A20380105 User-Centered Design to Improve Quality – Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 1 Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 Index Abstract Usability and its importance Introduction User Centered Design Approach User Centered Design Methods Tools used in User Centered Design Metrics used in User Centered Design Case Study Hypothesis Conclusion References User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 2 Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 Abstract Numerous systems are designed and built without any consideration to the usability and desirability, the key components to a successful product. Due to this poor foundation, users are often dissatisfied with the software and these systems are abandoned. In order to salvage such systems, we have combined different methods from the area of computer science, cognitive science, psychology, and human computer interaction to formulate a framework for guiding the redesign process. This process is called as User Centered design where design is based upon an explicit understanding of users, tasks, and environments is driven and refined by user-centered evaluation and addresses the whole HYPERLINK https//www.
usability.gov/what-and-why/user-experience.html user HYPERLINK https//www.
This paper provides a review of the different methods involved in this process and presents a life cycle of our redesign approach. Following the description of the methods, we present a case study, which shows a successfully applied example of the use of this framework. A comparison between the original and redesigned interfaces showed improvements in system usefulness, information quality, and interface quality. Usability and its importance Usability is a measure of the interactive user experience associated with a user interface, such as a website or software application. A user-friendly interface design is easy-to-learn, supports users tasks and goals efficiently and effectively, and is satisfying and engaging to use.
From the users perspective, usability is important because software with poor usability can reduce the productivity of the workforce to a level of performance worse than without the system. In all cases, lack of usability can cost time and effort and can greatly determine the success or failure of a system. Given a choice, people tend to buy systems that are more user-friendly. The goal of user centered design is to create systems that are modeled after carefully understanding and addressing users needs thus focusing on characteristics and routine tasks of users. Employing cardinal axioms of good design early, throughout the design life cycle gives rise to systems that are easy to learn with increased user productivity and satisfaction, increased user acceptance, decreased user errors, and decreased user training time, thus likely leading to an increase in sales and customer loyalty. Introduction User centered design is a process focusing on usability throughout the entire development process and further throughout the system life cycle.
It is based on the following key principles. User focus – Goals of the activity, the work domain or context of use, the users goals, tasks and needs should early guide the development User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 3 Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 b. Active user involvement representative users should actively participate, early and continuously throughout the entire development process and throughout the system lifecycle. Evolutionary systems development the systems development should be both iterative and incremental. Simple design representations the design must be represented in such ways that it can be easily understood by users and all other stakeholders. Prototyping early and continuously, prototypes should be used to visualize and evaluate ideas and design solutions in cooperation with the end users.
Evaluate use in context baselined usability goals and design criteria should control the development Explicit and conscious design activities the development process should contain dedicated design activities. Usability champion usability experts should be involved early and continuously throughout the development lifecycle. Holistic design all aspects that influence the future use situation should be developed in parallel. Processes customization the user-centered systems design process must be specified, adapted and/or implemented locally in each organization. User Centered Design Approach According to the user-centered design methodology, design should cater to the end-goal set for audience and focus on the impact it has on the audiences behavior.
The approach is more intuitive and recognizes patterns that help to give desirable solutions, all within natural contexts. A human-centered design method is Clear with objectives – It is important to keep your goals realistic and focused on users needs as that what drives the purpose of the project. Focus on audience – To fulfill your users needs, one must be acquainted with the kind of audience you serve.
Frame Right Questions – It is important to frame the problem in human-centered terms to get consequential results. Right questions can help to trace the motives of users that can drive them to connect with your product. Users come first To deliver meaningful UX, we need to HYPERLINK https//think360studio.
com/usability-testing-20-things-remember-product-ux-testing/ increase usability and the level of HYPERLINK https//think360studio.com/usability-testing-20-things-remember-product-ux-testing/ audience engagement, by building a flexible design that has layers and give the users power to skim the surface and delve deeper to what they find relevant. User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 4 Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 Track the feedback – One can analyze the extent of assumptions, discover ways for improvement and even get inspiration for groundbreaking ideas. Thus, with the user-centered approach one will know the nuances of user behavior and HYPERLINK https//think360studio.
com/why-designers-should-follow-user-experience-process-for-a-product-startup/ craft your product with strategic design. Exact prototypes – The concept of minimum viable product (MVP) has become a major guideline in the design process. Before MVP is released, one must consider to evaluate your biggest product assumptions. With alternative flows and range of screen designs in prototypes, it serves as a great tool to validate experimentation with designs. Design as a Team – Fresh thinking can generate innovative solutions which will enhance the standard of product developed Implement in action – Ensure to maintain transparency during the entire process by fulfilling all the needs of the stakeholders and establishing clear communication on goals to enforce change efficiently. User Centered Design Methods According to ISO 13407 there are four essential activities outlined in a user-centered design project Requirements gathering – Understanding and specifying the context of use Requirements specification – Specifying the user and organizational requirements Design – Producing designs and prototypes Evaluation – Carrying out user-based assessment of the site Some of the popular user-centered design methods are Focus groups – This involves an invited group of actual users to share their thoughts and ideas.
