5. Discussion
In this study the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder was assessed by using psychopathic check list revised. The independent factors associated with antisocial personality disorder were age (18-27), single marital status, prior conviction, tobacco ever use, and monthly income less than 1557 Birr.
The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Mekelle correctional center prisoners was found to be 31 % with confident interval (26.5-35.6). It is alien with a study conducted in England and Wales by using schedules for clinical interview in neuropsychiatry and psychopathy checklist-revised(31%)(27),UK by using IPDE-SQ(25.8%)(23),Iraq by using PCL-R (31%)(32),Sweden by using PCL-R(31%)(26) and USA by using MINI(35.3%) (31).
In this study the finding was lower as compare to the study conducted in USA by using SIPD-IV(57%) (22), UK by using PCL-R (68%) (28) , South Africa by using MINI (46.1%)(4),Nigeria by using Antisocial Personality Disorder Self- Test (47%) (33) among prisoners. The difference may be due to socio-cultural, environmental, sample size and using of different tool and cut points to determine the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder.
However the prevalence was higher as compare to the studies conducted in Germany by using PCL-R(17%)(21). The difference with this study may be due to the study from Germany includes only female inmates but in this study majority of the participant were men. The prevalence is also higher than the study done in Italy by using MINI (20%)(25), the difference may be due to using different tool and the research from Italy was done in community sample which ASPD is lower than from prison samples.
The prevalence of ASPD in this study was also higher than the research conducted in Egypt (12.3%) (30). The difference may be due to difference in environment, socio-cultural factors and using of different tool. In this study PCL-R was used to decide the ASPD but the study from Egypt used structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders
The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder was found to be higher among the age group of 18-37 as compare to those who are in the age group of >47 years. The finding is in line with the study conducted in UK ASPD is high among the young age(19).The high prevalence of ASPD among the age group may be due to the age is in transition between adolescence and adult age and those with conduct disorder in adolescent age my directly changed to antisocial personality disorder in the adult age. In other way it may be due to the yang age overt behavior such as criminality, substance use and aggressiveness increased in this age.
In this study single marital status was significantly associated with ASPD. A research done in Zambia came up with the same report(36). The possible justification for the high prevalence of ASPD among single participants may be due to that individuals with ASPD have difficulty to form and maintain intimate relationship because of their odd behaviors.
Tobacco ever was associated with antisocial personality disorder. Participants who had tobacco ever use were almost three times more likely to have ASPD as compare to those prisoners who had no tobacco ever use. This is supported by two researches conducted in the USA indicates that most people from the community sample with ASPD are chronic cigarette smokers and other substance users(31,38). It is also support by a research conducted in Turkey(39) This may be due to most of the participants were young adult age who have high probability to test substance and being against the norm of the community .
This study revealed that there was significant association between prior conviction and ASPD. The study conducted in Egypt on prisoners came up with similar finding (30) it is also supported by a research from South Africa (4). The high prevalence of ASPD among prisoners who had prior conviction may be due to repeated imprisonment of individuals with antisocial behavior such as destroying property, harassing others, stealing, or charging illegal occupations and other odd behaviors . Individuals with ASPD fail to conform to societal rules, persistent pattern of disrespect for, and violation of, the rights of others may be possible justification.
Having low monthly income was also had significant association with ASPD. The odds of anti-social personality disorder among those who had monthly income less than 1557 birr per month were four times higher as compare to those who had monthly income above 1557 birr per month).According to DSM-5 ASPD is high among those who have poor economic status(9). Having significant periods of unemployment despite available job opportunities and unable to work for long time due to their antisocial behavior may be possible reasons for low economic status.
Variables which had significant association with antisocial personality disorder in other study but not significant associated with ASPD in this study are being male, having history of psychiatric illness and poor educational status. The difference may be due to variation in culture, sample size, economical status of the participants.

5.0 Marketing (week 4)
5.1 Case Background
? Online
The two brothers Mr. Uan and Mr. Pok have had a heated debate over whether to develop new insurance products. CEO Mr. Uan believed that STI should learn from its competitors to expand its sales market and develop new insurance, that is, to provide pet insurance for pet owners; at the same time, he also thought that STI should take risks in developing other new insurance, such as building insurance, car insurance, etc., while COO Mr. Pok held that STI should focus on life insurance and medical insurance to maintain customer loyalty because STI has been doing these products for 30 years.

