Abstract

Abstract: Brakes could be the crucial parts in most of the moving system that are generally used to slow down or stop the motion of the any moving system. Braking system uses the friction force to transform the kinetic energy of a moving parts into heat by the use of the brake pads. Frequently using of these type of friction braking leads to rise in temperature of brake pads, these leads to effecting the effectiveness of the braking system. By overcoming these effects we use electromagnetic braking .In this project, we have to use eddy current braking in vehicle to stop the vehicle by non-contracting type. This braking system is friction-less, it has an advantages over the ordinary braking system in the performance and maintanence.
Keywords: Eddy Current Braking System, Eddy Current, Magnetic Field, Brakes, Frictionless.
1. INTRODUCTION :
In the operation of any machine the primary safety system is the braking system. As brake is an essential parts of car innovation, there are developments in brakes as well .The mainly utilized brakes in cars are drum and disk brakes. In green technology, which focused on the importance of environment conservation, a move to a new braking system is needed. The primary basic designs of the braking system involve the conversion of kinetic energy to heat energy by the use of friction. This is accomplished by friction between two rubbing surfaces may be in disk brake and drum brake. These brakes pose several problems i.e. more wear, complex and slow actuation, lack of fail-safe features, increased fuel consumption. To solve these problems, a contactless magnetic brake has been used to reduce or overcome the friction effect. This concept includes a metals disc which will conduct eddy currents generated by magnets. Electromagnetic braking is an imaginative innovation and further more frames the premise of developing innovation. Electromagnetic brake is as new idea.
This brake is wear-free, low-sensitive to temperature compare to friction brakes, it has fast and simple actuation, and has a reduced sensitivity to wheel lock. This is carry out by the generation of braking torque by a magnetic field across a moving conductor which creates a perpendicular magnetic field by induced eddy currents. Contactless brakes can be applied to any machinery like automobiles, locomotives, roller coasters, machine tools, elevators, etc. Eddy current braking has a lot of advantages compared to conventional braking system such as friction free, there should be no wear and tear in brakes.

1.2. EDDY CURRENT:
Eddy current brake could be work on the basis of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. According to this law, whenever a current carrying conductor cuts the magnetic lines of force, an emf is induced in the conductor, the magnitude of eddy current is proportional to the strength of the field of the magnet and the speed of the conductor. If the conductor is the disk, there could be circulatory current (eddy current in the disc).According to the Lenz’s law, the direction of the current is in the oppose the cause that is act on the movement of the disk.
1.3 ELECTROMAGNETS:
Electromagnets are DC type which is to be powered by battery. Electromagnets are selected instead of permanent magnet as electrical actuation which is faster than mechanical actuation with lower losses. Magnetic field can be generated at the time when it is needed only.
1.4 CIRCULAR DISC:
We have to take the circular disk for our project would be an aluminium disc.

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2.METHODOLOGY:

3.CONCLUSION:
Electromagnetic braking system is assign to be more reliable as compared to ordinary braking systems. In oil braking system or air braking system even a small leakage in the oil or air tank may lead to complete failure of brakes. In the eddy current braking due to no friction there should not be led to failure of brake. It is found that electromagnetic brakes may be used approximately 60% of all of the power applied brake applications. This braking system not only helps in effective braking but also helps in avoiding the accidents and reducing the frequency acquire of accidents to be minimum. Furthermore the electromagnetic brakes prevent the danger that can arise from the regular use of brake over their capability to dissipate heat.
4.REFERENCES :
1. Frictionless braking system using eddy current. Sandeep.V , AvinashA.B Rupan Raj.J.Instrumentation Engineering, Panimalar Engineering college, India. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics, Communication & Instrumentation Engineering and Development.
2. Review Paper on Optimal Robust Control of Contactless Breaking System Using Eddy Current System. Aakash Tandel, Sagar Jyani ,Hardik Patel, Parth Patel, Mr. Twinkal M. Bhavsar. Mechanical Department, Gujarat Technological University/Sigma Institute of engineering. International Conference on Current Research Trends in Engineering and Technology.
3. Development of the Electro-Magnetic Brake. Smit Patel, Meet Patel, Anand Patel, Chetan Sanghani. Department of Mechanical Engineering S.V.B.I.T. VASAN. –International Journal for Innovative Research in Science & Technology.
4. Design & Fabrication of Eddy Current Braking System. Oscar Rodrigues, Omkar Taskar , Shrutika Sawardekar, Henderson Clemente, Girish Dalvi. Department of Mechanical Engineering, FCRIT, Vashi, Navi Mumbai. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology.
5.Eddy current braking system in automobiles. Sarath G Nath, Rohith Babu, Dr. Cibu K Varghese, George Varghese Biju, Ashin S. Mechanical Engineering Department Mar Athanasius college of Engineering, Kerala. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET).
6. Electromagnetic Braking System. Yogesh Kumar Yadav, Aadarsh Kumar Shah, Jitendra Kumar Yadav, Jitendra Pratap Patel. Mechanical Engineering,, IMS Engineering College. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET).