Its necessary to have an experienced moderator and analyst for a focus group to be effective. Usability testing – HYPERLINK https//www.webcredible.com/services/investigate/usability-testing/ Usability testing sessions evaluate a site by collecting data from people as they use it.
A person is invited to attend a session in which theyll be asked to perform a series of tasks while a moderator takes note of any difficulties they encounter. Users can be asked to follow the think-aloud protocol which asks them to verbalize what theyre doing and why theyre doing it. Activities are timed to see how long it takes for users to complete tasks Card Sorting – HYPERLINK https//www.webcredible.com/services/investigate/card-sorting/ Card sorting is a method for suggesting intuitive structures/categories. A participant is presented with an unsorted pack of index cards.
Each card has a statement written on it that relates to a page of the site. The participant is asked to sort these cards into groups and then to name these groups. The results of multiple individual sorts are then combined and analyzed statistically User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 5 Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 Participatory design – Participatory design does not just ask users opinions on design issues, but actively involves them in the design and decision-making processes Questionnaires – Questionnaires are a means of asking users for their responses to a pre-defined set of questions and are a good way of generating statistical data.
Interviews – An interview usually involves one interviewer speaking to one participant at a time. The advantages of an interview are that a participants unique point of view can be explored in detail. It is also the case that any misunderstandings between the interviewer and the participant are likely to be quickly identified and addressed. Tools used in User Centered Design There are few tools that are used in user centered design. They are persona, scenarios, and essential use cases. Persona – During the UCD process, a persona of the users need may be created.
It is a fictional character with all the characteristics of the user. Personas are created after the field research process, which typically consists of members of the primary stakeholder (user) group being observed on their behavior, and additionally answering questionnaires or participating in interviews, or a mixture of both. Personas are useful in the sense that they create a common shared understanding of the user group for which the design process is built around.
Also, they help to prioritize the design considerations by providing a context of what the user needs and what functions are simply nice to add and have. They can also provide a human face and existence to a diversified and scattered user group, and can also create some empathy and add emotions when referring to the users. Scenario – A scenario created in the UCD process is a fictional story about the daily life of or a sequence of events with the primary stakeholder group as the main character. The story should be specific of the events happening that relate to the problems of the primary stakeholder group, and normally the main research questions the design process is built upon. There can be best, worst and average case scenarios. Use Case – In short, a use case describes the interaction between an individual and the rest of the world.
Each use case describes an event that may occur for a short period of time in real life, but may consist of intricate details and interactions between the actor and the world. It is represented as a series of simple steps for the character to achieve his or her goal, in the form of a cause-and effect scheme. User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 6 Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 Metrics used in User Centered Design The following metrics are used in determining degree of accuracy in user centered design by following HEART framework.
They are Happiness measures of user attitudes, often collected via survey. For example satisfaction, perceived ease of use, and net-promoter score. Engagement level of user involvement, typically measured via behavioral proxies such as frequency, intensity, or depth of interaction over some time period. Examples might include the number of visits per user per week or the number of photos uploaded per user per day.
Adoption new users of a product or feature. For example the number of accounts created in the last seven days or HYPERLINK https//googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/07/evolution-of-gmail-labels.html the percentage of Gmail users who use labels.
Retention the rate at which existing users are returning. For example how many of the active users from a given time period are still present in some later time period Task success this includes traditional behavioral metrics of user experience, such as efficiency (e.g. time to complete a task), effectiveness (e.
g. percent of tasks completed), and error rate. This category is most applicable to areas of your product that are very task-focused, such as search or an upload flow. The Goals-Signals-Metrics process Goals – Identify goals to choose metrics that help measure progress towards articulating the goals of a project Signals – Next, map goals to lower-level signals.
