4. Impact on society
Malaysia generates large amount of agriculture waste such as oil palm, rice, sugar cane and bamboo, the bulk of which are not being currently utilised for any further downstream operation. Some of the company may burn agriculture waste directly to reduce the cost. However, agriculture wastes burning are one among the many sources of air pollution. Severe pollution of land and water on local as well as regional scale caused by burning of agriculture waste. This also adversely affects the nutrient budget in the soil. Besides, agriculture waste produce carbon, nitrogen and sulphur and lost to the atmosphere in the process of burning. It results in the emission of smoke which if added to the gases present in the air like methane, nitrogen oxide and ammonia, can cause severe atmospheric pollution. Health risk, aggravating asthma, chronic bronchitis and decrease lung function will be caused by those smoke. Burning of agriculture waste also contributes indirectly to the increased ozone pollution. Poor visibility which could lead to increased road side incidences of accident also caused by burning of agriculture waste. It has adverse consequences on the quality of soil. When the agriculture waste is burnt the existing minerals present in the soil get destroyed which adversely hampers the cultivation of the next crop. Impact of burning includes removal of a large portion of the organic material which affect the agriculture product. Therefore, the product decided to use bamboo and rice husk to produce environmental friendly product.
4.1 Impact of the project toward environment
Bamboo and rice husk are decided to use in this project due to important role in the environment. Using bamboo and rice husk to replace wood beam can reduce deforestation rate, with the trees chop down year in year out, this will however decrease the rate of timber consumption. Bamboo can be harvested and replenished without destroying the natural forest. These diversities make bamboo environmental friendly and easily adaptable. They can be harvested within 3–5 years unlike most softwood 10–20 years, and also they have biomass of 2–5% unlike wood 10–30%. This can make a great impact on the environment because the project can prove that there is an alternative option to produce wood product by not cutting down trees to preserve valuable resources of oxygen supply and habitat for many endangered species.

4.2 Impact of the project toward health

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As the product is majority produced by agriculture waste which come from natural resource such as bamboo and rice husk so, product is biodegradable. Therefore, this project is considered to be as environmental friendly as the project is emphasizing in reusing the bamboo and rice husk to make a beam. Wood pallet will undergoes some treatments to fumigate it from insects. By using methyl bromide to chemically treat the wood pallet is one of the treatment. If inhaled methyl bromide may case abdominal pain, dizziness, vomiting or loss of speech or coordination. If exposed to the skin, redness and blistering may occur. However, the beam produced by bamboo and rice do not undergo such treatment due to the rice husk contain high percentage of silica, it can prevent the product from insects. Thus, the product in this project is harmless to human health.
4.3 Impact of the project toward society
Other than that, it is believe that the society will have lesser waste produce from bamboo and rice husk since a large volume will be needed in order to produce a good mechanical properties beam. Therefore, this project is helping the society to reduce unwanted waste at least from the bamboo and rice husk. Some related company no longer upset to deal with the agriculture waste. The air pollution will be reduce since the burning of the agriculture reduce. This project will also indirectly increase the environmental awareness of people. After the product is done, people will know that the price of agriculture waste beam has lower price than a pure wood beam and it has the similar toughness, hardness, and bending strength as a pure wood. This will be a positive sign to the society as new material can increase the environment awareness.

The literature pertinent to the proposed study has been reviewed as under:
4.1 Economic losses:
Kernel Smut is a major problem in rice hybrids (Sharma et al. 1996; SHU. Z.Y et al. 1993) in India and China. Incidence of kernel smut has been recorded up to 15-20 percent on some of the CMS lines in Punjab which has proved a major bottleneck in seed production and release of rice hybrids.(Ayado et al 1993; PAN. X. X. et al 1995; Liang et al1996; Fan et al. 1994; Agarwal et al.1981).
4.5 Variability:
There are few reports on the study of pathogenic variability of the pathogen however some workers have studied the Cultural and physiological variability among the isolates of T. barclayana. ( Singh 1998; kumar et al. 2001). Pannu et al. 2002 categorized the Punjab isolates in the four distinct groups, based on morphological, cultural and pathogenic variations. Polulation variations have also been observed in punjab isolates using random polymorphic DNA analysis (Chahal et al. 2007). Genetic variations, based, both on RADP and RELP analysis, have also been observed by (Pimental et al. 1998), which indicated that T. barclayana populations were comprised of two distinct taxa with one cluster corresponding to infecting isolate and other to isolates infecting species of panicum and paspalum.