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is that the exact solutions of Non-Newtonian fluid namely micropolar fluid with MHD in porous medium by traveling wave solution. The governing equations PEDs for incompressible micropolar fluid with MHD in porous medium are reduced to ODEs through wave parameter. Finally we represent the result in 2D or 3D graphs.
Introduction:
In the present, every researcher is working on the non-Newtonian fluid from the both essential and sensible point of view. These fluids are immediate effects on the processing of polymer, animal blood, liquid crystal, geological flows in the earth mantle. Non-Newtonian fluids were defined by ISSA.
The general equations of Non-Newtonian fluid are highly non-linear and higher- order than the Navier-stokes equations. Therefore many analytical and numerical solutions are accessible of Non-Newtonian fluid on the topic.

Micropolar fluid model is description of Non-Newtonian fluid which is depended upon a microstructure and belongs to non-symmetrical stress tensor. Micropolar fluid theory was introduced by Eriggen.
Physically, Micropolar fluid may be rigid particles, at random oriented (spherical) elements suspended in a viscous medium where the change of fluid elements is disregarded. Micropolar fluid can perform a better model for animal blood.

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Abstract :
Education is the most powerful, influential weapon or tool which you can use for revolution in the world. Information and communications are closely linked to power and the ability to affect transformation. ICT is an authority term that comprises any communication device or application, incorporating: radio, television, cellular phones, computer internet, wide area network facilities etc. Generally the majorities of Indian women are still tradition bound and are in disadvantageous position. ICTs are developing as a powerful tool for women empowerment in a developing country like India.
IndexTerms – ICT, Women, Empowerment, Education

I INTRODUCTION

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In developing countries like India women are ill-treated in various sectors of society Submissiveness, modesty and servility is in their nature because of the inequality they are facing. In spite of the great growth of education in many countries women are still not measured as equal gender everywhere in society. The status of women is considered to be inferior even after her great contribution to society. It is the right time for women to stand for her. Women empowerment is a hot issue these days. Various NGOs are working for the improvement of women and give them training for self-independence. In India government is also taking this matter completely serious and has declared various policies in service of women. In this scenario Information and Communication Technology is also playing an important role. Through ICT women are getting security, awareness, knowledge, employments, confidence, popularity etc. This paper takes into notice the role of Information and Communication Technology in women empowerment. Here various cases have been discussed to give a light on the changes ICT has brought to the society. It also recommends the steps to be taken for women empowerment through ICT. (9)
The strength of ICT for inspiring economic growth, socioeconomic development and good governance is very well accepted, the paybacks of ICT have been unevenly distributed within and between countries. Poverty, illiteracy, lack of computer literacy and language hurdles are among the factors impeding access to ICT infrastructure, especially in developing countries. Another difficulty pertains to ICT is lack of its admission to women. (10 &11) ICT can be a commanding catalyst for political and social empowerment of women, and the elevation of gender equality (10).
II WHY WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IS IMPORTANT?
Empowerment of Women is about is to provide platform them to stand on their own feet without support them take decisions in their life without any constraint of relatives or the society. This topic of women empowerment has been one of the most intense and generally discussed issues worldwide including our own country for many years.(6)
Women create roughly 50% of the nation’s population and a majority of them remain economically dependent, without employment. Many of them are even uninformed of the detail that they are eligible for positions that men enjoy. In country like India, women have been constantly made a topic of honor killings and they have never been given their basic rights for appropriate education, liberty and freedom in society. They are victims who have to face day to day problems, exploitation and other several ill treatments in this male dominated society and this patriarch society. In our country India, there is a high level of gender inequality where women are ill-treated by their family members, supporters as well as outsiders.
The main important in women empowerment is to make them well educated, cultured and leave them free so that they are proficient to take their own decisions in any field or in domestic problems. So there is need of the day is to empower women so that they can be self-determining and not be dependent on men of our country to support them and take care of them. The women of our country must be strong broad minded and matured in taking their own decisions. Decision making in national topics or any other topics of our society should also motivate and encourage participation of women. (6)
The meaning of the women Empowerment means that to growing and improving the social, economic, political and legal strength of the women, it also means to five guarantee of equal-right to women. It is also said it is make them confident enough to privilege their rights, such as:
• Easily live their life with a sense of self-worth, esteem and dignity.
• Have whole control of their life, both within and outside of their home and workplace.
• To make their own selections and decisions, have equal rights to contribute in social, religious and public and economical activities,
• Have equal social status in the society as men
• Have equal rights for social and economic justice,
• Determine financial and economic choices.
• Get equal opportunity for education in college or universities by reservations or any other policy.
• Get equal employment opportunity in all sectors without any gender bias,
• Get safe and comfortable working environment in all work areas and companies.