There are usually a large number of potentially useful signals for a particular goal that determine success or failure of the project. Metrics – Once chosen signals, one can refine those further, into metrics youll track over time or use for comparison in an A/B test. The Goals-Signals-Metrics process should lead to a natural prioritization of the various metrics, its most important to track the metrics related to top goals. User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 7 Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 Case Study After going through User Centered Design with an understanding at different dimensions, lets look at a case study of HYPERLINK http//www.mobile.de/ mobile.
de, an eBay owned automotive platform in Germany that followed an iterative approach. Problem After a particular release, there were usability issues in the iPhone-based app. The problem was that the search result page had too few items in the list that they cannot find the important criteria and the interface was just not as clear as the old version. They had usability issues through bad readability and almost zero whitespace throughout the app.
The app felt compressed and users often complained that they could not find what they were looking for. Redefined design process Mostly they focused on the user/business problem to solve and defined the problem space. Then they designed a solution and shipped it to our customers to get feedback and to drive the business. They established a solution hypothesis format to have a unified approach and a common language for all team members. If action then outcome because customer need/problem Hypothesis To learn what works with the audience they built a solution hypothesis for their designs.
They determined which solution was supposed to solve which problem, which led to a significant change. The procedure changed the value of design from being one step in the process to something that enabled the team to learn more about the customer. This ultimately gave UX design a much higher business relevance.
User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 8 Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 The following were the three main hypothesis More listings – More listings on the screen provided better comparability and offered more diversity on platform because users liked to compare a lot of listings on the result page Better structure – More structure to listings helped achieve better scan because user is able to scan the relevant information quicker Better prioritization – Prioritizing information according to user needs helped achieve better guidance because the user can see all relevant information at a glance. Therefore, important takeaways from hypothesis driven UX design are Take assumptions and state them as explicit hypotheses Let team buy into stated hypotheses Force to design according to your hypotheses Force to test against your hypotheses Create a culture of learning by showing stakeholders the benefits of validated customer hypotheses User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 9 Vandana Jagadeesh A20380105 Conclusion We have analyzed the work context, motivations, and work practices working in a user-centered manner in environments with no strategic support for UCD to overcome the problems and analyzed how different work practices influence the user-centeredness of projects. We identified remedies that can help future projects in mitigating the problems faced in practice of user-centered design in environments with no strategic support for UCD.
In the future, we would like to see our study replicated and our findings tested in other settings in user-centered design. Other examples where we would like to see our study replicated are situations where confidentiality is important, and users cannot be involved beforehand or (2) company does not make money with usable products, for example internal software development where employees must use the software anyway and there are no visible benefits from usable products. Furthermore, we would like to test whether our suggestions for improvement can be implemented in practice and which results they would yield. References HYPERLINK https//pdfs.semanticscholar.
org/7af5/78a51d3f5261ca6443cd54ba36d11d706cf9.pdf HYPERLINK https//www.usability.gov/what-and-why/user-centered-design.
html https//www.usability.gov/what-and-why/user-centered-design.html HYPERLINK https//healthit.
gov/ahrq-funded-projects/developing-evidence-based-user-centered-design-and- HYPERLINK https//healthit.ahrq.gov/ahrq-funded-projects/developing-evidence-based-user-centered-design-and-implementation-guidelines implementation-guidelines HYPERLINK http//www.usabilityfirst.com/about-usability/introduction-to-user-centered-design/ http//www.usabilityfirst.com/about-usability/introduction-to-user-centered-design/ HYPERLINK https//medium.theuxblog.com/hypotheses-driven-ux-design-c75fbf3ce7cc https//medium.theuxblog.com/hypotheses-driven-ux-design-c75fbf3ce7cc User-Centered Design to Improve Quality 10 J [email protected] o4cyEV6z)FrMfldmDWh Z_nhoVvkOiDic4A2ZZEoIkGGQzuc/rpxNB (McFN9nFRC [email protected](RuZZ_qZluelu(r(((((((((((((wNpyYxY1NyXEv6u .mbVIGqZuIn4,5 T s 4Y9vw) g5KErZi0pxKoq4W1 ZUzT9lrA,lAGwI wzX [email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected] rJikrU42TCe0knPmryD27ae kTw3(iAQ(lN7-oKtqM,q Bh_k2Yoo2.rkRf-)bw am8jdznpk. e2,[email protected] Hvp [email protected] BqfqVoi zKoHLdS7tV6cy ,1 swGHDKOcf L6q.-0VePN9RZ 6E_ZBz D-,4wl3-NJJ_1VL8q 9Dqwt [email protected] _ _ _ _ CNTppOhzlFoXI).IO,x5knRDH M-Ws 3 Y, B8L 1(IzZYrH9pd4n(KgVB,lDAeX)Ly5otebW3gpj/gQjZTae9i5j5fE514g7vnO( ,[email protected] /[email protected] 6Q