Abstract technology works because of image capturing of

AbstractIntoday’s society, we are overwhelmed with the constant advances and adaptions bytechnology. Since digital data has become more prevalent, young businessprofessionals have learned to secure information with encrypted passwords andidentification cards. The misuse and theft of these security procedures are onthe rise because of cards being duplicated, misused, and/or counterfeit.

  This growing clash with cybersecurity has ledto the adoption of biometric security systems.  With biometric systems vastly approaching ourbusiness societies, security implementation and overall user acceptance have tobe discussed. Whether we agree or disagree that biometrics will impact ornegate corporations around the world, biometrics are already beginning enactmentsin businesses worldwide.

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There are various opportunities for biometrics,followed by the uses, benefits, drawbacks, and applications.         Introductionof the Implementation of BiometricsImaginegoing to a popular department store to buy a pair of shoes. Proceeding to theregister to pay, instead of reaching for your wallet or phone and typing in apin number, you reach out your index finger. The finger is placed on abiometric system scanner that confirms a match in a database that is linked toyour bank account. The transaction is now complete. In today’s society, we areoverwhelmed with the constant advances and adaptions in technology.  Reduced prices have led to the increasedawareness of biometric technologies.

With overall lower prices, the biometrictechnology industry has made its way through into new millennium.Theidentification of individuals using biological traits and behaviors will alwaysbe unique. Biometric technology works because of image capturing of uniquefeatures of an individual’s fingerprint, handprint, eye retina, and face whilecomparing it with a template captured previously. This sense of security isbecoming vital in many business organizations day to day activities. Because biometrictechnology is vastly approaching our business societies, there are serioussecurity implementations and hesitation for overall user acceptance. Biometricsand Biometric Security SystemsTheU.

S. Homeland Security defines biometrics as unique physical characteristics,such as fingerprints, that can be used for automated recognition (U.S. HomelandSecurity, 2017). Biometrics measure and analyze people’s physical andbehavioral characteristics. This system is mainly used for identification andaccess control to identify individuals under surveillance.

Biometricauthentication is a premise for the individual and unique aspects that can beidentifiers of user-specific traits. Biometric identification secures entry,data, or access to human biological information in DNA, fingerprints, iris,face, and voice recognition. Biometric systems include several linked componentsfor effective functionality.Thequestion is whether or not biometrics is really effective when enhancingbusiness securities or doing day-to-day activities. There are concrete benefitsthat biometrics offer to businesses of all sizes. The growth of biometrics inthe business sector derives from the increase in acceptance of thesetechnologies that can help lower costs, enhance security, and increase output.

The companies that have already implemented biometric technologies are using itfor attendance management, workforce productions, as well as efficiency andlabor management. There have been multiple developments in the field ofbiometrics, which means it is now more reliable and costs are decreasing.Biometrics offer high-level identification management security operations thathave several advantages over traditional means and now they are available toyou at lower costs (Trader, 2017). Traditional security systems are most relianton passwords, personal identification numbers (PIN), or smart cards. Now consumerscan achieve a higher level of authentication with biometrics systems. If abusiness sets up a system correctly, consumers can use biologicalcharacteristics such as fingerprints and iris scans, which offer unique andaccurate identification procedures. Since these features cannot be easilyduplicated, each authorized person obtains their own personal access and ensuresa high level of security.

Biometrics creates a clear, definable audit trail oftransactions or activities. As a result, you get true and completeaccountability, which cannot be duplicated (Trader, 2017). There are multipleapplications and solutions of biometric technology used for security systems.  Biometric SolutionsThe Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI) has been a longtime leader in biometrics. The FBI provides a continuousnumber of services, information, and training regarding biometrics. In aneffort to connect new technologies and improve identifications, the Bureauestablished the Next Generation Identification (NGI) system. The NGI is used bythe FBI for the state, local, federal, and tribal authorities to protectfamilies in America. This system provides the criminal justice community withthe world’s largest and most efficient electronic source of biometric andcriminal history information (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2016).

Biometricsis not only used to authenticate a person’s identity but to determine whosomeone is by scanning a database of records.  One of the most notorious applications ofbiometrics is fingerprinting. Fingerprints have been used for means ofidentification for over two thousand years. FingerprintingAlphonse Bertillon, a Parisiananthropologist, and police desk clerk developed a method for identifyingcriminals that became known as the Bertillonage technique. Bertillonage was a systemcreated in the 1800’s by which measurements of the body are taken forclassification and comparison purposes (Pike, n.d.). His technique charted thelength of a fingerprint, the fingerprint’s pattern, a person’s sex, and evenwhether someone smokes or not.