III WHAT IS ICT?
Information and communications technology (ICT) refers to all the newer technology used to handle telecommunications, broadcast and TV media, intelligent building management systems, audiovisual processing and transmission systems, and network-based control and monitoring functions.
ICT is frequently considered an extended synonym for information technology (IT), its scope is broader. ICT has more recently been used to describe the conjunction of several technologies and the use of common transmission lines carrying very diverse data and communication types and formats. (7)
IV ROLE OF ICTS IN GENDER EMPOWERMENT
Now a days the concept of Gender Equality is a common worry over the world. Due to the introduction of ICTs it has acquired new dimensions to it. ICT has the potential to bring about change and development to a nation and has already started taking these steps in different areas like education, etc. Information and communications technologies in recent years have been known as an effective tool for encouraging economic growth and sustainable development. With low usage costs and the ability to overcome distance, ICTs have revolutionized the transfer of knowledge and information around the world.
V ICT AND WOMEN
Like other developing world In India also women play a central role in family, community and social development of country. However, women often remain imperceptible and uignored. Women have to balance the complexities of surviving in extreme poverty, up till now these women are excluded from discussion because they are often illiterate, they lack confidence and they lack mobility. ICT gives the chances for direct, interactive communication even by those who lack skills, who are illiterate or uneducated, lack mobility and have little self-confidence for their ability. Here are some aspects of life which have a direct effect of ICT specifically on women.
(i) Women’s increased admission to job Market and improve entrepreneurship using ICT
(ii) Increase of average household income in villages in rural areas.
(iii) Women empowerment
(iv) Shrinking Information Asymmetry through ICT.
(v) Improved Governance and Authority
(vi) Indigenous Knowledge
(vii) Easy-Family communication
(viii) Increase Social awareness.

Abstract,

This research looks at Fourth industrial revolution and the evolution of industrialization. The fourth industrial revolution has been more disruptive especially with the advances of technology. Humans are now more dependent to technology as a magical formula to make life easier, like access to information, Digital solutions, Physical and biological systems.

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Modern society has seen three industrial revolution and the fourth industrial revolution will be unpacked and understanding its impact. The current technological trends continue to raise concerns around the impact on humans and how they will relate to each other and how they will cohabit with machines, robots and smart devices. With the advancement of technology in the fourth industrial revolution there are questions, uncertainties and curiosity around how the future will look like.

Introduction

Throughout human kind, change has been inevitable and evolution has changed nature and adapted conditions to environment, and changed animals and humans to what they are today. The evolution of industries and technology is also expected, which has made the impossible to be possible. This project will touch on the history of the Industrial revolution, from the 1st Industrial revolution where we saw a major boost in the British economy and it featured, emergence of mechanization, creation of steam engine, socioeconomic and cultural advances. The 2ndIndustrial revolution has seen the new innovations in steel production, petroleum and electricity led to the introduction of public automobiles and airplanes. The 3rd Industrial revolution where we have seen the advanced energy in the form of nuclear, the advancement of telecommunications and computers, The space exploration and Automated production. This project will concentrate more on the insights of the 4th industrial revolution and its components.

