AN OVERVIEW OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CUSTOMERS OF CAFETERIA OF LAHORE GARRISON UNIVERSITY

AN OVERVIEW OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CUSTOMERS OF CAFETERIA
OF
LAHORE GARRISON UNIVERSITY, LAHORE, PAKISTAN

BACHELORS THESIS
BY
SEHAR SHAHBAZ
(FA14-BAF-01)
MUHAMMAD SAIMAB LIAQUAT
(FA14-BAF-03)
2014-2018

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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
LAHORE GARRISON UNIVERSITY
LAHORE, PAKISTAN.
DECLARATION CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the work produced in the following thesis is original and result of the research work has been carried out by the candidates for this project. This work is free for all types of plagiarism. It is further added that the work produced here, as a part of whole, has never been published or submitted for any degree or award before.

_________________ ________________
(Candidate 1) (Supervisor 1)

_________________ ________________
(Candidate 2) (Supervisor 2)

APPROVAL CERTIFICATE
We the following understand that the work produced in this thesis is the result of research of research carried by the candidates and being submitted to Lahore Garrison University for the partial fulfillment of the degree of
BACHELORS OF ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE
After examining the thesis in all respect we approve the work bound in this volume qualitatively and quantitatively as well as recommend the university to issue the degree.

(Internal Supervisor) (External Supervisor)
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DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to our parents and respected supervisors for being a constant support through the whole time period of the completion of my thesis.
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ACKNOWLEGDEMENT
Starting in the name of Almighty Allah who is the most benevolent and who gave us the strength and potential ability through his utmost blessings to proceed successfully. The submission of this research work has given us a huge pleasure and enhances our knowledge.
After that we want to thank our parents, the Head of Department of Commerce, and especially supervisors of this subject for their guidance and support. Without their enthusiasm, constant intellectual engagement and understanding, this project would never have been completed.
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Table of Contents
Contents Page No.

Declaration Certificate …………………….02
Approval Certificate ……………………………………………………………………………03
Dedication …………………………………………………………………………………….. 04
Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………………………………. 05
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………… 07
Chapter 1: Introduction ………………………………………………………………………..08
Background ………………………………………………………………………..10
Objective …………………………………………………………………………..10
Problem Statement …………………………………………………………………10
Chapter 2: Literature Review …………………………………………………………………11
Chapter 3: Theoretical Framework …………………………………………………………….13
Chapter 4: Methodology ………………………………………………………………………15
Chapter 5: Results …………………………………………………………………………….16
Descriptive ……………………………………………………………..…………16
Inferential ………………………………………………………………..……….18
Chapter 6: Conclusion ……. …………………………………………………………..……..21
Recommendation………………………………………………………………….21
Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………22

Abstract
On-campus foodservices were thought to be the first choice for university students to dine in. This paper aims to know an opinion and satisfaction level of every individual using student’s own café of Lahore Garrison University. Customer’s preference has to be at first for university for which 300 questionnaires destributed among students, teachers and other staff of university. In questionnaire, demographic measures include gender, age, province, qualification and status. Variables that are descriptively used to analyze customer’s opinion are service delivery, servicescape , product and technology. These factors are then descriptively analyzed to determine attributes influencing university customer preferences. Our findings analyzed their opinions statistically by using SPSS in which variables are then descriptively used to analyze correlations between each other which results 100% significant. ANOVA, bar charts and correlation is used to analyze an overall opinion of customers and relation between each variable by using Student’s own Café of Lahore Garrison University.
This paper results in strong correlation between four variables and also shows an unequal satisfaction among teachers, students and service delivery and significantly contributes in providing a deeper insight into factors that influences dining choice of university foodservice’s customers in Lahore Garrison University.
Keywords
Customer satisfaction, service delivery,
servicescape, product, technology and cafeteria.

