Abstract:Despite the fact that Urdu is the national dialect ofPakistan however English is the dialect which is formally utilized as a part ofall private and in addition government authorities. In Pakistan Englishlanguage aptitudes are viewed as accommodating for understudies in finding ahigh class work.
In proficient life basic language is clearly English. Thisresearch is being done to talk that a child ought to be presented to secondlanguage that is English in critical period or not? and which type of schoolsare suitable for the language proficiency of a child. Furthermore we also triedto find out that which language should be the medium of education at regionallevel. In light of confirmation assembled through questionnaire and meetingswith instructors, the examination finds that early English-medium approachseems counterproductive as most understudies exhibit poor English languagecapacity. In nations like Pakistan where English isn’t the primary language,many guardians and groups trust their kids will get a head-begin in instructionby going ‘straight for English’ and bypassing the home language.
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Theinspiration driving this is to center towards their financial prudence andenhance the vocation prospects of their more youthful ages. For young students,utilizing the primary language in early instruction prompts a superiorcomprehension of the educational modules content and to a more inspirationalstate of mind towards school. Utilization of the students’ home language inschool likewise decreases the burden on instructors, particularly where theeducator talks the nearby language well, which is the situation in most of thecountry schools in multilingual settings.
Research has demonstrated that inlearning circumstances where both the educator and the student are non-localclients of the language of direction, the instructor battles as much as thestudents, especially toward the begin of schooling. But when teaching begins inthe educators’ and students’ home language, the experience is more natural andfriendly for all. Therefore, the educator can be more inventive and creative inplanning materials and methodologies, prompting enhanced learning results. Introduction:There is a famous saying by Jack Edwards that “What is a nation without a mother tongue?” Mother tongue is theidentity of the nation. Only those nations are emerged as prosperous nation inthe history who preferred their own language over any other language as theworld. It is important for the individual to get fluency in mother tonguebefore learning any other language because an individual thinks in his mothertongue and then translate his thoughts into any other language.Many theorists are of the opinion that themother tongue is the better medium for instructions rather than English or anyother language. Max von Sydow saidabout the importance of mother tongue that “Ithink English is a fantastic, rich and musical language, but of course yourmother tongue is the more important for an actor”.
Keeping the importanceof mother tongue for an individual as well as nation building the best mediumof instruction for early schooling of an individual is child’s mother tongue.The stronger the children’s mother tongue, the easier it is for them to learnnew languages. Childrenwho have a solid foundation in their mother tongue, develop better literacyskills also in other languages that they learn. When parents and otherimportant adults have time to discuss and read in the child’s mother tongue andthus help expand the child’s vocabulary, the child will be better prepared whenkindergarten or school starts and can easily learn new languages.
Children’sknowledge and skills transfer over languages. Skills learned in the mothertongue will transfer to the other languages learned in school, as long as alllanguages are supported. Despite of too much advantages of mother tongue as themedium of instruction, the government of Pakistan is failed to establish themother tongue based educational policy in the country. Because of too muchprofessional advantages of English language, parents prefer English-mediumschools over Urdu-medium schools because English is used more in professionallife of an individual and that is the main reason why English is considered asthe key to prosperity and intelligence of an individual is also judged on thescale of its English skill. An individual who is more fluent in Englishlanguage but have low technical skills is considered more intelligent than theone who is not very good at English but have good technical skills.
For thefollowing reasons parents are more interested in teaching English to theirchild rather than Urdu or mother tongue. Inour research, we shall highlight the medium of education in Pakistan. But ourmajor concerned is about that what students think about the language-in-education policy of Pakistan and what should be the medium of education inPakistan, whether it should be English, Urdu or any other regional language.For the building of future language-in-policy we took the valuable advice ofthe teachers of various colleges.
Keeping in view of the students and teachersof various colleges we will conclude that what should be the medium ofeducation in Pakistan so that we should prosper in the field of education.Following are the major questions of our research that we asked from thestudents on social media platform.· Which language do you consider moreimportant in professional life of an Individual?· Is it better to teach English inthe elementary grades?· Study finds that earlyEnglish-medium appears to be counter-productive as most of the students don’tget grip in English as well as in Urdu. Do you support this argument?· Linguistic expert supports the ideathat best medium for early schooling of a child is mother tongue of child. Doyou agree with this argument?· According to you should Punjabi bethe medium of instruction in primary schools of Punjab like Sindhi and Pashtoare the medium of instruction in the primary schools of respective provinces?· What is the most appropriate age toteach foreign language to students?· Are you satisfied with theperformance of low fees so-called English medium schools?· Which type of schools are best forlanguage proficiency of student?· What should be the medium ofeducation at regional level?· How many languages should be taughtto the students? Language Policy of Pakistan: Pakistanis a multilingual country with six major and over fifty-nine small languages.