The pathogen infests only a few grains in a panicle and often only a part of the grain. Padwick et al (1944) assign the fungus to the genus Neovossia and named it Neovossia horrida (Tak.) Tullis et al (1952) conducted further studies on spore germination and inoculated the pathogen to several grass hosts (Pennisetum spp.), on which they found that it produced spores essentially identical to those of Neovossia barclayana Brefeld. Thus, they agreed with Padwick and Khan that the fungus belonged to Neovossia and named it Neovossia barclayana which has priority. Fischer et al (1953), however, retained the name Tilletia horrida Tak. Fischer and Halton (1957) did not recognize the pathogen as a species of Neovossia. However, Duran and Fischer (1961) agreed that the fungus on rice was the same as that found on grasses by Tullis and Johnson (1952) but regarded the mature spores to be more of the genus Tilletia than Neovossia. They, therefore, disposed it as Tililetia barclayana (Bref.) Sacc and Syd., which is now generally used. Later on, Singh and Pavgi (1972 ) and Singh et al (1979) studied the cytology of teliospore germination and development of fungus and were of the opinion that it belonged to Neovossia. (Lori et al. 2006) ver, to date, both the names are being used by different workers. The fungus was reported to be homothallic based on presence of two nuclei in detached sporidia (Singh et al. 1970) nevertheless, later studies suggest the heterothallic nature of the fungus based on inoculation with single and paired monosporidia.

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4.3 Etiology and spore germination:
Teliospores of the fungus are thick-walled that germinate under specific conditions. The smut spores remain dormant for 4-5 months after the time of harvest (Shetty et al. 1988; WEI et al. 1934; Chahal et al. 1993). The teliospores have also been reported to become dormant under cold conditions (Chahal et al. 1992; Whitney 1972). The optimum temperature for teliospore germination was observed 25-30°C (Liang et al. 1996, Chahal et al. 1993).

The fungus produce filliform and allentiodes sporodia on PDA and host extract media (Chahal et al. 1999). The mature spore contains a single diploid nucleus, that enlarges and undergoes successive divisions in the spore itself to produce 32 to 76 sporidia in a whorl at the tip of the promycelium. The single nucleus undergoes a mitotic division making the sporidium binucleate. On these sporidia, sterigmata is developed which bear hyaline,curved, secondary sporidia measuring 7.5-13.0 x 1.2-1.8 µm in size. The two nuclei from the primary sporidium pass into the secondary sporidium. These nuclei undergo a conjugate division to form nuclei for subsequent secondary sporidia. On germination, the secondary sporida produce infection hyphae, which is dikaryotic (Singh et al. 1987).

Chlamydospores (Teliospores) of the fungus are the primary source of infection, which survive in the soil and are carried through infected seed (OU et al. 1985, Singh et al. 1987). Sharma et al. (1999) reported that at soil surface, the chlamydospores remained viable for two years and there germination was recorded even after 3 years. However, at 5-15 cm soil depth the spores remained viable for more than one year and in traces up to second year. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, when the spores were stored in glass bottles, they remained viable for four years. Liang et al. (1996) reported that chlamydospores lost viability after three years of indoor storage..

4.6 Host resistance:
There are diverse reports on the reaction of varieties to bunt infection in india. Early maturing varieties are reported to suffer more than late maturing varieties (Choudary et al. 1951). Chauhan and verma (1964) identified 22 resistant genotypes belonging to early, medium and late maturing varieties. They reported that in Punjab, 76 percent early maturing and 62 percent medium maturing varieties were highly susceptible, while the late maturing varieties escape the infection. However, Kameshwar Row (1962), in Orissa, found that severity of the disease was higher on medium duration varieties. Singh and Pavgi (1970) did not find any resistance in the 412 varieties tested in asssam. Muthusamy and ahmed (1977) reported IR36 as the most resistant variety among the 19 cultivars tested. Trimurthy and singh (1982) found pankaj, jagriti, garima, patel85 and safri 17 as resistant cultivars, while Srinivasan 1982 identified Ad5426, Adl6674 and Ad14758 as resistant varieties against the disease. Usually, short grained cultivars had more resistance as compared to long grained cultivars. Biswas et al (2003). Disease incidence and severity was found to have positive correlation with anthesis period and negative correlation was observed with pollen concentration (Chahal et al. 2003)indicating that rice genotypes with shorter anthesis period and higher concentration of pollen are less prone to ks as compared to genotype having other combinations.