? Face to face
Dr. Pok believed that STI’s website was outdated, and there were many problems in product online marketing, such as STI’s lack of online inquiry, price display, English version, and even vague descriptions of their insurance packages. In addition, there were no STI insurance products pages on Facebook or Google, instead, they were all competitors’ pages. Moreover, there were no other apps or social media to sell STI insurance products. Therefore, at present, the marketing mode of STI is urgently needed to be improved and strengthened.

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5.2 Problem identification
? Online
The two brothers Mr. Uan and Mr. Pok have had a heated debate over whether to develop new insurance products. Mr. Uan was advocating the development and expansion of new products, while Mr. Pok held that STI should focus on life insurance and medical insurance to maintain customer loyalty because STI has been doing these products for 30 years.

? Face to face
1. STI was failure to keep its website updated, such as, no product details, no price display, no company information and no English version about website etc.
2. STI lacked digital presence and digital marketing, such as, no social media advertising (Facebook, Twitter, Google, etc.) and no Mobile Apps.
3. There were some problems in organizational structure, such as, no marketing manager to guide team for decision-making, no focus on Thailand 4.0 etc.

5.3 Recommendations
? Online

? Face to face

6.0 Accounting (week 5)
6.1 Case Background
? Online
Long-term housing banker informed CEO Uan that he needed to see STI’s accountant because he found some irregularities in STI, but the company’s accountant left three months ago and there was no new accountant yet. The head of HR, Ms. Goy, recommended her husband Tom as a new accountant, because she said Tom had a background in accounting. Tom said he would be happy to take up the position and would like to serve as a company accountant for a long time. However, because Tom had no accounting experience, although he has learned accounting knowledge, it is difficult for him to take over the actual work immediately.

? Face to face
House banker asked CEO Mr. Uan to submit the company’s balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement to view the operation of STI. The banker wanted to meet the CEO and discussed the company’s financial situation with him, but Mr. Uan had no accounting knowledge and he did not know how to answer the banker’s questions at all. Hence, he hoped that the new accountant Tom (Mrs. Goy’s husband) would teach him some accounting knowledge to deal with the banker’s problems. At the same time, Tom had no accounting experience. His balance sheet and profit statement were incorrect. The imbalance sheet was also a big issue in STI.

6.2 Problem identification
? Online
1. STI’s former accountant resigned three months ago, and there was no new accountant at present.
2. Ms. Goy recommended her husband Tom as a new accountant, but Tom did not have practical work experience though he own accounting background.

? Face to face
1. The house banker asked to meet the CEO and discussed the company’s financial situation with him, but Mr. Uan had no accounting knowledge and he did not know how to answer the banker’s questions.
2. Tom, the new accountant, had no accounting experience.
3. The imbalance sheet was also a big issue in STI.

6.3 Recommendations
Online
1. Adjust the organizational structure of STI, strengthen the management of human resources department, pay attention to employee recruitment and training. Once employees leave, HR department should be able to find qualified replacement staff immediately.
2. Ms. Goy, HR Director, should pay more attention to staff turnover, recruitment and training. She needed to keep abreast of STI’s human resources.

? Face to face
There were two ways of solutions, the one was short-term solution and the other was long-term solution.
As for short-term solution:
1. Prepare the correct financial statements, such as balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, etc. because the correct financial statements could help top leaders understand the current financial situation of STI and know how many assets and liabilities STI has, so that they could make wiser decisions.
2. Ask Tom to help CEO Uan quickly understand the most basic financial knowledge and prepare for meetings with the house banker. If possible, postpone the meeting.
3. STI needed to immediately find a professional accountant from accounting firm to train Tom so that Tom could better understand the actual financial management.
As for long-term solution:
1. It was necessary for STI to hire senior financial experts to build an excellent professional financial team to handle STI’s current and future budget, procurement, investment, financing, capital operation and other financial affairs.
2. The recruited accountants should be meritocracy rather than cronyism in order to avoid encountering family conflicts which would result in corruption and other issues.
3. Set up a supervision department to supervise financial issues and prevent conflicts of interest.

7.0 Finance (week 6)
7.1 Case Background
? Online: Introduce to Financial Markets
STI financial manager Ms. Money Penny said COO Dr. Pok asked her to invest a lot of money in Bitcoin because he believed that Bitcoin had benefited a lot in recent years.
But for her, investment cannot be blind, it needed to consider potential risks and the development of financial market. She hoped that consultants could help her persuade COO to carefully consider investment decisions and do not blindly invest in order to make money.