Urdu is the national language of Pakistan which is the mother tongue of 7.57percent of the entire population and the official language of Pakistan isEnglish. Many of the people of rural areas are not even able to understand Englishbut still the most used language in the offices of Pakistan is English. Themost spoken language is Punjabi having 44.15 speakers. The major indigenouslanguages of Pakistan are given below. Languages Percentage of Speakers Punjabi 44.15 Pashto 15.
42 Sindhi 14.10 Saraiki 10.53 Urdu 7.57 Balochi 3.57 Others 4.
66 However the importance of regionallanguages are always compromised because the languages of the domains ofpower-government, corporate sector, media, education etc. are English and Urdu.The policy of Pakistan have favored these two languages at the expense ofothers. It has also resulted in English become a symbol of the upper class,sophistication and power. The people who speak their regional language let sayan individual who is speaking Punjabi is considered as illiterate.
This is manyone of the reason that parents prefer to teach English to their children as theEnglish is considered as the key of prosperity, power and success. The Context and Methodology:The main purpose of our research is tofind the answer of our question that whether a child should learn his mothertongue first then exposed to any other language or a child should learn hismother tongue and any other foreign language simultaneously. For this purpose weconducted our research in 7 low fee schools of Karachi (Haq FoundationSchool, CSS Grammar School, Aligarh Schooling System, Usman Public School, CityGrammar School, AIMS School, IMAM Montessori School) and one Government ofBahawalpur (Govt. Islamia girls school). We created the Google formconsisting of some questions regarding the research and ask students of NUSTand other universities including NED-UET Karachi, IST, COMSATS and few otherrenowned universities of Pakistan to fill the form. We also asked from theparents of the students that which type of school they prefer.
Our schoolingsystem is divided into four categories Private elite English medium schools,Private non-elite English medium school, low paid English medium school andGovernment Urdu medium school. According to the survey most of the students arecurrently studying in the low fees private schools because of their economicalfee structure. That is why we conducted our research in the low fees schoolsand took interview from the faculty of that schools. A total of 4 schoolprincipals, participated in the interview and almost 150 students gave theiropinion about the medium of education via the Google form. Data Analysis:Language-in-EducationPolicy in Schools: Students of Different Universities Students are the pioneer of future andpillars of the nation.
You can neverhope for successful country ifthere are no educated people and policy for better education. That is why it ismost important that in which medium they wanted to study. For this purpose weasked the students of different universities to fill the Google form whichconsist of some questions regarding our research and this form is filled by thestudents of many universities including NUST and NED. When students are asked to give theiropinion about the most important language in the professional life of anindividual, a vast majority of students opted English because English is theofficial language of Pakistan and English is used in the corporate andgovernment sectors more than any other language.
However some of the studentsfrom Sindh also replied that Sindhi is used more than Urdu and even more thanEnglish in the Government offices that is why Sindhi language also plays avital role in the professional life of an individual especially when theindividual belongs to Sindh. The following graph illustrates the responses ofthe students. When we askedfrom the students that which is the most optimum age at which a child should beexposed to English. Most of the students replied that at kindergarten levelstudents should learn the Urdu only then at primary level students should beexposed to English and should learn English and Urdu simultaneously. According to linguistic expertsEnglish-medium education appears to be counter-productive as most of thestudents do not get grip in English as well in their mother tongue when weasked from the students that if they agree with this argument we get the mixresponses.
Some of the students said that it is up to the intelligence ofstudent whether he can handle the two languages at the same time or not, butmost of the students support this argument. According to the research most of thestudents of Pakistan are enrolled in low fees English medium school. When weasked the students whether they are satisfied with the performance of thesetype schools.
Students replied that they are so called English medium schoolwhere the teacher even do not know English and English teachers method ofteaching language is not up to the mark. They asked the students to memorizethe question rather than speaking English. When we ask thestudents that which type of schools are best for language proficiency ofstudents. The students from different universities are of the opinion althoughthe private elite English medium schools are expensive but the teachingmethodology of these type of schools are better than any other schools inPakistan. The most important question of our research is that what should be themedium of education for early schooling of a child . When we asked from thestudents , most of the students replied in favour of the English and almostsame amount of the students replied in favour of Urdu and comparitively lowamount of students replied in the favour of regional langauge of that language This is also an important question that how many languages should betaught to a child during his early schooling. The following graph illustratesthe responses of the students When we asked the studentsthat what strategy should be adopted for the lanuage proficiency of thestudents.
