A of the project is to improve or

A jack is a great option in a vehicle for many reasons. Itcould be used for as simple as a tire change on the roadside, or carrying outmaintenance on the vehicle from home. The jack is used to ensure the vehicle islifted to a suitable height, so work can be carried out.

The purpose of thejack is to lift a heavy object or a vehicle in this scenario. As safety is akey aspect, when a heavy object is being lifted there are a few things that areneeded to be taken under consideration. The surface of floor; flat surface,smooth and not weak so the jack sinks in.

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When the jack is in use the conditionof the jack and the vehicle should be checked in terms of no damage to the jackand any corrosion or weak spots on the vehicle. After, suitable researchacquired the scissor jack is prone to failure due to certain aspects. The aimof the project is to improve or develop a way to reduce the number of scissorjacks failing. This report will include some background research to understandwhat scissor jacks are used for and how they are operated. The key topic is thecauses of failure for the scissor jacks. Also, some aspects include lack of useand corrosion. Some jacks have been used incorrectly, for example many scissorjacks have markings and stickers to represent the weight, some of these don’twhich mean that when an incorrect jack is used for the wrong vehicle it cannotwithstand the weight which results in failure.

Many manufactures provide breakdown tools with their vehiclessuch as jacks, wheel braces and spare wheels. This report will be discussingsome aspects of research that has been carried out with regards to safety. The report will also cover some advantages and disadvantagesof certain jacks to understand various jacks are needed in different sectionsaround a vehicle. Furthermore, alternative designs have been provided tounderstand that there are innovative designs evolving which are reducing thecost in the production, ease of use and mainly to be safer.

The materials foreach jack will be provided to initialise the sequences of development in thematerial. Finally, the testing procedure will be carried out along with themethodology of how each step will be taken with regards to the jack testing.   Fig 2.0    2) Background of jacks  The first diamond shape jack was built by Mr Joseph LaFrance (1920). Ascissor jack is used to lift heavy objects, or a more specific object will be avehicle. The most generic form of jacks is; floor jacks or garage jacks, whichare used so that maintenance can be performed on vehicle or just lifting aheavy object around the workshop. The average small jacks such as scissor jacksare usually fixed for a maximum lifting capacity around 1.

5-3 ton. Industrialjacks use greater loads, so they will have a lot more lifting capacity. Scissorcar jacks use manual force for lifting whereas some use electrical poweredmotor to do the lifting. The scissor jacks have a slot where it fits onto thesill of the vehicle to enable it to lift.

Some scissor jacks are designed to beonly lifted from the sills and some can be lifted from other places. A scissorcar jack is designed by bolting pieces of metal elements into a kite shape withhinges and a screw connecting the opposite sides of the diamond. When the screwis turning with the spanner/hook it will raise the diamond or lower it dependingon the direction of the turn. The scissor jack comes as standard feature formajority of vehicle as a kit with the spare will and various other accessories.However, large vehicles such as trucks and high clearance vehicles withintegrated jacks or heavy-duty jacks due to the size and weight.

This jackoperates by transferring rotational motion into linear, so this means theturning of the screw causes expansion or contracting of the kite shape, whichthen translates to an upward force or downward, when the jack is placed betweensolid grounds and jacked to the vehicle chassis or sill.OperationWhen the screw section is turned, two ends of the diamondmove closer together. This occurs due to the gears/ threads of the screw arepushing the arms, the size of force is being applied is multiplied. Not muchforce is required when the crank/hook is turning the gears yet the action thatis being caused results in the brace arms to slide across and together.

Thatprocedure helps the arms extend upward to life the object/vehicle.  UsageThe uses of the scissor jack can be simple as changing awheel on a car due to a puncture. Also, it can be used on a flat surface towork on a vehicle at home, for example changing some brake pads, oil change andvarious other components on a vehicle that need changing can be done.