Although the Bertillonage technique is no longerused based off of insignificant inaccuracy identification, the techniquebirthed the idea of fingerprinting.Fingerprints are mappedthrough tiny ridges, valleys, and whorls on the tip of each finger. No twopeople have the same fingerprints because they are totally unique. All of theridges of fingerprints form patterns called loops, whorls or arches. There’s a one in 64billion chance that your fingerprint will match up exactly with someone else’s(Watson, 2008). Fingerprints obtain more uniqueness than DNA based on eachperson’s genetic material. So what about identical twins? Although identicaltwins may have the same DNA, they will not have the same exact fingerprints.

This form of biometrics is ideal for biometric systems because they are easy toclassify and sort, without any change in appearance or structure. Iffingerprints are so unique and refined, how can they be recorded accurately?            Fingerprintscanning has already been implemented in business to effectively enhancesecurity and authentications. When scanning a fingerprint, a scanner has tohave a pre-saved image of the authorized finger to compare images in a linkeddatabase to allow access. In order to allay privacy concerns,however, fingerprint scanners do not store actual fingerprint images. Instead,unique characteristics of the fingerprint are analyzed and stored as anencrypted mathematical representation (Ballard, 2016). Businesses are hoping to safeguardtheir sensitive data by using this form of biometrics as a viable optionbecause of the several benefits and low costs. This is easy to use system requiresinexpensive equipment that generally requires low power consumption.

Apple’simplantation of fingerprinting Touch ID in the iPhone 5s brought rehabilitatedinterest into biometric technology, and successfully sold millions of productswith it. However, the disadvantage is that if the surface of the finger isdamaged or contains any marks, the identification becomes increasingly difficult.Fingerprint security systems are already widely used in multiple applicationssuch as laptops, cell phones, USB flash drives, and other devices. Now thatApple has already successfully implemented fingerprint touch identificationinto their corporation, they have taken on the challenge to implement facialrecognition system securities.

             Facial Recognition DetectorsThehuman face is one of the easiest characteristics known to man, which can beused in biometric securities to identify a user. Most recently, AppleCorporation has introduced the new “iPhone X” which has a hands-on faceidentification system to unlock, authenticate, and pay through looking at thephone. Apple calls it their revolution in recognition. Your face is now yourpassword (Apple, 2017).  How did they dothis? Apple used a technique called facial mapping. Face ID is enabled by the True Depth camera andis simple to set up.

It projects and analyzes more than 30,000 invisible dotsto create a precise depth map of your face (Apple, 2017). Apple, being abig-time corporation chose to collect data from their users’ face and storethem in a database for future use.  “Everybody’sface is slightly different, so it’s almost like a 3D fingerprint,” says LyndonSmith, professor of computer simulation and machine vision at the University ofthe West of England (Baggaley, 2017). Smith wants to use infrared scanning to interpretpatterns on facial features. Then he would compare them amongst a database ofknown facial patterns. This system would particularly work well with stores andbanks. “Wherever you go in the world…you could, rather than carrying a cardaround with a PIN and all this complexity, just simply use your face,” he says(Baggaley, 2017). Facial recognition systems can become extremely reliable andare already prevalent.

A feature of facial recognition comes from irisscanners. Since your eyes are obviously a part of your face, many securitieshave started to use iris scans as well to help user authentication. Iris Scanner & Recognition            An iris, in anatomy, is thepigmented muscular curtain near the front of the eye, between the cornea and the lens, which is perforated by an opening called the pupil (Britannica Encyclopedia, n.d.

). The humaniris is responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils, whichalso controls the abundance of light allowed through to the retinal in order toprotect the eye’s retina. When someone steps in front of an iris scanner, thecamera focuses automatically about three to ten inches from the person’s eye.

Once the camera captures an image, the system’s computer captures the center ofthe pupil, edge of the pupil, the edge of the iris, and the eyelids andeyelashes. It will continue to analyze the patterns in the iris and translatethem into a unique code for an individual.            According to Forbes, as identity theft increases and information safety concernsgrow, iris scanning may be the key to finally achieving true security (Newman,2016). Iris scanners are becoming more common for high-security applicationsdue to the fact the people’s eyes are so unique and do not usually change overtime. This fact makes the iris ideal for biometric identification securityapplications. Blind people can also use iris scanners as long as their eyeshave irises. This makes iris identification systems effective for all people nomatter if they are blind or wear contact lenses.             The government has alreadyimplemented the iris scanner in high-security offices for the means ofunlocking doors, computers, and machines.

Although, banking companies have beenthe fastest to implement and embrace consumers using iris scanners. The use ofthe system in banks have great potential to make financial matters more secure,as well as enhance and speed up many authentication processes. For example, theGatwick Airport in London added an iris scanner to its passenger authenticationsystems and law enforcement agencies in Missouri used the technology to buildits records management and tracking system (Newman, 2016).