The cytoplasmic male sterile lines and are usually more susceptible to kernel smut with high disease severity and incidence as compared to inbred cultivars (MEW et al. 1998). Sharma et al. (1999) and pan et al. (1995) attributed the higher susceptibility of cms lines to exceptionally longer duration of floret opening. Kumar et al. (1997) found low incidence of disease in rice hybrid, Perh 207 as compared to other 23 hybrids and 4 commercial varieties tested.
Chemical control:
Seed treatment with fungicides is ineffective because of the non systemic nature of the disease and occurrence of infection only at flowering stage. (Templeton et al. 1968;Sharma et al. 1999). Fungicidal sprays have been tried at flowering stage of the crop. Templeton et al. (1977) tried two systemic fungicides (plantvax and vitavax) and found that Plantvax applied at late boot stage reduced the bunt infection. Benomyl, Maneb, Chlorothalonil or Triphhenyltin hydroxide as ineffective to control the disease (Whitney et al. 1977). Among the large number of fungicides screened as foliar sprays, triazole compounds namely, Tilt (propiconazole), Folicur( tebuconazole) and Cantaf ( hexaconazole) have been found quite effective (Sharma R.C. and S.S GILL (1997). These fungicides are effective at the rate of 0.1 percent when sprayed twice, at 5 percent flower initiation stage and after 10 days . Folicur, Tilt and Score 10 (difenoconazole) have been reported to inhibit sporidial production under in- vitro conditions (Kaur et al. 2002).

4.1 Effect of processing on ingredients;
Different ingredients like defatted soy flour, green gram, wheat were used for development of protein rich fortified flour after suitably processing (soaking, germination, cooking, blanching and fermentation) for nutritional enhancement and minimization of antinutritional compounds. The effect of processing conditions on different ingredients ware carried out and reported in Table 1. Antioxidant activity of ingredients was found to increase by about 7-8%.The processed ingredients were used for development of protein rich flour as per nutritional/health requirement of children (Fig.1).The major formulations were finalized and multi-flours was prepared by using processed ingredients; soy meal-rice –green gram based Nutritional, rheological, textural, colour, antioxidant, microbiological and functional properties of developed products was evaluated. The protein content of these mixes was found in the range of 18-20%.

Fig.1 compressed protein bar
Table 1. Effect of processing on different ingredients
Parameters Observations

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( Wheat, rice,
green gram etc)

2.Ash Content

3.Protein Content
4.Iron content
5. Tannin content
6. Phytate content
7. Antioxidant activity

No significant change

Decreases (2-3%)
Not significant change
Reduce 46%
Reduce 65 %
Increases (5-7 %)

Formulation of composite flour for preparation of compressed protein bar;
A linear programming model was developed in order to formulate mixtures based on rice, wheat, mung bean, commercially defatted soybean meal, skimmed milk powder and other ingredients at the lowest possible cost and in such a way as to fulfil the protein requirement.

Equations (Constraints) for linear programming
51s + 24g + 8.6r + 34m + 35p + 24v ? 16 (protein)
9s + 8.5g + 1.1r + 2.5m + 0.3p + 28v ? 9 (iron)
240s + 140g + 5r + 415m + 1250p + 2100v ? 600 (calcium)

4.2 Proximate composition of Composite flour
High moisture levels (above 10%) accelerate spoilage by promoting microbial activity and chemical reactions that reduces product shelf life. Sufficient processing of raw materials is critical for proper storage of complementary foods. The protein content of soy meal-rice –green gram based and soy meal-wheat –green gram based composite flour were within the minimum recommended levels of 14% (N X 6.25) by CODEX (2006) for management of malnutrition (Table 2). The protein contents of the composite flour formula were found to be 20 %. Protein recommendation by FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine (IOM) for normal children is set at 21g/1000kcal. The fat content of both composite flours were slightly higher then prescribed minimum levels of 6% specified by CODEX (2006) for treating moderate malnutrition in children . A child suffering from malnutrition has high-energy needs requiring a diet of sufficient fat content. Fat is also needed in the absorption of vitamins A and E. Vitamins A and E are vital for immediate recovery from acute malnutrition and to reduce disease incidences in children. Milk-based products have been demonstrated to boost children’s growth and immunity associated with fat-soluble vitamins (Diop el et al., 2003). It is desirable that diets contain high fat to provide the required energy to the malnourished child.
Percentage in-vitro protein digestibility of formulated flour was comparable to those of the commonly used complementary foods (Table 3). Protein quality is a measure of the efficiency of utilization of proteins by the body which depends on the amino acid composition, digestibility of the proteins and the biological availability of its amino acids for the synthesis of tissue proteins.The levels of antioxidant activity in both composite flours was 64 %. The levels of protein digestibility in both the formulated composite flours were 81.25 respectively.