It ishighly recommended with any vehicle jack that an axle stand will need to putunderneath for safety reasons. Scissor jacks are a standard feature in somecars and can be bought for around £10/15. Scissor jacks are the ones thattypically come in a vehicle’s boot kit in case of an emergency.

These jacksbenefit because they don’t take up much space can be stored in the trunk of avehicle also they don’t require any additional maintenance. 3)  Causes of failure  SlidingOne of the common reason of this jack is prone to failure isbecause of the head of the jack. The head is shaped as a sphere, so when thejack is lifted elsewhere apart from the sills, due to not being stable thevehicle begins to slide.

To overcome this problem the jack head will have to bere-designed or a polymer can be used above the head prevent the jack fromsliding. A rubber pad can be used to prevent the car from sliding; this willfirmly grip the structure of the vehicle. Some vehicles have soft sills whichmean users will prevent jacking up from these sorts of areas.Below is an incident where a scissor jack was used and slidof the vehicle.  ‘He said hehad jacked the passenger’s side tire off the ground with a scissor jack, andwas looking to “find a good jack stand point.” The car shifted a bit’, DavidTracy 2016 This article suggests that a scissor jack was usedincorrectly and caused major injury to the user.                Fig3.

0Non-slip materialThe jackneeds a material that prevents the vehicle sliding of it, to achieve this; arubber pad must be fitted to the scissor jack. Friction is defined as the forceopposing motion. One type of friction is static friction. The lower the staticfriction, the easier it is to make an object start moving.                                               Fig3.5  Safety of the operationChocks- wheel chocks can be used to prevent the vehicle fromrolling. The chock fits in front and behind the wheel, this is made from athick polymer.

As, the vehicle is being lifted from one side using the scissorjack the load is increasing on the opposing side which can surge the vehicle toroll. The vehicle must be put into gear as well as handbrake must be applied.Surface- As thescissor jack is lifted the diamond shape turns into a tall rectangle.

Thisbecomes a down fall because it has higher chances of toppling over. The surfaceof the ground must be flat because the jack will start to slide depending onthe slope of the surface.Stands- With anytype of lifting operation whether it’s a vehicle or a heavy object axle stands area must. They are placed on the chassis of the vehicle during lift or the loadof the jack can be released onto the stands for safety precautions.  4)  Testing/Methodology  The testing consists of three sections.

The first section is Ansys;the scissor jack will be simulated on the software. A 3D model will need to bemade on computer aided design or even on ansys. Once this is done thefile will be converted onto ansys to enable it to run. The jack will go throughthe testing procedure which will involve a load being set, which will representthe weight of a car. On the jack, certain points must be fixed during the testto demonstrate that the jack is not moving as it’s under load. The test willbegin and create a set of results which depend on the jack material and variousother aspects.

The results gained such as stress, strain, fatigue and fracturecan then be noted so they can be used later for validation.Some drawings will be made to interpret modern designskeeping in consideration the scissor jacks.Each part of the jack will then be analysed to determine eachcomponent weak point. Calculations will be carried out for each componentindividually. The weakest component will then be modified to overcome itsweakness to enable a strong structure.

As the main goal is to analyse a scissor jack, the materialand shape will be taken under consideration. The next test will involve an actual jack being tested. Ahydraulic press will apply a load to the scissor jack. This is like the ansystest where the load will represent the wright of a vehicle and pushed againstthe car. The procedure will be carried out with various loads to representvarious vehicles.  At a point, the jackwill have fractured or have some signs of fatigue in the material. The resultsgained from the jack will be then calculated to support the ansys.

The final test is hand calculations; these will validate bothtests by getting comparable results. If the results are different this means,there is a problem between the three tests.So far, the 3D model of the scissor jack has been made. Itwill now need to go through the ansys procedure for the finite elementanalysis.

