Abstract: Mobilityaidsare useful for disabled patients for transportationand a replacement for walkingespecially in indoor and outdoor environment. Wheelchairsand stretchers are the most commonlyused medical equipment for the transportationof patients. Shiftingthe patients from wheelchair to stretcher or to the medical bed is always an issueforthe patientsand for the attendants/nurses aswell. This may even result in musculoskeletaldisorders to those who are not trained to do so,especially when it comes to the caretakers. There is a need for a Convertiblebed for a novel paramedicalequipment which would facilitate better transport of patient in the Indian hospitals. In this paper, novel techniques to convertbed to wheelchair and vice versa is presented.
This would help even temporary disabledpatient to operate on their own. Keywords : Wheelchair, transportation, Mobility Aid, Stretcher,Microcontroller, Automation. I. Introduction Warfare from the1850s onwards, leading to the inevitable human casualties, coupled with a most significantincrease in work-related accidents in the late 1800s and early 1900s, fuelledthe greatest advances in casualty care, and a consequential rapid evolution ofstretcher design. Fig.1- Horse pulled and hand pulled stretcherThe NEILROBERTSON stretcher, fitted with a skid means, a footrest and a device to holda helmet or other head protection remains to this day in use underground,especially by the various cave rescue teams in England and Wales. Fig.2-A combination of the Neil Robertson with a skid device for use in the Britishcave rescue environment, circa 1994 THE THOMASSTRETCHER, was fundamentally of aluminum construction, having a canvas bedpanel, extendible handles at each corner and wooden skis to permit sledging andto lift the casualty well clear of the ground.
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In much the same style as the Furleystretcher, which was designed to collapse sideways into a narrow load for easy carrying, so too was the Thomasstretcher originally designed to collapse sideways, again to make it easier tocarry by two people along narrow pathsand tracks. This facility was later eliminated to reduce cost. Consequently,the Thomas became a rigid one-piece stretcher and, as such, more cumbersome tocarry out to the scene of an accident than was originally intended by the jointstretcher committee.Originally, theJoint Stretcher Committee Thomas stretcher was fitted with narrow (1.5″ x1.25″) angled aluminum alloy skids, which were detachable. Before long,these were replaced, one each side, by wide, full length wooden ski-like skidshaving curved up ends. These curved up ends were to assist dragging procedures overrough ground and the width underneath the stretcher sides helped to reducesinking into soft mud.
(Technical note: ski width does not influence dragresistance if the ground is hard enough to support the weight of the loaded stretcher).Herein lies theonly fundamental design flaw which was not originally present. The main frameof the stretcher was lifted up above the ground by about eight inches, by meansof shaped Aluminium castings. The flaw originated from the moment these cornervertical support castings were modified, possibly to accept the new wide woodenskis. Fig.3- Some examples ofcommon disabilities you may find are:1. Vision Impairment.
2. Deaf or Hard Of Hearing.3. Mental Health Conditions.4. Intellectual Disability.
5. Acquired Brain Injury.6.
Autism Spectrum Disorder.7. Physical Disability.8. Skeletal ImpairmentsParalysis:Loss of voluntary movement paralysis affects only one muscle or limb is calledas partial paralysis, it is also known as plasy.
Paralysis of all muscle iscalled as total paralysis which may occur in cases of botulism. Hemiparesis isweakness of one entire side on the body. Partial paralysis can be caused due toa stroke or brain damage. This include joint movement limitations(either mechanical or due to pain), small limbs, missing limbs, or abnormaltrunk size.
Some major causes of these impairments can be explained as follows. ArthritisArthritis isdefined as pain in joints, usually reducing range of motion and causingweakness. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic syndrome. Osteoarthritis is adegenerative joint disease. The incidence of all forms of arthritis is nowestimated at 900,000 new cases per year10. Cerebral Palsy(CP)Cerebral palsyis defined as damage to the motor areas of the brain prior to brain maturity(most cases of CP occur before, during or shortly following birth). CP is atype of injury, not a disease (although it can be caused by a disease), anddoes not get worse over time; it is also not “curable.
” Some causesof cerebral palsy are high temperature, lack of oxygen, and injury to the head. Spinal CordInjury Spinal cordinjury can result in paralysis or paresis (weakening). The extent ofparalysis/paresis and the parts of the body affected are determined by how highor low on the spine the damage occurs and the type of damage to the cord. Head Injury(cerebral trauma) The term”head injury” is used to describe a wide array of injuries, includingconcussion, brain stem injury, closedhead injury, cerebral hemorrhage, depressed skull fracture, foreign object(e.g., bullet), anoxia, and post-operative infections. Stroke (cerebralvascular accident – CVA) The three main causes of stroke are:thrombosis (blood clot in a blood vessel blocks blood flow past that point),hemorrhage (resulting in bleeding into the brain tissue; associated with highblood pressure or rupture of an aneurysm), and embolism (a large clot breaksoff and blocks an artery). Loss of Limbs or Digits (Amputation or Congenital) This may be dueto trauma (e.
g., explosions, mangling in a machine, severance, burns) orsurgery (due to cancer, peripheral arterial disease, diabetes). Usuallyprosthetics are worn, although these do not result in full return of function.