? Face to face: Financing and Investing
As a financial manager, Mrs. Money Penny has never played her role since the death of her former CEO. The new CEO was not aware of STI’s current financial situation, Mr. Uan and Dr. Pok did not attach importance to the financial department, nor did they ever require companies to prepare financial statements and predict business activities, which led to Mrs. Money Penny’s intention of finding a new job.

7.2 Problem identification
? Online
1. COO Dr. Pok desired to invest blindly in bitcoin without prediction and planning.
2. The upper managers did not trust the financial manager Mrs. Money Penny and did not accept her opinion about investment decisions.

? Face to face
1. The top leaders never check the company’s financial statements, nor do they attach importance to the opinions of the financial department.
2. Mrs. Money Penny, the financial manager, has never played her role since the death of her former CEO and she decided to hunt for a new job.
3. STI has no real investment plan in place.

7.3 Recommendations
? Online
1. In term of bitcoin investment, we should consider the current situation of the company regarding its accounting & finance department which is not well set up, no report or serious financial plan has been developed yet. The recommendation is to focus first on having a performing department with the right people in the right positions. Once change implementations are executed and the financial situation of STI is under control, further discussions about specific investments can be faced.

? Face to face
1. Top managers should pay more attention to financial manager and set up a proper accounting team to support the financial manager. The importance of financial manager to the company is urgently known by CEO, COO and HR. It is important to have recordkeeping before moving further on with complex analysis.
2. STI needs to create a Financial Planning and Analysis (FP&A) team for budgeting, forecasting, and analysis, which will be used to support the most important corporate decisions. According to Principles of Best Practice FP&A (Lawrence Serven, 2017), it is significant that effective FP& A will have a positive impact on the company and it also shows the benefits of good practices.
3. To hire a professional finance firm to be STI consultant in the case if top managers insist on distrust Mrs. Penny or She left STI.
4. In terms of Mrs. Penny, she could make all financial statements and information transparency so that other department and employees could be able to understand some financial information and make appropriate budgets and decisions based on these data.
5. STI could adopt new financial technologies, such as using artificial intelligence to help finance department conduct financial analysis and forecasting, and assess risks in order to make more informed financial decisions.

8.0 Operations Management (week 7)
8.1 Case Background
? Online
Dr. Pok desired to make STI’s insurance the “Mercedes Benz” in Thailand’s insurance industry, with the highest quality, so he planned to improve the operation management of STI, and then a good operation management system could help him achieve his goal.

? Face to face
One developer wanted to buy STI’s headquarter building and land in downtown Bangkok. Mr. Uan, Mr. Pok and Ms. Goy agreed to sell it. Then they planned to move STI’s headquarter to the suburbs of Bangkok. Because STI is short of money and the land price in downtown Bangkok is now high, it is a good opportunity for them to sell a high price to alleviate the financing problem of STI. The problem is that the developer let them move out within three weeks, otherwise he will not buy their land. It’s really hard for STI to move out with such a short time.

8.2 Problem identification
? Online
Dr Pok hoped to make STI’s insurance the first in Thailand’s insurance industry, but he did not know where to start and how to do.
? Face to face
All members in STI needed to move away from their original headquarter in downtown Bangkok within three weeks. The time was rather urgent and limited.

8.3 Recommendations

9.0 Entrepreneurship (week 8)
9.1 Case Background
? Online
Since they planned to sell STI’s headquarters, CEO Mr. Uan has been thinking about how his father started STI from scratch. He felt that he might not be suitable for the position of CEO because he was more interested in engineering and may be able to start his own engineering company. He hesitated whether he needed to hire a professional manager to help him manage STI.

? Face to face
Each enterprise will experience several stages of development, growth, maturity and decline. At present, STI is at a stage of chaos and recession. Mr. Uan is facing a difficult choice. He likes to know whether he should try to find ways to keep STI going or whether he should sell STI to start a new business. He needs to make a detailed business plan to help him make this crucial decision.

9.2 Problem identification
? Online
1. CEO Uan wanted to know how to start a new business from scratch.
2. Mr. Uan felt that he might not be suitable for the position of CEO. He hesitated whether he needed to hire a professional manager to help him manage STI.