The first material that will be used for the test will be structuralsteel and understand what effects it has on the design and any damage caused.The second will be the improved version with aluminium and see the correlationbetween both the materials when a load is applied.The tests the four materials will determine if the finalproject design will be from aluminium or steel. The rough of idea of the 3d modelwill be then improved.  5)  Materials Structural steelAny jack that is made acquires components made from steel,they may have been assembled with an aluminum structure, but steel is requiredfor the fixings, pins and many other components. ‘While aluminum tends to win out on weight, steel jacks tend toacquire out on cost. Steel jacks are normally always a tiny bit more expensiveon ordinary for a graded capacity than aluminum jacks. This is because theweight economies, aluminum jacks are normally promoted as superior solutions’.

Matt Seals 2017. The development of scissorjack from steel is improving to gain tick certain boxes such as price,durability, ease of use and various other aspects. The strength of steel can beincreased by the addition of alloys such as manganese, niobium and vanadium.However, these alloy additions can also adversely affect other properties, suchas ductility, toughness and weldability.  The properties of steel also include thestrength and reliabilities of the material.

Aluminium Alloy (Alternative)The key features of aluminium are that, it is very light inweight and it is one of the materials that don’t rust. The focus of having afloor jack made from aluminium is to decrease its weight. As previous jacks, weremade from steel and they are very heavy to carry and move around a workshop.Steel is a much denser material than aluminium which implies that if twoidentical sized blocks of these materials measured in weight, steel would weighmore.Many people misunderstand the strength of aluminium.

This isdue to the misconception of aluminium being soft and weak in various products. ‘The truth is that depending on the gradeof aluminum and the process by which a part is manufactured aluminum parts canbe every bit as strong as steel’. MattSeals 2017 This material is used in a lot of products floor jacks,jack stands, or airplanes made all from aluminum’.  Thespecific weight of aluminium is roughly around 2.7 g/cm3.  Various treatments can be applied toaluminium such as paint lacquer to improve its properties and make it stand outfrom other jacks.This material is also recyclable which means that any scrapaluminium can be reused to make a scissor jack.

This process of recyclingrequires less energy and roughly 5 percent of the energy is used to produce theprimary metal. Furthermore, this material has a tensile strength between 70and 700 MPa. Aluminium doesn’t get brittle at low temperatures however itincreases its strength. Aluminium alloy can be attached to other aluminium productsor to various materials by the following methods: welding, brazing, soldering,bolting, riveting, clinching, crimping, clipping, adhesive bonding andslide-on, snap together or interlocking joints. Mild steel,and cast steel will go through material testing  6)  Current Progression Research- a scissorjack has been chosen to analyse and improve the material properties, the designand strength to reduce the number of failures. The scissor jack is a mechanicaldevice that is failing a lot more than other jacks. The research includesrecent incidents relating to scissor jacks failing.

The research has createdthe foundation of the project, by providing some information on the scissorjack. The background information helps the reader understand what the report isabout. Ongoing CAD- A 3D modelhas been designed to represent the scissor jack. The jack is consists of 6parts. The design of the scissor jack is to get a rough idea of the scissorjack also it will be used on Ansys to gain some results. Completed Jack- Thephysical testing involves a jack being tested on a press.

A scissor jack hasbeen brought for the testing.  Designoptions – A few design options have been developed regarding thescissor jack head, the shape and the material. The standard 3d design will go through Ansys first to see the resultsand then the improved design will be tested.

Further Plan/Objectives  Ansys- As the 3Dmodel is made, the testing will need to be done to see the maximum stress andstrain.  Deadline: 18th January Jacktesting- The next step after Ansys will be the testing of the jack;a load will be applied to the scissor jack and will increase till the jackcannot withstand the load. This procedure will result fracture will then willbe calculated.