Table2. Chemical composition of formulated composite flour for complementary food
(%) Soya based composite flour

Moisture 4.45
Protein 20
Fats 6.86
Carbohydrates 62.0
Antioxidant activity 64
Total coliform
( cfu/g) Nil
Protein Digestibility (%) 81.25
Fat acidity 0.32

Colour parameters like ‘L’value, ‘a’ (redness/greenness) value, ‘b’ (yellowness/blueness) value and Yellowness Index of the flour formulations were measured and presented in Fig. 2. Addition of banana found to increase the yellowness value of the flours.

4.3 Consumer acceptability
Sensory quality of some of the formulated complementary foods compare to the commonly used complementary foods in the zone was both liked moderately on the hedonic scale. A number of organoleptic features, such as flavour, aroma, appearance and texture, may affect infant’s intake of transitional foods which may results in increased consumption. Feeding infants with improved complementary foods as that formulated in this study for children in the zone may cause improvement in their growth. Rice, wheat, mung bean and soybean meal were properly processed (germination and fermentation). The developed composite flours were used for preparation of various protein rich products like fortified biscuits, protein energy snacks and bars consumer acceptability.
4.4 In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD)
The effect of different heat processing on the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of investigated grains is shown in table 2. There was a difference in IVPD of heat processed ingredients and control. IVPD significantly increased in processed. The improvement of IVPD after heat process is most likely ascribed to destroying the heat labile protease inhibitors and denaturation of proteins, thus opening up their structure and therefore making them less resistant to proteases (Walker and Kochar, 1982). This consequently increases the accessibility of the proteins to the enzymatic attack. This improvement could also be due to the diminution in phytic acid and tannins upon heat treatment. As protein digestibility of

Fig.2 colour analysis of composite flour
grains are influenced by the presence of antinutritive factors (Khattab et al., 2009) different processing and specially dry heat treatment that affect the levels of those antinutritive factors will subsequently influence protein digestibility.
4.5 Preparation of a compressed protein bar
The use of legumes in food improves the overall protein quality as they are rich in essential amino acid lysine. On the other hand, cereal proteins complement legume protein in the essential amino acid methionine. The addition of 10–15% defatted soy flour, soy concentrates and isolates to wheat flour not only significantly improve the quality of protein but also enhances their quantity considerably.Defatted soy flour has been used to develop various nutritious protein rich products such as snacks, baby foods, chapatti, beverage and bread. Effect of protein isolates (Pea and soy bean) have been studied on the functional and rheological properties of protein enriched gluten free composite flour. The nutritious energy bars have gained more importance and popularity in the global market during recent years and today the market is offering wide variety of bars under different names.Indigenously made bars like Horlicks multi cereal nutri bar, Rite bite Chocó delite bars, low fat bar, sugarless bar, woman bar, fruit choco bars etc are gelling popular among Indian consumers.

Chemical composition of developed protein bar is given in table 3.

Table.3. Chemical composition of developed protein bar
Parameters Value (%)
Moisture 7.80
Protein 19.60
Total fat 23.0
Total sugar 24.00
Total ash 1.65
Antioxidant activity 31.4

Sensory evaluation and storage Sensory evaluation was carried out by trained panel of judges (20 nos.) at 9 point Hedonic scale grading (Table.4).

Grading points
9 = excellent, like extremely 4 = Dislike slightly
8= Very good, Like very much 3 = Dislike moderately
7 = Good, like moderately 2 = poor, dislike strongly
6= Fair, like slightly 1 = Very poor, dislike extremely
5= Neither like nor dislike
After 5 months of storage, it was observed that there were slight but significant increase in moisture content in PP packaging material but difference in MP stored samples were not significant. Chemical changes in composite cereal bar were found least but significant in samples packed in MP and stored at ambient temperature.

