7000 BCE: Agriculture begins to develop in MesopotamiaMesopotamia was the world’s first civilization. It’s located between the Tigris and the Euphrates, in the region of the Fertile Crescent. The first farm settlements formed in Mesopotamia as early as 7000 BCE.
Farmers grew wheat, barley, and other types of grain. The Tigris and Euphrates brought silt, a mix of rich soil and small rocks, which was ideal for farming. The grains grew very well here. Eventually, they produced a surplus. Plentiful food led to population growth, and villages formed.
These events led the Mesopotamians to develop into the world’s first civilization.Circa 3100 BCE: Menes becomes the first pharaoh of Egypt.According to tradition, around 3100 BCE Menes rose to power in Upper Egypt. Many historians think that Menes is a myth, and they say that his real name might be Narmer. It’s said that he took control of Lower Egypt, and married a princess from Lower Egypt and unified the two.
He wore a double crown, part red and part white, to symbolize that he had leadership over Upper and Lower Egypt. Menes also created Egypt’s first dynasty. Menes built a capital city for Egypt called Memphis. For centuries it was the political and cultural center of Egypt. It also became a major trading center.
The dynasty that Menes started lasted for about 200 years, and all his heirs wore the double crown.Circa 1770 BCE Hammurabi of Babylon Issues his written set of lawsHammurabi was a great war leader. His soldiers fought many battles to expand his power.
His empire was called the Babylonian Empire. Hammurabi was not only a great ruler. He was a ruler who could govern a huge empire, and he did it for around 42 years. He improved Babylon’s tax collection system to help pay for them, and he brought much prosperity through increased trade.
Hammurabi is most famous for his set of laws called Hammurabi’s Code. The Hammurabi’s Code was a set of 282 laws that covered laws for almost every part of daily life, written on an obelisk. The laws were based on trade, loans, theft, marriage, injury, and murder.
This set of laws was written down for all to see. People who lived in the Babylonian Empire could walk by and see what was right or wrong. Many of his ideas are still found in laws today. An example of one of his laws would be that the penalty for injuring a rich man is higher than injuring a poor man.
After Hammurabi’s rule ended, the Babylonian Empire was conquered and it soon came to an end.Circa 1000 BCE Phoenicians begin to trade all around the Mediterranean. The phoenicians became inspired by their love of trade, so they wanted to travel all around the world. They eventually became expert sailors.
They built one of the world’s finest harbors in the world. It was located in Tyre. Many Phoenicians sailed to places around the Mediterranean Sea, like Egypt, Greece, Sicily, and Spain. The phoenicians founded many new colonies along the Mediterranean Sea. One of the most popular ones is Carthage, which is located in Africa.
It later became one of the most powerful cities on the Mediterranean Sea. The phoenicians became rich because of trading. They traded things like ivory carvings, slaves, and beautiful glass objects.
They also made purple dye from shellfish, and fabric dyed with it was very popular with rich people.Circa 965 Solomon becomes king of the IsraelitesSolomon was the son of King David. He was a strong king, and he expanded the kingdom, as well as created new ones nearby. Egypt and Phoenicia were 2 places that he conquered. The people of Israel traded with their allies, and the outcome made them rich. Solomon used the riches to build a temple for their god, Yahweh, in Jerusalem.
The temple became the center of religious worshipping and a symbol of faith.