? Face to face
STI was at a stage of chaos and recession. What is the difficulty for CEO is whether to continue to find ways to develop STI or sell STI and start a new business.

9.3 Recommendations
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.1 EXAMPLES OF OFFSHORE DEEP DIRECTIONAL DRILLING APPLICATIONS
The BC-10 project has installed an FPSO in some of the deepest waters worldwide. The well configurations include complex 3D profiles that kick off from vertical in a riserless top hole section very close to the seabed in an unconsolidated formation. In the intermediate hole, high turn and build rates are required for accurate landing at challenging targets close to horizontal. The asset is operated by Shell with a 50% interest with joint-venture partners Petrobras (35%) and ONGC (15%)
Complex lithology among interbedded shales, siltstones, and hard limestone layers generated different directional responses that required collaboration by Shell geology/drilling department and the Schlumberger drilling engineering team to gain a better understanding of the directional performance and formation response so that they could plan the correct drilling parameters and improve drilling performance.
Aggressive dog leg severity requirements for the top hole and buildup sections reaching up to 4.2°/100 ft could not be fully met in the initial three wells. For that reason, a change not only in drilling tool technology but also in the planning workflow process was required. Understanding the formation characteristics and anomalies by using seismic modeling software to interpret and extrapolate directional results to the wells being planned had played a key role in correlating formation tendencies with DLS, RSS capabilities, and drilling parameters performance.
The process consists of analyzing actual drilling parameters in the software (ROP, RSS ratio, DLS, drilling parameters) by correlating them with the respective lithology in the trajectory. The results form the basis of the design for planning subsequent sections to be drilled.
Steep performance improvements regarding DLS capabilities and drilling practices under different lithology tendency profiles enabled new benchmarks for technological limits and well complexity. The new technology and process achieved a step change in performance was achieved for surface sections that was proven in 11 sections drilled. Average days per 1,000 m dropped from 8 to 2.5 days for a savings of approximately USD 15 million.
The techniques developed, the directional results of this initial stage of the project, and the lessons learned are discussed. This new techniques has extended the potential of future ultradeep development projects. As a result, the innovative planning process is being considered in the design workflow for similar borehole profiles worldwide.

fig figure 8 drilling through challenging areas. (youtube.com) retrived 20/5/2018

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Fig 9 http://www.revolutiondirectionalservices.com. Directional drilling image retrieved 23/5/2018

5.2 NEW DIRECTIONAL DRILLING WITH LINERS SYSTEM ALLOWS LOGGING AND DIRECTIONAL CONTROL WHILE GETTING CASING ACROSS TROUBLE ZONES.

The continuation of profound boring has extended the application for directional boring to close typical extents. Since 1968, there has been a consistent movement of upgrades in profound directional boring devices and systems.
Numerous huge changes in hardware and procedures utilized as a part of directional boring have been made since 1934 when Mr. H. John Eastman was summoned from California by The Humble Petroleum Company concerning their Alexander No. 1 Well at Conroe, Texas. Mr. Eastman proposed an arrangement to begin another well close to the pit and by the utilization of mechanical redirectors would toss it inside a 100′ hover drawn around the base of the runaway well. The consequent arrangement was taken after and the wild well was slaughtered.
Since the introduction of control directional penetrating, progresses in hardware and strategies has proceeded at a quickened rate; by and by, more noteworthy than typical expenses are still connected with directional undertakings. Cost of working bigger apparatuses and ventures. Cost of working bigger apparatuses and giving supporting administrations hatchet expanding and giving supporting administrations hatchet expanding and display no inclination to decrease. As more profound structures are being investigated, the applications have been expanded for profound directional control. Expanded directional penetrating proficiency seems, by all accounts, to be the one means accessible for lessening general cost.
In the previous three years a few profound directional activities have been finished with sensible achievement and cost in the Delaware Basin, Western Oklahoma and the Panhandle of Texas.

KICK OFF POINT PLANNING KICK OFF POINT
All directional wells have or ought to have sufficient wanting to achieve a base opening goal at a predetermined vertical profundity.
A portion of the more natural applications for “profound directional penetrating” in the Delaware bowl, Anadarko bowl and Western Panhandle are to derail rectify an abnormal opening because of rent line issues, divert check, or reentry to increase topographical preferred standpoint by cutting crosswise over flaws or by increasing more structure. Once the target has been characterized, the following thing for thought is the Kick-off point or the profundity at which the directional penetrated segment of the gap is to be begun. It is critical that all variables be precisely considered in choosing the best commence point, regardless of whether it be off base or off a bond plug. The essential contemplations are the measure of edge important to accomplish the coveted deviation, the sort of development and the arrangement structure now.