Deadline: 23rd January Calculations-The following will need to be calculated:Maximum Stress, Strain, fracture, crippling Deadline: 29thJanuary Materialtesting- The materials mentioned will be tested on the press todetermine which one will be used in the final design. Deadline: 23rdJanuary  7)  Alternative Designs Type of Jack Features Pros Cons Price (Average)           Bottle Jack Steel   The max capacity of this jack is 10-ton   150mm stroke and an 80mm adjustment screw   230mm to 460mm lifting range   Strong a durable   Automatic safety overload valve The bottle jack is small and compatible    It has a very high lifting capacity.   It can lift heavy objects and vehicles with ease due to its high lifting capacity.   The bottle jack is small and can be stored anywhere and doesn’t take much space   The small base design of the bottle jack causes instability.

  The bottle jacks can lift heavy item buts only to a certain height.   This escalates a problem when standard vehicles need lifting and there isn’t enough clearance. £21.99     Exhaust Air Jack PVC/Polyester Capacity:  4 tons, size: 58 x 75 cm    Weight:  4 tons:6.5kg   2 x Protective mat sizes: 640mm x 670mm   5.6 meters one-way air hose Uses the exhaust gases to full up the bag which lifts the vehicle.   Can lift around 30 inches from the ground.   Cost less to manufacture stay inflated for as long as 45 minutes   car must be started up during the procedure, consumption of fuel   Depending on surfaces can pop the bag     £23.

00         Floor Jack Aluminium     Racing style 1.5 tonne trolley jack   Low profile with dual pumps for a quicker lift   Fast access with front roller wheel   Lifting range is 90-358 mm This enables it to lift lowered vehicles.   The floor jack is very simple to use due to the long pumping handle.

  The floor jack remains stable throughout the procedure of work being carried out The floor jack has a low rate of lifting capacity.   Cannot be carried around like the other jacks   Takes a lot of space due to its size. £122.04 8)  Scissor Jack Head                                               The scissor jack head varies from different shapes anddesigns, the scissor jack is mainly used for jacking up from the sill of thevehicle. However, as said above that some users avoid jacking up from weakstructures due to rusty sills or a weak structure. To avoid jacking up from thesills or to prevent the vehicle from sliding some research has been done toovercome these issues. One of the waysis to re-design the head of the scissor jack into a claw or an adjustable headwhich can be adjusted to the users need. This will be universal, so it can bejacked up from the sills and other strong structures.

  The floor of the scissor jack will need to be improved so itcan prevent the vehicle from sliding. This can be done by having a rubber floorpad for the jack or the structure of the floor can be re-designed.        Fig4.

5Another improvement could be, having the scissor jack headsscrew into the jack so they can be used for more than one option. By having thehead of the scissor jack screwed into the jack, it will improve the structureof the jack.  The rubber pad canalso be fitted over the jack head to prevent the vehicle from sliding. Thehigher the jack is lifted there is a greater chances of the jack the jacksliding or falling. Some design ideas have been shown above, the next step is tocreate some drawings to get a visual idea of the design.

Progression of scissor jacks Scissorjack (Mechanical) The scissor jack todayis well-known jack used daily when needed. They are the cheapest out of all thejacks. Vehicle manufactures use this jack into their vehicles as a standardfeature along with wheel braces and various other items. These jacks are small,so they can be carried around unlike trolley/floor jacks. They are very easyand simple to use.

These jacks don’t need maintaining as much as the hydraulicjack due to it being a mechanical device. These jacks restrict lifting certainvehicles up due to the weight. Furthermore, as people got lazy a new jack wasinvented which was an electric scissor jack powered by a motor. Scissorjack (Electrical)This jackis an improved version of the scissor jack. This jack is manufactured fromheavy duty steel; a motor has been added to the scissor jack which means lessmotion is required. The electric powered jack has equivalent properties to thenormal scissor jack however this is quicker to operate and has a remote tocontrol the lift. This jack operates by a wire fromthe jack connected into the vehicle’s cigarette lighter socket.

The electricscissor jack is powered by 12-volt electricity provided directly from the car’scigarette lighter port which means that no extra power pack is needed. 

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