Chapter 1
Introduction
It is a measure of how products and services supplied by a café or surpass customer expectation. Customer satisfaction is a term used to describe a scenario when an exchange meets the needs and expectations of its use. Customer satisfaction, as a business term, can also be used to measure how the supply of products or services surpasses customer expectations. Consumer’s opinion is very important that need to be known for every university’s cafeteria. This paper aims to know an opinion and satisfaction level of every individual using student’s own café of LGU. So, it will be very helpful for management of café that which services need to be more improved and which sort of products should need to be added or subtracted.
Customer satisfaction has been studied for a long time by hundreds of researchers. Consumer loyalty is the core of any business promotion. Consumer loyalty often turns into focal point of consideration since it is used to decide customer’s repeat buying expectation, which is in turn used for the turnover or profit forecast of any business. (Anshul Garg *, 2017)
Food services are an important constituent of a wholesome arrangement that influences personal satisfaction of students and faculty at universities and colleges. Food service requirements of university students need to be further explored. While the importance of offering quality education is undisputed for many universities and colleges that are concerned with bringing more students to their institutions, paying attention to food services is an added attraction for students. Furthermore, the number of undergraduates registered in universities is growing incessantly, causing an explosive development of this market (Garg, 2014).
The findings reveal that the various quality factors considered in the study are positively correlated with customer satisfaction and have a significant impact on the level of satisfaction of both students and staff who have dined at the university cafeteria. It could be concluded from the results that the influence of the price offered at the university cafeteria had a significant effect on the loyalty of the respondents. The result of this study is a guide to better services and facilities, which leads to an increase in the competitive impact of restaurant business on the market. (Anshul Garg, 2017)

Food and beverage quality plays a vital role in determining and forming students’ satisfaction. Quality attributes of food and beverage such as taste, smell, freshness, appearance, size, shape, colour, gloss, consistency, and texture play a higher role in accomplishing or surpassing customer satisfaction and expectation to return (Dollah, Mansor, & Mohamed, 2012). (Anshul Garg*, 2017)

Background
As the paper’s aim is to know an opinion and satisfaction level of every individual using student’s own café of LGU for which at least 300 questionnaires have to be distributed among students, teachers and other staff of university. In questionnaire; demographic measures include gender, age, province, qualification and status. Variables that are descriptively used to analyze customer’s opinion are Service Delivery, Servicescape , Product and Technology. This paper significantly contributes in proving a deepest opinion of customer that really influence the overall services providing in cafeteria of LGU. Customer’s preference has to be at first for university.
Objective
“An overview of the factors influencing the customers of cafeteria”
We have to know our customers opinion and their satisfaction level to bring more improvements as per their response. Paper’s aim is to know an opinion and satisfaction level of customers.
Problem Statement:
Students satisfaction with the service quality of cafeteria of Lahore Garrison University.

Chapter 2
Literature Review
Introduction
On the basis of four variables regarding our research project that are service delivery, servicescape, product and technology we observed that many factors have been found to influence students and staff when choosing a food service property, such as the quality of food and beverages, quality of service, value, price, hygiene and cleanliness, location, and product variety.
For the purpose of the current study, factors that have been investigated in relation to their impact on consumer satisfaction are food and beverage quality, food and beverage variety, service quality, the atmospherics of the restaurant and the price-to-value relationship. (Anshul Garg*, 2017)
It is believed that service quality has a positive effect on customer satisfaction, that is to say improving service quality results in a satisfied customer (Chang, Suki, ; Nalini, 2014; Lee, Liaw, Lee, ; Rha, 2016). But of course, service quality is not the only variable to consider when explaining customer satisfaction, as pricing also plays a central role in the analysis of customer satisfaction. While the relationship between quality and customer satisfaction, price fairness and satisfaction have been pretty well determined by service marketing researchers, it seems that no clear links have been established between these two variables for research on satisfaction. (Anshul Garg*, 2017)
Customer satisfaction has been studied for a long time by hundreds of researchers. Consumer loyalty is the core of any business promotion. Consumer loyalty frequently turns into the focal point of consideration since it is used to decide a customer’s repeat buying expectation, which is in turn used for the turnover or profit prediction of any business. Amelia and Garg (2016) noted that first impression is one of the main considerations along with the quality of food, waiting time for the food being served, correctness of the food served, and politeness and alertness of restaurant staff. Comfortable seating and dining area and restaurant ambience had significantly affected the customers’ intention to return to the restaurant. (Anshul Garg*, 2017)
Cafeteria atmosphere is dictated by the spatial organization of the seating, variety of the internal decorations and the appropriateness of the ambient melodies, which are imperative providers to the higher gratification of cafeterias (Namkung ; Jang, 2008). Besides, food packing, portion size, and arrangement lighting at the cafeteria impact the individual’s prompt setting (Story, Kaphingst, Robinson-O’Brien, ; Glanz, 2008). Additionally, the physical setting impacts customers’ view of service quality (Hensley & Sulek, 2007; Norhati & Nur Hafisah, 2013). Previous research by Flegal, Carroll, Ogden, & Curtin (2010) found that there are connections between food information, food quality, eating behaviour, dining situations and food distribution settings. The atmosphere is an intangible component made up of everything related to the brand that will yield an impression towards the specific location. The design of the dining setting, stylistic layout, interior design and colour scheme, textures and the food produce the atmosphere. The appropriate atmosphere can make the food, service quality and entire dining experience appear to be better (Raman & Chinniah, 2011; Norhati & Hafisah, 2013). All these elements are most crucial and have a direct association with customer satisfaction. (Anshul Garg*, 2017)