4.6 Sensory evaluation of multigrain bars
Organoleptic evaluation of the amaranth based multigrain bar formulations was undertaken on the basis of sensory characteristics such as colour, flavour, texture, taste and over all acceptability. Thus average score recorded by judges were presented and discussed here as per 9 point hedonic scale in table 4. Flavour and taste were significantly improved by incorporation of milk powder and dry fruit powder. The increase in flavour and taste of the product may be due to development of acceptable pronounced pleasant flavour and taste to grains during roasting. Therefore flavour and taste of the product was greatly enhanced by incorporation of chocolate and milk powder in multigrain bar
Table 4: Sensory scores (9 point hedonic scale) of compressed protein bar

Sample Taste Texture/mouthfeel colour Appearance Overall acceptability
Compressed protein bar 7.5
7.41 8.00 8.65 8.25

Overall acceptability of the protein rich multigrain bar progressively increased with increase in level of fruit rich component in multigrain bar. Incorporation of Choco ball and coconut milk improved the product significantly with respect to colour, flavour, taste, texture and overall acceptability.
4.7 Texture analysis of the compressed protein bars;
A texture analysis is primarily concerned with measurement of the mechanical properties of a product. Texture analyzer performs this test by applying controlled force to the product and recording its response in the form of force, deformation and time. Hardness is the force necessary to attain a given deformation of the material or it is the force required to bite through the sample with molars. Texture in terms of hardness of various multigrain bars viz. protein, mineral and fiber rich multigrain bar along with Experimental control is measured and presented in in fig.3.

Fig 3; Texture analysis of compressed protein bar

• Hardness values were measured in a Texture Analyzer with the help of a cutting blade, and the maximum force required to cut the samples are represented as Hardness
• Developed protein bars and balls have less hardness values than commercially available Nutribar

It is clearly seen that hardness of protein, mineral and fiber rich multigrain bar increased significantly after grain incorporation in protein, mineral and fiber rich multigrain bar. This might be due to grain small size, their compatibility with binding agent, protein and fiber rich ingredient. Similar results observed by Rawat and Darappa (2015) for protein as well as fiber rich ingredient mixture containing bars. Protein rich ingredient mixture bar formulated using wheat, soya protein concentrate, chickpea and sesame flour, whereas fiber rich ingredient mixture bar with mungbean and banana fruit flour. They recorded hardness more in protein based bar than fiber based bar.
Texture of the bar become harder during storage and influenced the overall acceptability scores adversely.The hard texture development in protein rich bar may also be due to the migration of moisture as well as formation of most ordered secondary structure and lower surface hydrophobicity of protein particles. Based on above, compressed protein bar remained shelf stable for 3 months in PP and 4-5 months in MP at ambient temperature and 37°C.

4.8 Colour measurement of Protein rich multigrain bar
Visual quality encompasses the appearance of the product. Colour is a perceptual phenomenon that depends on the observer and the conditions in which the colour is observed. It is a characteristic of light, which is measurable in terms of intensity and wavelength. The colour of a material becomes visible only when light from a luminous object or source illuminates or strikes the surface (Pathare et al., 2013). The colour of the product was measured by the “Hunterlab”. .Mr. Richard Hunter invented the L, a, b colour scale that took the theory that we don’t just “see” colour but we can also talk about how light or dark the object is. +L means the sample is whiter/brighter side, -L means the sample is darker/blackish side, +a means the sample is redish side, – a means the sample is greenish side, +b means the sample is yellowish side and – b means the sample is bluish side.
4.9 Microbiological stability study
Microbial spoilage is often the major factor limiting the shelf life of product. Spoilage from microbial growth causes economic loss for manufacturer and consumer. These losses can be minimized to some extent by adopting desirable packaging material during storage.
In present study multigrain bars were found to be more nutritionally rich with increase nutrient rich Even though sensory evaluation was important as it give prediction related to acceptability by consumers hence compressed protein bars which were more accepted on the basis of sensory evaluation were further utilized for microbial studies during storage.
Total plate count of the most acceptable multigrain bars which were packed in packaging material such as metalized pouch (MP) were studied. These packaged multigrain bars stored at ambient temperature for 3 months to study their microbial safety. Microbial examination was carried at 45 days interval for 180 days and obtained results were expressed as log CFU/g. Microbiological data also indicates the stability of products (table 5.). Metalized pouch packed protein rich multigrain bar showed the minimum growth with respect to total plate count during 180 days of storage.
Table 5. Microbiological parameter of developed products
Attribute Packaging materials Temperature Storage period
Initial 3 months
Microbiology MP (TBC,cfu/g) 250 C 3×101 6×101
MP ( coliform) 250 C ND ND

