A Swiss biologist and psychologist that focused on the study of how children progress their cognitive and intellectual skills. Likewise, as Freud’s theory of Psychosexual Development, Piaget’s somehow thought that a development towards a person can be described by means of stages but contrast to Freud, he didn’t trust that development and learning were driven by subdued sexuality. As his theory discuss that children are characterized into one of four phases of improvement including the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operations stage. Piaget trusted that youngsters just development to the following stage when they have had an adequate number of encounters inside each stage. “Piaget’s (1936) theory of cognitive development explains how a child constructs a mental model of the world”, quoted by Mcleod, S. (2018).
Relatively, in his analyses with youngsters, teenagers, and youthful grown-ups, Piaget discovered that as we nurture, we somehow increasingly add new aptitudes to our cognitive development. Also, in accordance to him, kids are conceived with an exceptionally fundamental mental structure on which all consequent learning and information are based. Piaget’s Theory of Development is far more different from the other developmental theories as cited by McLeod, S. (2018) a. “It is concerned with children, rather than all learners”; b.
“It focuses on development, rather than learning per se, so it does not address learning of information or specific behaviors”; c. “It proposes discrete stages of development, marked by qualitative differences, rather than a gradual increase in number and complexity of behaviors, concepts, ideas, etc.” The very objective of the theory was to clarify the systems and procedures by which the baby, and children, forms into an individual person whom it could aim and deliberate utilizing speculations.
Cognitive development refers to long-term changes in these processes (LumenLearning, n.d.).
It also was a dynamic revamping of mental procedures because of natural development and ecological experience. Youngsters build a comprehension of their general surroundings, at that point encounter inconsistencies between what they definitely recognize besides on what they discovery in their condition. Piaget’s Cognitive Theory has three components that will assist his idea about the progress of individual knowledge and experiences. First is, schemas which is the building block of knowledge. Second, Adaptation process that empower the change starting with one phase then onto the next, this process comes to three definitive adjustment which our assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. Finally, the four stages of cognitive theories.
Schemas as the fundamental building block of our knowledges that allow us to shape a rational portrayal of the world. “Index card” filled in the brain as cited by Mcleod, S. (2018) through (Wadsworth, 2004). Consequently, at the point when Piaget discussed the improvement of a man’s psychological procedures, he was alluding to increments in the number and multifaceted nature of the schemata that a man had learned. Apart from Schemas there is adaptation in which “growth as a process of adaptation (adjustment) to the world” (cited in Piaget, J. 1952) Mcleod, S.
(2018). The adaptation occurs into three processes which are the following: assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. According to Mcleod, S.
(2018). Assimilation refers to an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.; Accommodation happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.
Moreover, the Equilibration is the force which moves development along. Through assimilation process the equilibration is somehow transpires the schemas in which a child must agree on a new information that will exist to the knowledge itself. Nevertheless, the state of disequilibrium happens when the new information doesn’t suit the existing schemas of the child.
Prior to it the accommodation process of equilibration according to him “a force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge” McLeod S. (2018). In which the process of assimilating new schema will go on process on its own time by time as long as it attained a new information to which it will cost an adjustment. Finally, the last components of Piaget’s Cognitive theory which was the four stages of cognitive theory namely: sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operations stage. The sensorimotor stage occurs during birth until two years old as for this stage a kid (baby and toddler) somehow attained their knowledge by experiencing sensory aspect and manipulating object.
Likewise, at this stage “period of dramatic growth and learning” cited by Cherry, K. (2018) occurs to the children as they explore the open world surrounds them as they open their eyes and continuously make a new discovery on how it works. The most valuable breakthrough about this stage is the concept of “object permanence” as it for the fact that the memory is developing in which the kid realizes the existence of an object even though it cannot see by his/her on sight. The preoperational stage ranges from age 2-7 from this a child minds the idea of imagination and intuition in which they somehow manage to imagine things that doesn’t exist in the real world as well as form a sort of game that only kids understand. This stage is somehow divided into two substages prior to the idea of Piaget’s the first one is “symbolic function” Psychology Note HQ, (2017) in which a child by some means cannot manipulate information in such manner that it will become logical.
A child may use symbols as a means of getting information that can be at help in such role or play that a child assign to everyone. For the final stage is “intuitive thought” Psychology Note HQ, (2017) prior to the first one this substage may arise if a child become cautiously curious and starting to ask questions about object or person which they don’t really recognize. This kind of thought makes a child realizes that having a lot of information circulating in their mind can cope up to the idea of finding answer to that information and somewhat develop the sense of “primitive reasoning.” Concrete operational stage ages 7 from 11 years old a child from this stage begin to make there mind a bit more logical though it is only partially applicable to “simple mental operations and concrete events” Psychology Note HQ, (2017). The kids’ thoughts regarding time and space are at times conflicting at this stage, yet a fundamental rationale is available that oversees their psychological activities. Kids can learn leads decently effectively, yet they may experience difficulty understanding the consistent ramifications of those tenets in strange circumstances.
Finally, formal operational stage starting at the age of 11 and above at this stage young adult build up the capacity to consider dynamic ideas, and coherently test speculations. At this phase “formal logic becomes possible and verbal explanations of concepts are usually sufficient without demonstration” quoted in Psychology Note HQ, (2017). That in line with his idea a child by some means develops a logical way an also have a deductive reasoning to fully understand such an idea.