore, a survey was conducted outside this article support it.

CONCLUSION
It can be concluded by the strength from the various citations and sources these issues identified are factors contributing to inadequate learning for school students at Koki Primary School a real and needs attention.
Though the Papua New Guinea Government is aware of these issues, it has embraced these issue to be resolved as described by Jenny (2016), however, it seem not much is been done which Shyman Yalu statement confirms, “if nothing is done to resolve these issue, the concept of improving education in PNG will remain a distance dream”.
The Government seriously needs to address and resolve these issues as education starts at primary school level and must be recognised as the foundation to learning. More importantly education is the cornerstone for a prosperous Papua New Guinea.

REFERENCES
Publication|Lowy Institute Web log post. (n.d).Retrieved from https://www.lowyinstitute.org/publications/future-papua-new-guinea-old-challenges-new-leadersSome Facts and Figures on Access and Quality of Education – Papua New Guinea National Research Institute (n.d.). Retrieved from https://pngnri.org/the-current-state-of-education-in-papua-new-guinea-some-facts-and-figures-on-access-and-quality-of-education/Education Research International, R. R. (2010, August 23). Challenges for Quality Primary Education in Papua New Guinea—A Case Study. Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2011/485634/
K N. (2016, November 1) The National Web log post. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.com.pg/png-needs-raise-standard-teachers/The National. (2013, January 1). Port Moresby. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.com.pg/prioritise-improving-teachers’-conditions/The National. (2013, October 17). The National Port Moresby. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.com.pg/teachers’-qualifications-queried/
K N. (2016, November 1) The National Web log post. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.com.pg/png-needs-raise-standard-teachers/| Loop PNG |. (2017, February 27). Retrieved from http://www.looppng.com/png-news/school-needs-help-teachers%E2%80%99-accommodation-53336The. NationalThh. (2014, July 24). The scheduled coThe national Port Moresby. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.com.pg/five-new-classrooms-for-ncd-schools-soon/
Mowana said.. (2013, May 10). Retrieved from http://asopa.typepad.com/asopa_people/2013/05/tough-issues-for-png-education-still-unresolved.html(n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/png/children_3857.html