History
Over the course of history mankind could perfect its own industry which begun in the late 1700 to early 1800 century in Britain and from there it started to spread to some parts of the world. The industrial revolution saw the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas where factories and textile mills were built across Britain. The modern cities and towns were constructed as people were seeking for urbanisation. A new source of power was developed as electricity was discovered and they started to build the steam engines. The growth of population in the inner cities saw an improved transport system like building of the roads and rail way lines.
In the years between 1870 to mid1900(1940’s to 50’s) the second Industrial revolution generation introduced the electricity, suddenly factories were powered and street lights were introduced. Steel industry developed faster and the demand for steel grew rapidly. Communications technology like telegraph and telephone system were also enhanced and became even more popular. Internal combustion engine was created which led to the creation of automobiles and Karl Benz with Mercedes Benz, then came Gottlieb Daimler, and Hendry Ford with Ford motor corporation.

The third generation introduced automation which made production line faster and more rapidly. Nuclear energy was discovered as form of powerful energy. Telecommunications and computers advanced which led to new technology to research space explorations and the introduction of biotechnology.
The forth Industrial Revolution
The forth industrial revolution is more disruptive than the previous industrialisation, this the time when man and machine came together, it is the time when artificial intelligence will work to create more value and outcome as never been seen before.
More smart factories using cyber robotic system will be established and manufacturing operations will become more digital where products will become carriers of information and steers themselves in the production line. This will increase transparency of value chain which will integrate demand and supply and maximize operational performance. Big data science will provide insights and transform data into actionable information making operations smarter. This will help with efficient use of assets and lower operational costs and improve ROI.
The technology hype cycle will be at the centre of the fourth industrial revolution. As technology evolve, businesses will have to understand the hype cycles to make right decisions and stay relevant to their consumers.
This might also be the age of isolation, where technology will forever be replacing human connection at an unimaginable pace. The buzz word has been “SMART”, this is the smartness exhibited by machines and computers, which includes smart phones, smart cities, smart factories, smart appliances like smart TVs. We have also seen the evolution airplanes being smart and autonomous cars are observed as smart.

According to Gartner Technology hype cycle

Cloud computing and cognitive computing
The evolution of the fourth industrial revolution will have the biggest impact on

Business
Businesses will transform and smart factories will be established. Businesses will have to change their operating models. It will be critical for business leaders and senior executives need to understand their changing environment, challenge the assumptions of their operating teams, and relentlessly and continuously innovate and they will benefit from operational efficiency, they will save more time and reduce operational costs.
Government
Governments will have more insights and gain the ability to control digital infrastructure.
Gain new technological power to increase their control over population

People

Operational efficiency
Quick product delivery – faster response time and turnaround

Impact on government
Ability to

Conclusion
The fourth Industrial revolution is exciting and there are massive opportunities ahead, there is no doubt that human lives will improve and they will be able to do things we have never been able to do before. Humans will have vast access to computing power, access to information is available in our fingertips, which means that with great power come great responsibility. Humans will have to be responsible and use the information available to create value in the world. Humans must exercise their power of access to information and acquire knowledge to help people in everyday life, and we must create value every single day. The challenging part is, technology is fast replacing human connection at high speed.
The fourth revolution will encounter the dominance of robotics, AI and deep learning which enables computers to teach themselves to grow and adapt as they’re exposed to new data, this might raise a threat and risk to human kind as they have an unimaginable power that can overcome human kind and take control if not regularised properly.
Poor countries with low education standards might be left behind as fourth industrial revolution might benefit the rich much more than the poor, especially as low-skill, low-wage jobs disappear in favour of automation.
We need to be open mind to the recent technology trends and adjust our thinking to the new ways of living which will include new ways of working, communicating, socializing, travelling and new consumer behavior. Humans will have to re purpose themselves and they will require new knowledge, flexibility and work life balance. The future is exciting.

