Abstract- a major problem in power system network

Abstract-Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need isincreasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity.

Electricalpower theft is a major problem in power system network all over the world,which is illegal and should be harshly forbidden. Power theft can be defined asthe usage of the electrical power without any contract with the supplier. Inorder to reduce power theft, the location of power theft is to be known so thatappropriate action will be taken on the legal lawbreakers. This paper shows some common methods used by consumers forelectricity theft and also presents an architectural distribution system fortheft detection using microcontroller based smart energy meter. The Inspirationof this work is to detect illegal consumers, preserve and successfully utilizeenergy. It will reduce the laborious task and financial expenditure by adoptingthe automatic meter reading instead of the manual meter reading process andbill data entry process.The paper demonstrates how combinedpower and communications networks can prove useful for discovering unexpectedresults from Smart Grid applications.

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 Keywords: Microcontroller, Detection, LCDDisplay, Crystal Oscillators, Printed Circuit Board (PCB), Internet of Thing, Smart Grid,Zigbee Unit.  INTRODUCTION                  As the electrical energydemand increases, all steps are being taken to improve the electricalproduction capacity to carry out the necessities. Though, the major problem tothe electricity organization is power loss.Thefts (nontechnical losses) Line losses comprise of I2R losses,corona losses and reactive power loss in the transmission lines. These lossescannot be excluded but can be reduced to some level by suitable design of thetransmission lines. Electricitycan be stolen in several ways:Metertampering i.e. cutting the neutral of the analog meter.

Impedingthe flux of analog meter with exterior magnets.Changingthe phase and neutral wires can stop analog meters.Sloping canslow down Analog meters. Informal connection to the service line by passing themeter.

Consumers also steal electricity by bribing Linemen and meter readerTechnicallosses in Transmission & Distribution are computed with the informationabout total load and the total energy bill. While technology in the raisingslopes, we should also note the increasing corrupt activities. With a technicalview, Power theft is a non-ignorable crime and at the same time it directlyaffected the economy of a nation. Electricity theft a social evil, so it has tobe fully eliminated. Power consumption and losses have to be closely supervisedso that the generated power is utilized in a most effective method. The systemprevents the illegal usage of electricity. At this point of technologicaldevelopment the problem of illegal usage of electricity can be solved withoutany human control using GSM and IoT. The employment of this system will savelarge amount of electricity, and there by electricity will be available for morenumber of consumer then earlier, in highly populated country such as Pakistan,China etc.

 The IOT has in recent times become universalto highlight the vision of a worldwide structure of interconnected physicalthings. As more number of electricity-consuming products coming into dailylives, such as electrical vehicles and advanced heating, ventilation, and airconditioning systems, load demand increases affectedly and power required athigh amount.IoT is used in smart grid and itproves as an huge solution by showing the development of informationcommunication technology on to a certain stage. It gives the information to communicationservices and also manages the usage of power system information for gettingimproved efficiency with respect to the existing system. Therefore, IoTtechnology may be used in various power grid monitoring systems.

Generally, ina remote location, electricity generation takes place, which brings the loadcenters using a simple distribution network including substations. The power losses during entirepower generation, transmission and distribution are in huge amount and may varyfrom 30-45%. The expected results of the losses are showed impedance, leakagecurrents at transformer terminals and joints, power theft and low meteringefficiency. Therefore, for safe electricity flow, metering system in smart gridbecomes an significant part of intelligent power line monitoring.

Thus, a largenumber of sensors are required to detect the power system losses in adistributed network.This system allows the supplier todisconnect the connection from a distant server in case the consumer fails topay his/her electricity bill. This method eliminates the need of human powerduring disconnection and reconnection of the load. Another major advantage ofthis method is that it will inform the supplier side about any theft that is happeningin the system. Literature Survey Minimizing Electricity Theft by Internet ofThings As there is restricted non-inexhaustible assets are availablein our day by day life, Electricity is one of them which used in eachnation that outcomes bottomless misfortunes because of powerburglary.Power theft will be the key difficulties.

A smart meter isutilized to limit the power theft. Fundamentally energy meter is adevice that due to the to a great degreeextensive assortment of devices, interface layer advances, and administrationsthat might be engaged with such a most advanced communicationtechnologies to help involve esteem administrations for the organizationof the city and for the natives. Subsequently gave exhaustive studyof the empowering advancements, conventions, and engineering for anurban IoT.  PROPOSED SYSTEMConsidering, a general condition,where the power failure/theft occurs in a particular area and anyone observesthat failure/theft of power, then their reports to Electric Support office. Onthe other hand, if the operator may require switching off the power in aparticular area, where there is no direct remote control over the supply, theconcerned staff has to switch off the system manually.

These two issues arevery critical in power grid connected system. To overcome these problems wedeveloped an intelligent system that detects and informs to the concernedauthorities about the exact location of an unauthorized tapping on distributionlines and also how much energy and amount utilized, bill due date to thecustomer using a smart meter and IoT environment. In this developed system weused micro controller which have stronger architecture software.The block diagram showing generationof monitoring system is illustrated in figure     Power Flow Control and Monitoring SystemThis system is used to control theload and energy monitoring.In the design of this smartelectricity meter the microcontroller is used, which are placed at the consumerend for the purpose of theft detection and storing the data. This data istransferred using IOT Wi-Fi. In the current situation the need is to access thecharacteristic of device remotely but in a reliable manner.

To achieve thecharacteristic of device remotely we need to connect a device (here electricitymeter) to internet by providing IP address to it. In this paper we haveconcentrated on the theft detection, optimum utilization of power and conveythe energy consumption information to the user end. The IOT based Power theftdetection and control systems contain meter at consumer end consist the powersupply, meter unit, theft detection unit and Zeebig unit. We can see in the blockdiagram as shown in figure the supplier end consists the power supply, meterunit, current sensor, microcontroller, zeebig module, theft detection unit andLCD.                  PROCESS AT CONSUMER ENDAt the customer end, power supplyunit supply the power to those whole component which needs power.Microcontroller obtain the relevant information from the electricity meter andalso perform the control process and sends the required information such asnumber of units consumed with the help of zeebig unit.

The purpose of LCDmodule is to get visual information about the number of units, temperature andzeebig configuration.                PROCESS AT SUPPLIER ENDAt the supplier end, if any theft is detectedthe theft detection unit acts as a modem and it sends the necessary command. Ifconsumer used the power beyond the limit of meter or fails to pay theelectricity bill amount within the time limit mentioned by the supplier thedisconnection and reconnection can also done by sending the appropriat


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