According to Terigan (1990:59),contrastive analysis is an activity to compare the structure of L1 with L2.This contrastive analysis is expected to help the learners of L2 to learn more easily. To make iteasier to understand the notion of contrastive analysis, we must understand themeaning of two words that arrange the phrase of contrastive analysis.
Analysisis defined as a description that aims to know something and it is possible tofind the core problem. While, Moeliono (1988:32) explains that contrastive isdefined as the difference between two things and the word of contrastive ismore well known in linguistics.Contrastive analysis isused in the teaching of the second language. It uses a comparison method in itsapplication that is to compare between the different elements with the sameelements. The main point of this contrastive analysis is focused on differentlinguistic elements. According to Jie (2008:36), “Contrastive analysis stresses theinfluence of the mother tongue in learning a second language in phonological,morphological, lexical and syntactic levels.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
It holds that second languagewould be affected by first language”. There are many differences found in thelinguistic structures between the mother tongue with the second language, forinstance like Indonesian language with English language. This paper aims to know the differencesbetween Indonesian language with English language. It will discuss about thedifferences in both languages on morphology, syntax, and sociolinguisticlevels.
It will explain three language aspects in Indonesian language andEnglish language to know the differences found in both languages. First, thispaper will discuss about the term of plural. It will explain about thedifferences that occur in the idea of plural between Indonesian language andEnglish language. Second, it will discuss about the comparison of passivesentence between Indonesian language and English language. Last, this paper willdiscuss about the comparison of gender orientation versus kinship orientation in Indonesian language and Englishlanguage. 1.
The Idea of Plurala. Saya mempunyai sebuah bukuI have a bookb. Para mahasiswa (mahasiswa-mahasiswa) sedang belajar tentangilmu bahasaStudents are studying aboutlinguisticsc.
Para wanita (wanita-wanita) memiliki sebuahkesempatan bekerja di kantorWomen have a chance working inofficeFrom the examples above,we know that there are somedifferences in expressing the idea of plural in Indonesian language andEnglish language. In English language, to show plural noun is by giving the suffix –s or–es on noun. While if there is a single noun, there are no sufix –s or –es before noun, butthere are articles like a, an, and the before noun.
In Indonesian language, like theexamples above, the word of ‘students’ that shows the plural noun istranslated as ‘para mahasiswa or mahasiswa-mahasiswa’. The word of ‘para’ has shown a plural noun in Indonesian language. In addition,Indonesian people also often use the repetition of word to say the plural nounlike ‘mahasiswa-mahasiswa’. Then, in English language, to refer ‘woman’ or ‘man’ in plural noun changesfrom woman to women and from man to men. 2. The Passive SentenceIn passive sentence, especially in Englishlangauge, the subject of sentence refers to the actor of the action of theverb.
Subject becomes the focus of the passive sentence. While in Indonesianlanguage, the focus of the passive sentence is the object of the sentence. Itdoesn’t occur in English language, except in relative clause not in passivesentence.a. My cat has been bought by TomiKucing saya sudah dibeli oleh TomiKucing saya sudah dibeli TomiKucing saya sudah Tomi belib. My book is borrowed by DianaBuku saya dipinjam oleh DianaBuku saya dipinjam DianaBuku saya Diana pinjamc. The cake is not eaten by Devi Kue itu tidak dimakan oleh DeviKue itu tidak dimakan DeviKue itu tidak Devi makanTidak Devi makan kue ituPassive sentence is rarelyused in speech, but it often finds in academic writing.
In English language,passive voice sentence is formed from be + verb 3 (past particle). While in Indoneisan language, the structure ofpassive voice sentence is by adding di- before a verb (di + verb) suchas dibeli, dipinjam, and dimakan.. The examples above, forinstance, are three passive sentences in English language. The form of passive sentencein the first example is has/have + been + V3 (has been bought). Thefirst passive sentence in the example above can be translated in three different sructures of sentence in Indonesian language.
The passive sentence in Indonesianlanguage ‘kucing saya sudah Tomi beli’ never occurs in the sentencestructure of English language. The sentence does not match with the sentencestructure of English language. Then, the form of passive voice sentence in thesecond example above is be + V3 (is borrowed). It can also be translatedin Indonesian language by using three different structures of sentence. Last,the form of negative sentence for passive sentence in the third example aboveis be + not +V3 (is not eaten).
The sentence can be translated inIndonesian language by using four different structures of sentence. Thesentence of ‘tidak Devi makan kue itu’ is never found in the sentencestructure of English language. It will only occur in the sentence structure ofIndonesian language. In Indonesian language, it is still acceptable.
3. Gender versus Kinship OrientationØ Gender Orientationa. Dia membeli sepatu di LondonShe buys a shoe in LondonHe buys a shoe in Londonb. Saya mencintainyaI love herI love himc. Anak itu sedang belajar matematikaThe boy is studying mathematicsThe girl is studying mathematicsd. Anak saya suka makan appleMy son likes to eat an appleMy daughter likes to eat an applee. kakak saya sedang pergi ke BandungMy sister is going to BandungMy brother is going to BandungThe term of genderorientation is often used in English language. It is used in the form ofpronoun, both subject and object.
In English language, there are pronouns forsubject and object based on gender orientation such as she, he, her, andhim. While inIndonesian language, people use the word of “dia” referring to a singlethird person without paying attention what gender they have. There are also many terms to differsubject in English language. One of them is used todifferentiate siblings. In English language, thereare words of “sister” and “brother” to differentiate male and female siblings in Englishlanguage. There are also words to differ male and female child that are “son” and “daughter”.
While in Indonesian language, theterm of gender orientation is not used to distinguish between male and female. Whentalking about child, Indonesian people say “anak” that has referred tomale and female child. When talking about siblings, Indonesian people commonly say “kakak” or “adik” without referring whatsex the siblings have. Thus, English people speak about sibling and child byusing gender oriented language in their daily life.Ø Kinship Orientationa. Sari (she) is a beautiful teacherMbak Sari adalahseorang guru yangcantikNak Sari merupakan seorang guru yangcantikSaudari Sari merupakan seorang guruyang cantikb.
Galih (he) is a head of social organization in societyPak Galih merupakan ketua organisasisosial di masyarakatSaudara Galih merpakan ketuaorganisasi sosial di masyarakatIn Indonesian language,the term of kinship orientation is very well known. It is often used in aconversation. The cultural background supports the terms of kinship orientationto be used by Indonesian people in a conversation and it creates a respectfulrelationship with others.
If there is someone who has close and goodrelationship with us, we will treat him or her differently with someone who hasno close relationship with us. In Indonesian language, the words of “Mbak,Nak, Pak, Saudara, and Saudari” show a politeness to respect others.While in English language, kinship orientedlanguage is never used in daily conversation.
In conclusion, this paperdiscusses first about the explanation of what contrastive analysis is. Thereare some theories about contrastive analysis given by some experts. Second,this paper discusses about what language aspects used to differ between two languages,Indonesian and English language. Third, it gives some examples of threelanguage aspects of Indonesian and English language to find the differencesbetween both languages. The three language aspects used as the examples aboveare the term of plural, the term of passive voice sentence, and the idea ofgender and kinship orientation. The examples above can help learners of asecond language to know the differences between the mother tongue and thesecond language easily.