ABSTRACT:
This term paper is to examine the following key arrears in relation to the topic above:
The evolution and the definition of Strategic management, the dimension and scope, various strategic decision making process, the strategic management process, stages of strategic management, various strategic management models, developing the strategic movement process, the tools and techniques used in strategic management, the advantages, values and disadvantages of strategic management.
INTRODUCTION
THE ORIGIN OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Strategic management was discovered amid high optimism and industrial growth in the 1960’s and early 1970’s. In the beginning, organizations tried to cope with the new and rapidly-changing technological, economic and organizational developments by means of long-range planning. Long-range planning soon ran into numerous problems when it became clear that simply forecasting past events into the future could not always provide accurate results, nor achieve the organization’s desired objectives. There was need for Organizational transformation strategic planning into a vital management discipline. Long-range planning has been replaced by strategic management, which incorporates the possibility that changes and trends can and do occur and it is not based on the assumption that development can be assured (Burnes, 1992:91). Whereas long-range planning was essentially concerned with plotting trends and planning actions to achieve identified. Targets all aimed financial goals and budgetary control.
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT DEFINITION
Strategic management is a management field focusing on long-term planning and the direction of the organization. Strategic management in an organization ensures that things do not happen randomly but according to pre-planned, long-term plans. It serves, on one hand, the transmission of the owners’ requirements to the management and on the other hand, the organizational management for the organization, unification and directing the behavior of all people in all parts of the organization.

Phases of strategic management
The whole process of strategic management takes place in four primary, recurrent phases (the so-called Strategic cycle):
• Strategy Formulation (organization mission, its vision and strategic objectives)
• Strategic Planning (establishment of a strategic plan and schedule implementation)
• Strategy Implementation (resource allocation, implementation of projects, activities and measures to meet strategic objectives)
• Strategic Control, status monitoring and strategy evaluation (strategy evaluation and possible update).
THE DIMENSION AND SCOPE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Strategic management focuses on the total enterprise. It involves the planning, directing, organizing, and controlling of the strategy-related decisions and actions of the business.
The Scope of Strategic Management
This incorporates five key areas.
• Management process
. Management process as relate to how strategies are created and changed.
• Management decisions
. The decisions must relate clearly to a solution of perceived problems (how to avoid a threat; how to capitalize on an opportunity).
• Time scales
. The strategic time horizon is long. However, it for company in real trouble can be very short.
• Structure of the organization
. An organization is managed by people within a structure. The decisions which result from the way that managers work together within the structure can result in strategic change.
• Activities of the organization
. This is a potentially limitless area of study and we normally shall center upon all activities which affect the organization. These all five themes are fundamental to a study of the strategic management field and are discussed further in this chapter and other part of this thesis.