Experience has demonstrated that directional gaps with 18 degrees least point have a more prominent dependability for holding wanted bearing once the edge and heading has been built up. The most extreme point plan design ought to be more prominent than any development bedding plane edge that will be bored. Subsequently less redirecting apparatus runs are required to rectify the float course.
The mechanical qualities of “profound control openings” for the most part are more hard to control because of the littler gap estimate; along these lines, a specific measure of “elbowroom” ought to be considered in picking the commence point if applications allow.
The continuation of profound boring has extended the application for directional boring to close ordinary extents. Since 1968, there has been an enduring movement of changes in profound directional penetrating devices and systems.
This will feature six distinct sorts of directional penetrating undertakings accentuating the arranging, hardware utilized, systems, arranging, gear utilized, procedures, instrumentation, issues experienced and cost figures related with each kind of occupation.
Numerous critical changes in gear and methods utilized as a part of directional boring have been made since 1934 when Mr. H. John Eastman was summoned from California by The Humble Petroleum Company concerning their Alexander No. 1 Well at Conroe, Texas. Mr. Eastman proposed an arrangement to begin another well close to the pit and by the utilization of mechanical redirectors would toss it inside a 100′ hover drawn around the base of the runaway well. The ensuing arrangement was taken after and the wild well was slaughtered.
Since the introduction of control directional penetrating, propels in hardware and techniques have proceeded at a quickened rate; all things considered, more noteworthy than ordinary expenses are still connected with directional ventures. Cost of working bigger apparatuses and undertakings. Cost of working bigger apparatuses and giving supporting administrations hatchet expanding and giving supporting administrations hatchet expanding and display no inclination to decrease. As more profound structures are being investigated, the applications have been expanded for profound directional control. Expanded directional boring proficiency seems, by all accounts, to be the one means accessible for diminishing general cost.
Arranging KICK OFF POINT PLANNING KICK OFF POINT All directional wells have or ought to have abundant wanting to achieve a base opening goal at a predefined vertical profundity.
A portion of the more commonplace applications for “profound directional boring” in the Delaware bowl, Anadarko bowl and Western Panhandle are to derail rectify an abnormal gap because of rent line issues, divert hindrance, or reentry to increase land advantage by cutting crosswise over issues or by increasing more structure.
Once the target has been characterized, the following thing for thought is the Kick-off point or the profundity at which the directional penetrated segment of the opening is to be begun. It is essential that all variables be deliberately considered in choosing the best commence point, regardless of whether it be off base or off a bond plug. The essential contemplations are the measure of edge important to accomplish the coveted deviation, the sort of arrangement and the development structure now.
Experience has demonstrated that directional gaps with 18 degrees least edge have a more prominent dependability for holding wanted bearing once the point and heading has been built up. The most extreme edge plan design ought to be more noteworthy than any arrangement bedding plane point that will be penetrated. Thus less diverting apparatus runs are required to rectify the float heading.

The mechanical qualities of “profound control openings” for the most part are more hard to control because of the littler gap measure; hence, a specific measure of “elbowroom” ought to be considered in picking the commence point if applications allow.

5.1 General conclusion
The following sequential steps were used to achieve the impact of integrating renewable energy sources for rural electrification optimization using an intelligent agent determining available sources of renewable energy in Amoli community, analysizing the energy demand for a cluster of building/facilities in Amoli community, optimizing the energy demand for a cluster of building facilities in Amoli, designing an optimized intelligent agent for an effective power stability,Createing a chart of the required number of recommended energy system to meet the various energy demand level., designing a Simulink model for the impact of integrating renewable energy sources for rural electrification optimization using an intelligent agent.

5.2 Findings
I Harmonic distortion causes unstable power supply.
ii Overcurrnt, overvoltage, causes instability of power supply.
iii Stability of power supply in rural areas will enhance development.
iv Stable power supply creats employment opportunity.

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5.3 Recommendations
In near future there should be an introduction of an optimized intelligent agent incorporated in the grid for a stable power supply.

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