AbstractElectric mobilityis a topic of intense discussions in academics and industries since thestability of future energy supply as well as the associated environmentalconsequences are uncertain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the researchand development status of battery technologies for electric vehicles which arereflecting theinterface of the automotive, chemical and electronics sector. The present studyapplies the trends in battery technologies with regard to electric mobility. Byapplying this explorative approach to the comparably new field, the studycontributes to both the scientific literature onpatent analysis, enhanced performance and efficiency as well as on emergingindustry and value creation structures related to the electric mobility sector. IntroductionThe limitation of low emission vehicles(LEVs) to specialized markets demonstrates that the underlyingalternative drive technologies have not yet reached the objectives in responseto its output effectivity and ecofriendly environmental concerns.
Although technologicalspillovers between the competing drive technologies emerge,battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are currently drawing the highest interest due to their high radical nature andthe so far low commercial success. Thereby, the battery as thefunctional unit delivering power to the drivetrain and its production are inthe focus as being decisive for introducing electric vehicles. Lithium-basedaccumulators are primarily suggested as they are characterized by high power andenergy density in combination with a high efficiency.
However, high costs and technicaldrawbacks such as a low driving range and safety concerns imply the need forfurther research in order to increase the competitiveness compared to internalcombustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). The rising interest in battery research anddevelopment (R&D) can for instance be shown by monitoring the developmentof the number of patent applications in this technological field whereby theaverage annual growth rate of patent families referring to lithium-based batteriesamounts to 32% between 2006 and 2010. Battery valuechain conceptThe value chain concept was developed by Porter and Chubin (1985) toexplain the process of value creation as a system of sequential,interdependent activities within an organization. A competitive advantage isresulting from providing additional value by adding competencies and services that can bedistinguished from other firms. The process of creating value in battery production integrates several steps. The chain starts with the extraction and processing of raw materials to synthesize the cathode, anode, electrolyte, separator and other cell components.
the different components are assembled to cells which are then packed to battery stacks which are finally integrated into the vehicle. The resulting battery chain underlying our study is aggregated to the four main value-adding steps raw materials, with cell components, battery system and vehicle . Although the steps of use, recharging and recycling are of high relevance for the diffusion of electric mobility , these steps are neglected as they are less crucial for meeting the still existing technological challenges in current battery research. Thus, there is a need for integratingknowledge from chemical and electronics as well as specialized battery firms regardingcell manufacturing and battery development in automobile research viacollaborative approaches.
This indicates that not only new technologiesbut also new business models are required to move to new paradigms In order toget hints towards a possible blurring of boundaries between the affectedsectors or related changes in value-adding processes along the battery valuechain, patent analyses are conducted. a) At initial stage b) After convergence By applying this concept to the field of electric mobility (refers to the quick drift of electrons), a potential convergence process would refer to at least parts of the industries automotive, chemistry and electronics, which are moving towards each other and may form a new inter-industry segment due to the mutual interest and activities in promoting battery technologies pursuing the application in electric vehicles. This presumably technology-driven convergence can be accompanied by shifts in established value chains and the development of new ones. PerformanceAnalysis1. Store energy reasonably well and for a long time2. Delivering more specific energyeffectively than a thermal engine3.
Initiate energy deliverancequickly and less toxic.4. Most rechargeable batteries havea wide power bandwidth, means they caneffectively handle small and largeloads, a quality that is shared with the diesel engine.
5. The battery runs clean and staysreasonably cool.6.
No high maintenance and reliable. Current scenario and ImplementationsModern electric motors are compact, extremelyefficient and emissions-free at the point of use but each one requires abattery to store and deliver power, and that is where electric vehicles (EVs)stumble. The next step that we could putforward is to replace the graphite anodes in today’s batteries with electrodesmade of silicon.
Silicon can store much more charge than graphite but expandsand shrinks when charging and discharging, and can react with and use up theelectrolyte. The prices for energy storagewill fall in coming years, but disagree over how far and how quickly. This isan important issue because a significant drop in battery prices could havewide-ranging effects across industries and society itself. In particular,cheaper batteries could enable the broader adoption of electrified vehicles,potentially disrupting the transportation, power, and petroleum sectors andenable people to turn batteries power vehicle more in number.
ConclusionThe battery value chain in relation to electricmobility connects several technologies and industries. The overall increasingnumber of patent families and the high growth rate, particularly since 2008,is a result of high environmental awareness and policyinstrument to reduce emissions.Different levels of patenting activities for the different steps of the batteryvalue chain have been identified whereby the decreasing absolute number ofpatents towards the end of the chain hints at the currently high interest in R onindividual battery materials and components.
Across the value chain steps,activities combining the 2nd and 3rd step reveal by far the highest amount ofpatent families, pointing at the importance and difficulties of assembling(new) components into battery systems. Although only a few inventions simultaneously dealingwith all steps have been patented so far, the trend towards patenting across valuechain steps suggests a shift towards comprehensive R approaches and ashared technology base.