Although when compared to pharmacological treatment. Mindfulness

Althoughthe majority of research of mindfulness applications in clinical andnon-clinical settings is for the adult population, there is an increased interest of applications and benefits ofmindfulness practices for children (Black, Milam, & Susman, 2009: Burke,2010). Mindfulness practices have been successfully applied to adolescents withsymptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Herbert andEsparham (2017) review of mindfulness based interventions (MBIs), such as yogaand meditation for ADHD, found positive improvements with little or no sideeffects when compared to pharmacological treatment.  Mindfulness interventions to treat ADHD forchildren appear to have positive co-relations for both children and parents.This application demonstrates significant reductions of signs and symptoms ofADHD in children and have beneficial effect on reducing stress in parents, thusimprovement in parenting style can have a direct effect on child behaviouraloutcome (Bögels, Hellemans, van Deursen, Römer,& van der Meulen, 2013; van der Oord, Bögels, & Peijnenburg, 2011).

Similarly, Biegel et al. (2009) reported significant reduction in anxiety anddepression symptoms and improved self-esteem and sleep quality in adolescentpsychiatric outpatients using MBSR in comparison to treatment as usual(TAU).  The open clinical case study trials offive children investigated feasibility of mindfulness practice applicationadapted from MBRS and MBCT as a treatment for anxiety. The findings suggestthat there is a potential in improving anxiety symptoms and attention usingmindfulness practices (Semple, Reid, & Miller, 2005). Cotton et al. (2015) studied the effectsof MBCT of adolescents with anxiety disorder who are at risk for bipolardisorder. Overall, nine out of ten participants reported usefulness andacceptability of the programme, in terms of it being helpful to manage theiranger, becoming less worried and patient, as well as helping children at schooland in their home interactions too. (Cotton et al.

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, 2015).Mindfulness practices has also shown toimprove sleep and mental health distress in adolescents with substance abusefor those who successfully completed MBSR intervention. Although during thecourse there was a high dropout rate (23 out of 55 complete the course), thosewho completed the treatment showed better sleep quality as well as decrease insubstance abuse after a 12 month follow up review (Bootzin, & Stevens, 2005).Following clinical success over theyears, mindfulness based practices have been naturally accepted for schoolbased psychologists and incorporated in treatment with children for wide rangeof health issues (Albrecht, Albrecht,& Cohen, 2012).


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