Iris scanningtechnology is becoming mainstream, and will quickly approach our daily lives atsome point in the near future.TheGood and Bad of Biometric Security Systems            Advantages and Disadvantages forBusinessesModerntechnology and innovation will always rebirth advancements that will helpbusinesses become more powerful and efficient. Since some businesses arealready implementing biometric technology into their attendance and timeterminals, employers are becoming more and more aware of their employees beingunable to clock in for one another. This type of time theft can cost somecompanies tens of thousands of dollars (or more) each year. Biometricscharacteristics are unable to be duplicated, which prevents employees frompunching in another co-worker when they aren’t in the building (AdvanceSystems, 2016).

The benefits of biometrics for accuracy and attendance don’tclose there. Companies have implemented biometric time clocks that help reflecta positive return on investment or ROI. This eliminates employee theft,inaccuracies, and buddy punching. ROI is important because businesses can losethousands of dollars every year just because of employee accountability. Havingautomated biometric identification can be done uniformly and quick, with littletraining and time. However,with any new technology we are faced with, businesses have to consider if abiometric system may be effective for them or not. There will always bequestions about accuracy and privacy.

Some biometrics may change over time,such as the finger or face, meaning that the system has to be reconfigured.These aren’t major issues, but biometric technology requires time and financialinvestment. It’s clear that some businesses aren’t ready to undergo such achange in technological advancement. It does raise privacy and securityconcerns amongst individuals who may not be comfortable with such a futuristicway of linking one’s body parts to online accounts that practically controltheir own lives. The process by which the biometric is captured and mapped toan identity is also a major downside to this security implantation. If theservers storing biometric information is hacked, it could have extremelyserious consequences for individuals (Thakkar, 2017). In Aitel’s column on whyfingerprints and other biometrics don’t work, he enlightens readers thatbiometrics can’t always be kept a secret and can’t be revoked (Aitel, 2013).

Hedemonstrates how people expose their biometrics everywhere. People will leavefingerprints behind at bars and restaurants, their faces and eyes are capturedin photos and film. There’s no factual way to conceal this data 100% from theworld, Aitel declares. The ultimate question is whether consumers will beaccepting of these biometric applications, and if they would not be againsthaving these applications around them continually in their near future.

             Advantages andDisadvantages for ConsumersTheuptake of Apple’s Touch ID and other biometric technologies for their mobiledevices has skyrocketed the cellular device market. Accessing a smartphone isjust one of the many ways that Touch ID and facial recognition can change ourdaily lives.  It has already effectivelywon over mass consumer discrepancies with biometric authentication. A newstudy, The Retail Banking Biometrics Confidence Report, by EyeVerify finds thatconsumers not only believe that biometric technologies are more secureauthenticators than passwords but also would like to have more biometricsoptions for mobile banking (Mobile Payments Today, 2017). Most people today usesome form of biometrics in some way and want to have more opportunities to useit to make their daily lives easier and more secure. People, in general, findfingerprint, retina, and voice scanning an easy option for authentication. Biometricservers usually require very less database memory, as the templates use smallstorage.

The database memory is non-transferable like passwords and is lesstime consuming when trying to log into accounts. Changing passwords frequentlyfor security reasons can cause some inconvenience in terms of remembering andcreating a new complex password every time. The average identification time foran identity is 5 seconds. If biometric technology continues to prove itspurpose of efficiency and acceptance, then consumers will ultimately becomemore accepting of it.Onthe other hand, it is obvious that several generations are aware of their ownprivacy concerns. There are many consumers concerned about fraud and identitytheft such as social security numbers, healthcare data, and financialinformation.

A shift to biometric-enabled security will ultimately createprofound threats to privacy and security. It makes possible privacy violationsthat would make the National Security Agency’s data sweeps seem superficial bycomparison (Scientific American, 2014). Ultimately, many Americans don’tparticularly trust the government with their information. Without protectiveand explicit safeguards, personal biometric data can be destined into the handsof the government database. It is vital to know that user acceptance is asignificant challenge, especially if individuals are uncomfortable with theidea of biometrics and see the technology as privacy-invasive.

   ConclusionAlthoughbiometrics may not be the best long-term alternative for passwords, they couldpotentially be safer and more efficient to use. Rather than viewing them asseparate methods to identify users, they should be viewed as complementarymethods used to verify an individual. The question whether biometric identityverification will continue to surface the foreseeable future, but as consumersin our society we can make sure that we continue to proactively protect our passwordand biometric securities Soon we will be using our faces to pay for clothes,groceries, pass through airport security, catch trains, and more. How to use itwithout putting people at risk or invasion of privacy is a hot commodity.Biometric system corporations will have to explain to the public that they’renot trying to monitor people, they’re just simply trying to help people withtheir everyday lives.

Consumers also have to be knowledgeable of the rules togovern the use of these technologies if they ever want to be completelycomfortable with implementing these prevalent technologies into their dailylives.     

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