Most of the students replied that best strategy for the languageproficieny of an individual is that first student should get proficiency in hismother tongue(L1) then should be exposed to other languages(L2) which is alsoknown as Additive Bilingualism”. Language-in-EducationPolicy in Schools: Principals and School Teachers: The role ofthe teacher represents a fundamental difference in the Language Futuresapproach. Whilst the teacher may be an expert linguist with a deepunderstanding of how languages are learnt, and therefore the strategies to beused to support this, in the Language Futures classroom he or she will not bethe expert in all or even any of the languages chosen by the students. When weasked school principals that why they do not teaches regional language to thestudents (like Sindhi in Sindh) most of the school principals said that thereare no competent teachers available to us who are able to teach the regionallanguage to the students and it is extremely difficult for the schools to findsuch teachers. When we asked the principals of some private non elite Englishmedium school about the performance of their school, one of the schoolprincipal (IMAM Montessori School) of such school said; But thereality is totally opposite to this argument.
Study finds out that the studentsof private non- elite English medium schools and low paid English medium schoolare not good at English as well as in their mother tongues because never learns to speak English or expresseshimself in English. The answers he writes in English are copied or memorizedfrom the book. When we asked about that what is the most optimum time at whichthe schools should start teaching English to the students, principal of CSSGrammar School said that ; But theprincipal of Adamjee Government Science College (Dr Naseem Haider) provided uswith totally opposite answer to the same question; When we asked thatwhat should be the medium of instructions in the schools.
School principal ofGovernment Islamia College replied that; The following is a brief account ofthe opinions of the principals and teachers of different colleges and therationale given for the choices they make about language policy; · Studentscan learn mother tongue in their home. · Mothertongue is applicable only in family and friend gatherings.· Englishhas more uses in professional life than English and Urdu· Someof the teachers supported the idea that lectures in institutions should be deliverin Urdu because easily understand Urdu. · Itis better to teach English during early schooling of the students.
· Themost suitable medium of education is English. · Itis difficult to find the teachers of the regional languages. · Itis better to teach English and Urdu to the students.· Itis not good to teach many languages to the students because its lead tolinguistic confusion. CONCLUSIONDueto extensive increase in demand of English due to its uses in professional lifeof professionals and academic life of an individual students are mostlyinclined towards the English language and of the opinion that students shouldlearn English and Urdu simultaneously, 36% are of the opinion that Urdu shouldbe the medium of education while almost 37% students are of the opinion thatEnglish will be better medium of instruction because English is more applicablein practical life. Almost all of the scientific books whether of engineering,medical or social sciences are mostly written in English. That is why mostlystudents are in the favor of teaching English from the elementary grades of thestudent (almost 85% of the students who responded to our google forms). 3 outof 4 principals who participated in the interview are also in favour of teachingEnglish from early stages of schooling but they are not satisfied with theteaching methodology followed by the schools.
Mostly English medium schools arenot teaching English in the appropriate way and that is one of the reason thatmost of the students from such type of school are not very fluent in Englishbecause the main focus of such schools are memorizing the course rather thanteaching English to the students. But according to our opinion teaching Englishand Urdu simultaneously will only create linguistic confusions in the future.Because student will not be able to get proficiency in either of the onebecause it is the proven fact that an individual think only in one language. Soit will be better that student should get proficiency in one language and laterintroduce to English or any other language. But teaching Urdu only is not thesolution too because most of the syllabus books are not available in Urdu sothis will also trouble the school if they are not familiar with English. If wewanted Urdu medium education system in our society then it is necessary thatall the books should be translated into Urdu. So in this circumstance teachingboth English and Urdu will be better. However teaching methodology of low freeprivate English medium type of schools should be corrected.
Debates and suchactivities should be held in the school from the early classes in whichstudents should able to speak as much as possible because most of the studentsuse mother language in homes and in their daily routines and speaking English arenot in their practice. This is one of the reasons that most of the students arenot very fluent in English. But I am not in the favor of teaching regionallanguage such as Sindhi, Balochi etc because this will create ethnic divisionsin the society because it will be very difficult to manage this for any type ofschool. Students belonging to different ethinicity wanted to learn its languageand not the other . That is why it is better that regional languages should belimited to the home and English and Urdu should be the medium of instructioninany institute.