A healthy and sustainable diet is based on high
consumption of whole grain, fruits & fresh vegetables, and, with limited
intake of, trans fatty acids, saturated fat, salt and sugar .The average
vegetable and fruit intake in 2012 for the EU-28 was valued to be 386.96
g/person per day. One apple has
65 Calories (272 kJ), (approximately 125 g) the main part of which comes from
carbohydrates – 260 kJ Apples contain glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The
larger apple of almost 200 g (Techa
et al., 2015)
The aim of this work is to investigate
the total sugar content in pulp of three different cultivars of apple. For this
purpose 3 apple cultivars Red delicious, Golden delicious & Amri from
Quetta, Baluchistan was considered. Sugar was determined in the pulp of these
apple cultivars by (Dubios et al., 1956) method also known as phenol sulfuric
acid method. Phenol sulfuric acid method is the most reliable and easiest
method (Masuko et al., 2005). Among
the quantitative methods, this method is widely used to determine the total
concentration of carbohydrate present in foods (Roberts R, Elias R 2011). By adding 5% phenol and concentrated
sulfuric acid in the samples, the color of the samples turned yellow-orange
which showed the presence of sugar in samples. The light and dark color showed
different concentration of sugar in apple cultivars. Their concentrations were
further determined using UV/VIS spectrophotometer at 490nm.Using the proposed method;
calibration curve was obtained which was found to be linear in the range of 0.2
Agarwal and Rani determined total carbohydrates in different types of fruits
through a spectrophotometer at 490nm using the phenol sulfuric acid method.
Kumar et al.,(2012), carbohydrates should supply 50 to 55% of total calories
(130gm/day or 520 calories for male and female adults). Fruits are considered among
the highest sources of carbohydrates.
In our study
we got different concentrations of sugars in different cultivars of apple (Malus domesticaborkh). These values of
concentrations were matched with standard values & apple cultivars were
made. Different samples showed different concentration. The concentration was
noticed in Amri was 0.87grams/ 5 grams of pulp of fruit as compared to other
cultivars. Red delicious (Tor kulu) pulp had 0.43grams / 5 grams and Golden
delicious (shin kulu) pulp had 0.38 grams / 5 grams.
The pulp of
cultivars contains different types of carbohydrates in different concentration
which include glucose, fructose, glactose, maltose etc. These sugars give sweet
taste to the fruits.
Fructose is a
monosaccharide which gives sweet taste to the fruits also known as fruit
sugar.as in this research total sugar contents were determined in pulp of
varieties of apple, so in these pulps of apple varieties glucose, fructose,
sucrose and maltose are present. The low concentrations of these are found in
pulp Golden Delicious (Shin Kulu)high concentration of glucose and fructose are
present in pulp of Amri and it also has glactose which increase the sweetness
of fruit and its sugar concentration.
Agarwal and Rani (2015) estimated sugar
from apple done through a spectrophotometer using phenol sulfuric acid method.
They found that apple contains 0.045 grams of carbohydrates (sugars).
Carbohydrate content in fruits is low compared to
other foods in our diet (Weight Loss for All.com). Fruit can be thought of as a
“healthy crab .Fruit calories are made up of some proteins, very little
fat and mostly simple carbohydrates (Kumar et al 2012).
different apple (Malus domesticaBorkh)
cultivars the concentration of sugar is different. High concentration is
present in pulp of Amri as compare to other cultivars i.e. Golden Delicious and
Red Delicious. Amri causes high-glycemic index and Red Delicious and Golden
Delicious causes low-glycemic index. So in diet add Golden Delicious in large
quantity, Red Delicious in moderate quantity and Amri in less quantity. We estimate
sugar from apple cultivars by phenol sulfuric acid method through
spectrophotometer. So by this method we can estimate sugar from other apple
cultivars and by other fruit samples.
In this research total sugars were determined
carbohydrates in the pulp of fruits of three different apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cultivars
available in local market of Quetta, through phenol sulfuric method and
spectrophotometer. Different concentrations were observed in the pulp of apple
cultivars. Highest concentration was observed in Amri (0.87), followed by Red
Dilicous (0.43) and Golden Delicious (0.38). In all three cultivars moderate
amount of carbohydrates are present.