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Abstract:
Sociologists have been involved in an enduring debate as to whether social inequality based on class and that based on race intersect, in a Capitalist system. This paper aims to argue in favor of this proposition. The basis for this argument lies in the fact that since the global expansion of Capitalism has been made possible by a racist divide-and-conquer approach taken by the global elite since the mid-17th century.
Introduction:
Those who opine that social inequality based on race is merely a coincidence, tend to have their convictions rooted in their beliefs about the efficiency of capitalism; that capitalism rewards those who put the effort to make the best of their opportunities, in an unbiased market (Mania et. al, 2013). However, for most Marxist Sociologists, both racism and capitalism developed together, reinforcing one another in a single exploitative system. Capitalism, has great expansionary potential, for both economic growth and moving beyond national boundaries. These sociologists reckon that this very nature of capitalism stems from the need to expand into new markets, in search of raw materials, investment opportunities, and a cheaper labor (Lenin, 1917). Capitalism is a system created on the philosophy that humans are inherently greedy. Therefore, Capitalism at its highest stage is a manifestation of greed at its highest intensity.
To elaborate on this, we shall analyze Capitalism, in its infant stages as existing in free competition, where the forces of demand and supply determine the allocation of, and the need for, resources in an economy. All else being equal, this allocation of resources should be efficient, and everyone should be satisfied. However, as the scale through which capital governs the economy widens, all else is not equal- some people tend to be greedier than others. This inequality in the varying levels of greed is represented by a transition from free competition to monopoly. Thus, as Capitalism develops from cub to a mature predator, it is on the lookout for prey which it can devour.
Lenin defines Capitalism Imperialism as “a definite and very high stage of its development” which comes as “the replacement of capitalist free competition by capitalist monopoly”. The term “imperialism” was first used in the 1830s to recall Napoleonic ambitions. It gained its core contemporary meaning around the turn of the century as a description of the feverish colonial expansion of Britain, France, Germany, Russia, the United States, and Italy (Strang, 2001). This colonial expansion came not only from an economic need to expand, but also from the political rivalry that existed among some of these nations. Thus, ideology permeated the need for expansion.
European overseas expansion transitioned, crudely, from the colonial stage to the imperial. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, seagoing powers constructed networks of colonial enclaves along the route to the East Indies. Less than fifty years after the voyages of Columbus, the conquistadors had decimated the Incan and Aztec empires and were sending gold and silver back to Spain (Strang, 2001). The Justifications for doing so came in colonial arguments that these people were “barbaric and uncivilized”, and that civilization needed to be brought to these “pagans”.
In the two hundred years following that, Spain, Portugal, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands colonized virtually the whole of the Caribbean, Central and South America, and the North Atlantic seaboard (Strang, 2001).
Next, came the imperial stage of capitalism. According to Lenin (1917), the development of capitalist imperialism came with five features. The first was that the concentration of capital and production had developed into such a high stage that it played a significant role in socio-economic life. The second was that financial oligarchy was created by the merging of bank capital with financial capital. In other words, a select few, also known as the global elite, owned and the majority of wealth and therefore, the allocation of it. Third, the export of capital, man-made resources required for the production of even more wealth, gained more importance than the export of commodities. As a result of this came the fourth element, the formation of monopolist capitalist associations such as cartels, syndicates and trusts to create value for the elite. The aggregation of the aforementioned factors of imperialism inspired the fifth element: territorial division of the world amongst European powers, without the inclusion of any representatives from the divided territories (Lenin, 1917).
In the absence of an enforceable legal order, states are motivated to expand when possible or endure decline relative to more aggressive states (Strang, 2001). We shall focus on European imperialist expansion into Africa.
Slave trade, for centuries was Europe’s primary connection to Africa. Prisoners of war were sold to European Capitalists as slaves. These slaves possessed prowess in farming techniques and were a source of cheap labor for the European colonizers of the Americas. Since slaves could be easily and profitably obtained by the establishment of coastal slave castles, in collaboration with West African rulers, and trading centers, European slave traders saw no need to establish formal colonies in order to conduct their business (Bishop, 2013).
This extended period of a slavery-centered relationship between Europe and Africa strongly influenced European sensibilities toward Africans (Bishop, 2013). Africans were described as “primitive, static and asleep”. And so, the Europeans decided to take advantage of this and, ambush african states with maximum gun and breech loading rifles to make colonies of them. This came as a result of the miscalculations on the part of African leaders, in the faith they had in the Europeans for fair exchange, and that they were more technologically equipped and advanced than the Europeans they had encountered in the 15th century (Boahen, 1985).
We shall take a look developments of racist notions which people of European descent used to justify the rape of Africa during this period of Imperialism/ Colonialism.
In the United States, the coexistence of free labor in the North and slavery in the South, proved to be disastrous, drawing an especially harsh race line between blacks and whites. The very concept of whiteness became associated with the notion of freedom and free labor, while blacks were seen as naturally servile. White workers divided themselves from blacks (and other racially defined workers), believing that capitalists could use coerced and politically disabled workers to undermine their interests. Thus a deep division emerged in the working class, along racial lines. The racism of the white working class can be seen as a secondary phenomenon, arising from the ability of capitalists to engage in the super-exploitation of workers of color (Mania et. al, 2013) .
Although written at the end of the nineteenth century about Asia, Rudyard Kipling’s famous phrase “the White Man’s Burden,” also known as “the civilizing mission” in French and Portuguese, was an increasingly important impetus for imperial conquest in Africa throughout the nineteenth century as Europeans felt that Europe had a moral or religious obligation to bring civilization to those whom they perceived as uncivilized, pagan Africans (Bishop, 2013) . It helped pave the way for European imperialism at the end of the nineteenth century by establishing race as the basis for social distinctions, rights, and hierarchy, thus creating and maintaining an attitude of racial superiority that led to the dual vision of Africa as a barbarous land to be saved by Europe’s civilizing influence and as a geographic space without institutions, governments, or societies advanced enough to claim a place at the negotiating table during the Berlin Conference.

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