Chapter 3
Theoretical Framework
We use four variables which are closely correlated to each other as shown below

Service delivery
A service delivery is a set of principles, standards, policies and constraints to be used to guide the designs, deployment, operation and retirement of services delivered by a service provider with a view to offering a consistent service experience to a specific user community in a specific.
Servicescape
The servicescape includes the facility’s exterior (landscape, exterior design, signage, parking, surrounding environment) and interior (interior design and decor, equipment, signage, layout) and ambient conditions (air quality, temperature and lighting). In addition to its effects on customer’s individual behaviors, the servicescape influences the nature and quality of customer and employee interactions, most directly in interpersonal services.
Servicescape is a model developed to emphasize the impact of the physical environment in which a service process takes place. The aim of the servicescapes model is to explain behavior of people within the service environment with a view to designing environments that accomplish organizational goals in terms of achieving desired behavioral responses.
Cafeteria atmosphere is dictated by the spatial organisation of the seating, variety of the internal decorations and the appropriateness of the ambient melodies, which are imperative providers to the higher gratification of cafeterias (Namkung & Jang, 2008). Besides, food packing, portion size, and arrangement lighting at the cafeteria impact the individual’s prompt setting (Story, Kaphingst, Robinson-O’Brien, & Glanz, 2008). Additionally, the physical setting impacts customers’ view of service quality (Hensley ; Sulek, 2007; Norhati ; Nur Hafisah, 2013). Previous research by Flegal, Carroll, Ogden, ; Curtin (2010) found that there are connections between food information, food quality, eating behaviour, dining situations and food distribution settings. (Anshul Garg*, 2017)
Product
A thing or person that is the result of an action or process. Product is basically a physical item, service or symbolic effect that offered to fulfill the needs of customers.
Technology
The support and maintenance of any quality service delivery, servicescape and products would fall on the technological applications within the foodservice facilities. ‘Technology’ has been offered as an avail service to customers, irrespective of the customer and the service provider being coincidently. Two examples of technology in foodservices are, the usage of computers, frozen items in refrigerators, and the timers that keeps track in a busy kitchen. All these applications reduces over-cooked food and food waste while ensuring the cooked food are safe and perfectly done.

Chapter 4
Methodology
Consumer’s opinion is very important that need to be known for every university’s cafeteria. This paper aims to know an opinion and satisfaction level of every individual using student’s own café of LGU for which quantitative data collected using 300 questionnaires among students, teachers and other staff of university. In questionnaire, demographic measures include gender, age, province, qualification and status. Variables that are descriptively used to analyze customer’s opinion are service delivery, servicescape, product and technology. We have analyzed their opinions statistically by using SPSS. These variables are then descriptively used to analyze correlation between each other which results 100% significant. ANOVA, bar charts and correlation is used to analyze an overall opinion of customers and relation between each variable by using Student’s own Café of LGU. This papers significantly contributes in proving a deepest opinions of customer that really influence the customers of cafeteria of LGU. Customer’s preference has to be at first for university.

Chapter 5
RESULTS
Descriptive
Table 1 below illustrates that from the total sample size of 300, the percentage of respondents’ gender consisted of 65.33% females and 34.67% males.

Table 1
Table 1.1 shows that Among all respondents, majority belongs to bachelors level with 73% then 8.3% were masters, 2.3% were M Phil level and 16.3% others as shown in bar diagram table 2 below:

Table 1.1
Table 1.2 shows that Since the study was conducted in the Lahore Garrison University and most of the diners are students who are actually studying at Lahore Garrison University, thus majority (71%) of the respondents were the students who were mainly in the age group of 17 to 24. Apart from students, the remaining respondents were academics (27%) and admin staff (2%).

Table 1.2

According to the results shown below in table 1.3The Teacher’s are highly Satisfied with the mean value of 2.753, others with mean value of 2.5 and students having a low satisfaction level with the least mean value of 2.493 as shown below:

Table 1.3

Inferentials
ANOVA
An ANOVA test is a way to find out if survey or experiment results are significant which stands for Analysis of Variance. In other words, ANOVA helps to figure out if there is a need to reject the null hypothesis or accept the alternate hypothesis. Basically, ANOVA use to tests groups to see if there’s a difference between them.
From table 1 below, we observed that F Statistics is 4.850 and P value is 0.008 that is less than 5% which shows that these three group of people are not equally satisfied with the service delivery.