Parkinson’sDiseaseThis is aprogressive disease of older adults characterized by muscle rigidity, slownessof movements, and a unique type of tremor. MultipleSclerosis (MS) Multiplesclerosis is defined as a progressive disease of the central nervous systemcharacterized by the destruction of the insulating material covering nervefibers. The problems these individuals experience include poor muscle control,weakness and fatigue, difficulty walking, talking, seeing, sensing or graspingobjects, and intolerance of heat. Onset is between the ages of 10 and 40.
ALS (LouGehrig’s Disease)ALS (AmyotrophicLateral Sclerosis) is a fatal degenerative disease of the central nervoussystem characterized by slowly progressive paralysis of the voluntary muscles.The major symptom is progressive muscle weakness involving the limbs, trunk,breathing muscles, throat and tongue, leading to partial paralysis and severespeech difficulties. MuscularDystrophy (MD)Musculardystrophy is a group of hereditary diseases causing progressive muscularweakness, loss of muscular control, contractions and difficulty in walking,breathing, reaching, and use of hands involving strength. I. Motivation Moving the patients from wheelchair tostretcher or to the medical bed or vice versa is always a problematicissue for the caretaker. There is a revolution of wheelchairs available today driven by needs and desire of man.The “Convertible Smart Bed for Patients”Facilitates the disabledpatient’s mobility & provides novel medical equipment for use in the Indianhospitals.
The purpose of this design is to reducetheeffort of the caretaker & provide asafer transferforthe patients in hospitals. II. Scope Of The Project a) This design which will reduce the effort of the caretaker and provide asafer transfer for the patients in hospitals.b) To reduce precluding exertion of the patients.
c) To carry out the safe transfer of the patient.d)To utilize space efficiently.e)An excellent choice for a person seeking for two features,rather than going for two different products, he canchoose our ‘Convertible SmartBedfor Patients’ integrated with two differentfeatures.f) The ‘Convertible Smart Bed for Patients’facilitates the disabled patient’s mobility & provides novel medical equipment for use in the Indianhospitals. III. Literature Survey 1 India isseeing a tremendous rise in the number or disabled personalities. Mobility aidsare useful for patients for transportation and it’s a substitute for patientsfor walking in environments both indoor and outdoor. Wheelchairs and stretchersor medical beds are usually employed medical equipment for the transportationof patients.
The project “MULTIPURPOSE MEDICAL BED” by Jerin Joseph John,is introduced to solveproblems related to the conventional medical care equipment and would be cheapand affordable and could be efficiently used in hospitals to save space, timeand to provide better care to the required. 2G. Mamtani, “AN INTEGRATED DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF CONCEPTDESIGN” The Conceptual design phase generates various design concepts and theseare then evaluated in order to identify the ‘Best’ concept. Identifying theBest concept is important because much of the product life cycle cost isdecided in -making. Different criteria are weighted against concepts for thisphase.
Various evaluation techniques are performed so as to aid decisioncomparison. This paper describes the research being carried out at theUniversity of Glasgow on design evaluation. 3 Kulkarni, “DESIGN AND FABRICATION OFWHEELCHAIR-TO-BED SYSTEM USING FLUID POWER” Wheelchair is a chair with wheelsused to move a person/patient from one location to another due to theirinability to move. This may be due to the user/patient being physically disabled,weakness due to their disease or old age. Hence after they arrive back to orwhen they are moving away from their beds, there is a transition fromwheelchair to bed or bed to wheelchair. This transition is tedious and isproved to be harmful to both the patient and the helper by many studies andsurveys. A provision can be provided to convert the wheelchair into a bed usinghydraulic 4 NomulaSrinivas, “IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF SMART WHEELCHAIR FOR MULTIPURPOSEAPPLICATIONS BASED ON ARM7” These days, power wheelchairs are available toseniors and the disabled people, and they have expanded the active range ofthese people.
The purpose of our study is to develop a power wheelchair thatgives the aged and disabled the same degree of mobility that healthy peopleenjoy, enabling users to rejoin society fully and heartily. To accomplish this,we adopt a holonomic Omni-directional mechanism that provides three DOFmobility, the same as healthy people have. In addition, we propose a novelsteering interface for holonomic Omni-directional power wheelchair thatobserves user’s body action such as tilting an upper body or twisting a waistin order to get user’s intention. To design a new wheelchair, we made a largeomni wheel and decided measurements of a seat referring to values of standardJapanese physical constitutions. We also made a model of human who ride onwheelchair to analyze a movement of his upper body.
The developed wheelchairhas high acceleration and speed enough to play a sport such as tennis. 5 According toMr. Peter Axelson, Mr.
Jean Minkel, and Mr. Denise Chesney, selection of anappropriate wheelchair will lead a comfortable living to the user. Performance,safety and dimensions are the three categories which have to be consideredwhile selecting a manual or powered wheelchair. An excellent approach to thewheelchair selection is to set priorities based on user’s mobility and seatingneeds. It is highly recommended that a novice can consult with theirhabilitation specialists in order to select the appropriate wheelchair.
