Allium the Latin word given to garlic, a floweringplant with hundreds of separate species;which many have been gathered through human history, One of the species belongto this (related group of living things) is the Allium sativum L.
Also known asthe (helped to grow) garlic, which belong to the onion family Alliaceae andclosely related to the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. It has beenused throughout recorded history for both food-related and medicinal propose.Garlic plant is moderately tall (up to three feet) it is an erect herb commongrown as a once-a-year that is a plant that only last for a year, it hasadventious roots and shortened flattened stem and narrow flat leaves. The bulbconsists of 6 to 35 bulblets called cloves with glistering and clear covering,the plant grows as a vegetable rosette close to the ground, the leaves isbroad.
They grow in different conditions from dry, well-drained mineral-based soilto moist organic soil, most grow in sunny locations but a number also grow inforests, or even in swap water areas.Allium sativum L. consist of sulfur containingcompounds such as allicin, alliin, ajoene, dially disulfide, dithiin andSallylcysteine.These large number of sulfur compounds responsible for the smelland taste of garlic. Dially disulfide is most neccessory compound whichcontribute in distinct and sharp odour in the garlic.
Allicin gives thespiciness of the raw garlic and it is also a powerful antibiotic and antifungalcompound, allicin majorly serves as anti-inflammatory effect. Garlic containsessential oil, which is extracted by process of steam distillation of thegarlic cloves using n-hexane as solvent. Essential garlic oil contains varietyof sulfide such as dially disulfide and dilly trisulfide. During the processingallicin is completely eliminated from the oil. Commercially available garlicoil capsules generally contain vegetable oil and a small amount of garlicessential oil because of the pungent odors.
Other garlic supplements fall into one of thesecategories, dehydrated garlic powder, garlic oil macerate and aged garlic extract.Garlic oil has plentiful uses in the world today, its uses include theflavouring in cuisine like salads, and sauces. The garlic oil can reduce bloodpressure if regularly consume, prevention from cardiovascular disease.
Garlicoil is an efficient anti-viral, antibiotic, anti-fungal agent, which can use inprevention from diarrhea, cough and nausea. Some studies have found resultsthat it can also fight against cancer.Sampling before testing done and removal of transparentcovering of garlic was removed manually and sun-dried for two weeks. Powderedthe dry garlic cloves, then sieved and stored in a covered plastic container.The physiochemical analyses were carried out in triplicates unless otherwisestated.
The extraction of garlic oil was accomplished with asoxhlet extractor using n-hexane (boiling point of 40ºC – 60ºC) for six hours.The oil obtained under reduced temperature and pressure and refluxing at 70ºCso the removal of solvent from extracted oil product and recover solvent can bereused. The garlic oil was stored in freezer at 2ºC for succeedingphysicochemical analyses.They obtained chemical analysis which can predictoil quality such as peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, freefatty acid value, acid value by using standard methods. They also interpretedphysical parameters of garlic oil, such color which is light yellow, specificgravity lower than water 0.
9, odor pungent due to allicin and oil yield is22.5%.From chemical analysis of garlic oil they comparetheir results with different oil like shea butter, cotton seed oil. Peroxidevalue tells deterioration of oil due to oxidation. The low peroxide value 2.50± 0.
50% found from garlic oil when compared to palm kernel oil 3.58% indicatesthat the oil can be kept for a very long period of time. Acid value: The acidvalue 4.18 ± 0.
01mgKOH/g obtained from the oil is low when compared to Sheanutbutter oil 10.3mgKOH/g and high when compared to 2.39 ± 0.065mgKOH/g, forcastor oil, thus the higher the acid value of an oil, the lower its storagequality and vice-versa. It shows that the garlic oil have an tremendous storagequality when compared to that of Sheanut butter oil.
Free fatty acid (oleicacid), determine the appropriateness of the oil for edibility or industrialuses. The free fatty acid value is 2.10 ± 0.05% which is low when compared tothe Hyptus spicigera seed oil 3.50%, its shows that it is good for eating.
Iodine value determines the proportion of unsaturated acid or fat and oilpresent, but the test determines the amount of iodine absorbed per gram ofsample. The determination of iodine value determines the reaction of the doublebonds with halogen. The iodine value 12.69 ± 0.
05g/100g which was gained fromthe oil is low when compared to 16.0g/100g Tiger nut oil. The oil shows quite degreeof unsaturated fatty acid which indicates that the oil is suitable for utilization.They concluded fromresults that garlic oil indicated good quality, chemical analyses presentedsaponification value, peroxide value, acid value, free fatty acid and Iodinevalues that fell within the range of those acceptable as having good potentialfor soap production and with an tremendous storage property.