Service_Delivery
Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 4.275 2 2.137 4.850 .008
Within Groups 130.898 297 .441
Total 135.173 299
Table 1

From table 2 below, we observed that F Statistics is 3.841 and P value is 0.023 that is less than 5% which shows that these three group of people are not equally satisfied with the servicescape.

Servicescape
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 1.866 2 .933 3.841 .023
Within Groups 72.148 297 .243
Total 74.015 299
Table 2

From table 3 below, we observed that F Statistics is 4.672 and P value is 0.010 that is less than 5% which shows that these three group of people are not equally satisfied with the product.
Product
Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 3.869 2 1.935 4.672 .010
Within Groups 122.985 297 .414
Total 126.854 299
Table 3

From table 4 below, we observed that F Statistics is 17.226 and P value is 0.000 that is less than 5% which shows that these three group of people are not equally satisfied with the technology.

Technology
Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 9.190 2 4.595 17.226 .000
Within Groups 79.229 297 .267
Total 88.419 299
Table 4

Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation was computed to assess the relationship between the Service delivery, Servicescape, product and technology. There was a positive correlation between the four variables where:

• In servicescape, r= 0.677 and p=0.000 , in Product r=0.656 and p= 0.000 , and in Technology r= -0.244 and p=0.000 in correlation with service delivery.
• In Service Delivery, r= 0.677 and p=0.000 , in Product r=0.724 and p= 0.000 , and in Technology r= -0.153 and p=0.000 in correlation with servicescape.
• In service Delivery, r= 0.656 and p=0.000 , in Servicescape r=0.724 and p= 0.000 , and in Technology r= 0.212 and p=0.000 in correlation with product.
• In service Delivery, r= -0.244 and p=0.000 , in Servicescape, r=-0.153 and p= 0.000 , and in Product, r= 0.212 and p=0.000 in correlation with Technology.

Chapter 6
Conclusion
The study revealed that students’ satisfaction with the university cafeteria has negative relationship with all the different factors, for e.g., service delivery, servicescape, product and technology used in this study as compared to teachers as they have a positive relation of all factors mentioned above. It is in this way critical for university cafeteria administrators to continue enhancing the quality of food and beverage served to the clients to increase their satisfaction level. Moreover, an attractive menu, with different food varieties, at a reasonable price should be offered to the customers and served in an appropriate ambience that can energies their enthusiasm for dining at the university cafeteria. The results showed that food and beverage quality and service quality have a significant relationship with customer satisfaction. This was supported by previous studies. For instance, Ha and Jang (2010) and Hyun (2010) confirmed from their study that food and beverage quality and service quality have positive and significant relationship with consumer satisfaction in university cafeteria service.

Recommendations
• As observations shows less satisfaction level of students with overall services. providing by cafeteria so they should improve their present factors according to the demand of students.
• Provide a pleasant environment and atmosphere for staff.
• Provide a professionally managed area which can function for business lunches with suppliers.
• Free wifi should be there for students so that they can easily use an application developed for reservation of food.
• Provide a professionally managed area which can function for business lunches with suppliers.
• Add some more nutritious products in menu of cafeteria.
• Focus on seasonal items.
• Price should be decrease.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abd Ghani, F. 2009. Assessing students’ acceptance and satisfaction level on service delivery attributes at UiTM hostels’ cafeteria. Unpublished MSc Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia.
Abd Ghani, F., Mohd Zahari, M.S., Ramli, N., Jusoff, K., Md. Zaini, Z.M., Hamid, M., Samsudin, A., Ngali, N. and Rahmat, N. 2011. Service at uitm residential hostel cafeterias – is it satisfactory? World Applied Sciences Journal, 12 (Special Issue on Service Sector Transforms the Economy): 08-13.
Andaleeb, S. S. and Caskey, A. 2007. Satisfaction with food services: insight from a college cafeteria. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 10(2):51-65.
Johns, N. and Lee-Ross, D. 1995. Profile Accumulation: a quality assessment technique for hospitality SMEs, in Teare, Armistead, C (Eds), Services Management, New Directions, New Perspectives, Cassell, London.
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Boone, L. and Kurtz, D. 2006. Contemporary marketing: 12th edition. United Kingdom, Thomson SouthWestern.
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