6 James J.Kauzlarich, says self excited vibration is one of the most interesting topicsin the field of vibrations and is the science prevailing caster wheel shimmy.Self excited vibration is characterized by vibration that is produced by themotion of the system like wheelchair speed. It can be observed that in most ofthe cheapest wheelchairs, the design of the casters makes use of a slidingfrictional damper in the spindle support to improve the shimmy characteristics.Understanding the theory of damping for the casters show how shimmy preventionworks in ultra-light and powered wheelchairs. IV. Methodology There are three sections in Wheelchair /Stretcher.
These sections are as follows:a) Back Restb) Main Rest/ Seat c) Leg RestOut of these backrestand leg rest are movable, whereas the main rest is stationary.The back restandthe main rest are held together by means ofshafts and bushes. When the button is pressed theMotor starts rotating in counter clockwise direction(When viewed fromrear end).Theelectric motor rotates in thesame direction as that of the motor. Stoppers are providedsothat the back rest does not go beyondthestretcher position (0 or180).
The transformationcontinues till the push button ispressed. As soon as the push buttonis released it gets locked at that position. Fig.4Basic block diagram Sensors- A sensor is a device thatdetects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment. Accelerometer Sensor- The accelerometer sensor is a dynamicsensor which is capable of a wide range of sensing.
Accelerometers areavailable that can measure acceleration in one, two, or three orthogonal axes.On-off switch-It is a rudimentaryswitch having two modes that can be used in most of the applications. It is aswitch that has two modes which can be used to select on or off state.H bridgecircuit-An H-bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to beapplied across a load in opposite direction. These circuits are often usedin robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to runforwards or backwards. In particular, a bipolar steppermotor isinvariably driven by a motor controller containing two H bridgesReclining mechanism-This mechanism is used in devices such as lift tables and scissor lifts.
Latest low-profile computer keyboards make an extensiveuse of it as well, installing each key on a scissor support to ensure theirsmooth vertical movement, allowing the use of a cheap and reliable contact set, instead of expensive and complex array of mechanical switches. V. Softwares Softwares-CATIA is an acronym of computeraided three-dimensional interactive application. It is a multi-platform software suite for computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)and computer-aided engineering (CAE). SolidWorks -SolidWorks isa modeling computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) computer program thatruns on Microsoft Windows. VI.
Conclusion Fig.5 ProjectedModes VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This IJIREICE report on “Convertible Smart BedforPatients” has been possible only because ofkind co-operationlent by our teacher and project guide Mrs.Poorva Waingankar without which this would not have been possibleWe would also like to thank our parents, whohave provided us with all resources and thesupport needed to gain knowledge andcomplete this project.At last I would like to thank Dr. B.K. Mishra(Principal), Dr.
Kamal Shah(Dean R&D),Dr.Sandhya Save (Electronics department,HOD) for their guidance and support. VIII. References 1 IEEE Paper subject “Convertiblebedand wheelchair”, published by Shaffer W. G., 1988. 2Weiss N.
, “Wheelchair and bed with movable body supporting portions”, US 3Patent Number: 5,659, 910, 1997. 3Axelson P., “A guide to wheelchair selection”, paralyzed veterans of America,Library of Congress Cataloguing in-publication data Washington 1994.4Kauzlarich J.J.
,”Wheelchair caster shimmyII: Damping”, Journal of Rehabilitation Research andDevelopment Volume. 3, May/June 2000,pp305-313.5Cooper R, Corfman T, Fitzgerald S, Boninger M, Spaeth D, Ammer W, Arva J.,”Performance Assessment of a Pushrim Activated Power Assisted Wheelchair”, IEEETrans Control Sys Tech, Volume 10, ISSN:1063-6536, Jan 20026Cooper R., “Wheelchair selection and configuration”, ISBN 1-888799–18–8, March 1998.
7Jolly D., “Wheelchair transfer”, The Ohio state university college, Columbus,Ohio, retrieved on 24th Sept. 2010.8Winter A., “Mechanical principle of wheelchair design”, Graduate Student,Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,US, retrieved on 24th Sept. 2010.9 Chakrabarti D.
, “Indian AnthropometricDimensions for Ergonomic Design Practice”, National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad, 1999.10Sreerag C S, Gopinath C, Manas Ranjan Mishra,”DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OFCONCEPTUALWHEELCHAIR CUM STRETCHER”, SASTECH Volume 10, Issue 2, Sep 2011. 11 Sumedh J.Suryawanshi, Dr.
K. Janardhan Reddy,”Conceptual Product Development ofWheelchair for People Disabled in Legs”, International Journal of Research inMechanical Engineering Volume 1,Issue 2, October-December, 2013.12 Padmanabhan M, Rahoof T E, Vipin Raj V M, Vivek KrishnanK,” PNEUMATIC STRETCHER-CHAIR DEVICE FOR PARALYSED PATIENTS”, IJRET: InternationalJournal of Research in Engineering and Technology Volume: 03 Issue: 03,Mar-2014.