Effect of packaging material on free fatty acid and peroxide value

Food packaging plays a vital role in determining the shelf life of foods as they act as a barrier for oxygen and loss or gain of moisture in foods (Khan et al., 2008). Selection of a proper packaging material is most essential to ensure maximum product quality during storage to prevent oxidation of lipids (Seacheol and Zhang, 2005). Development of off flavour due to lipid peroxidation in low moisture foods is the major cause of rejection of processed foods by the consumer. Development of off flavour was resulted due to the decomposition of peroxide and formation of volatile adehydes, ketones, esters etc. having low flavour threshold values. Therefore, the rate of lipid peroxidation was monitored by following changes in peroxide value, free fatty acids, in multigrain bar packed in different packaging materials in order to assess their shelf-life.
Effect of packaging materials on the chemical changes in the protein rich multigrain bar at ambient temperature are given in table.6.
It is evident from the data that free fatty acid of the compressed protein bar packed in Metallized Pack was gradually increased during storage irrespective of packaging material. The changes in peroxide value (PV) also followed the same trend. The lower rate of peroxidation found in LDPE samples can be attributed in MP. Similar observation was recorded by Ananthan et al., (2012) for protein rich cereal bar during 9 months of storage in polypropylene, paper-aluminium foil polyethylene laminate, metalized polyester films. They find that free fatty acid and peroxide value were increased in all packaged samples but least changes were observed in metalized polyester sample. Free fatty acid (per cent oleic acid) and peroxide value (per cent) of metalized polyester packed sample after 9 month storage at ambient temperature was from 1.9 and 0.90 to 4.2 and 23.1 respectively. Variation in recorded values of free fatty acid and peroxide in previous research and present work might be due to variation in ingredient and adapted method of preparation.

Table 6. Changes in peroxide value (meq O2 /kg oil) and free fatty acids (%) in soy composite compressed protein bar stored at 25°C and 37°C in Metalized packaging materials
Attributes Packaging materials Temperature Storage period
0 Day 3 Month
FFA (%) MP 250 C 1.6 2.1
MP 370 C – 2.3
Peroxide value MP 250 C 0.83 8.7
MP 370 C – 9.5

These ready-to-eat foods like multigrain bar are most susceptible to lipid oxidation, irrespective of lipid content, acquire considerable flavour and odor, reduce sensory perception of foods during storage and make the food unpalatable. Therefore extension of shelf life and preservation of ready-to-eat foods is of utmost importance. Food packaging plays a vital role in determining the shelf life of foods as they act as a barrier for oxygen and loss or gain of moisture in foods. Selection of a proper packaging material is most essential to ensure maximum product quality and acceptability during storage.

4. Actions and Options for development of people resources in Air Namibia

Success of Air Namibia is depended on having the best team of people with appropriate skills, the right organisation structure, the right culture and the necessary tools to do the job and of all the challenges that Air Namibia faces, this will be the hardest one to overcome, but it is critical for the airline’s future success. The airline needs to create an aligned organisation that is characterised by candidate communication, clear decision-making, smart processes, and thoughtful planning. It requires regular assessments of internal capabilities and external conditions and most of all it requires leadership. ‘The organisation performs as a system, with every component of the framework offering help for whatever is left of the association for instance ,correspondence and data frameworks, specialized frameworks, and estimation frameworks all supplement the human asset system'(Gephart and Van Buren,1996). They additionally found that ‘not all superior organizations exhibit the majority of the above segments’. They watched, precisely which blends work best, and under what conditions, needs promote investigation. They additionally clarified that collaboration happens from an association ready to deliver two results. To start with, the majority of its parts are adjusted and fit together. Second individuals in the organization are profoundly dedicated, stimulated and enthusiastic about their work.
Air Namibia should consider strengthening the current board with more travel and airline experience. They must select a permanent Managing Director and being prepared to extend the search worldwide and use a professional executive search agency to find the best available individual, preferably with industry experience. Ensure that the company objectives are clearly communicated to the staff. The airline requires very significant actions, by trying to create new organisation structure. The structure should be aligned to the delivery of strategy as highlighted in the Five Year Business Plan.
All the positions must be filled by the most qualified candidates. Air Namibia candidates will be assessed on past performance and commitments as well qualification for the role. A more efficient organisational structure would improve communication and put the right people, with the right skills, in the right positions. The new organisation should also be matched to current requirements in terms of staff levels. Everybody must be given the opportunity to match their skill levels and competencies to new job profiles.
The aptitudes required by representatives to work viably in elite work association may positively require preparing’. Indeed, they normally do. The distinction is that in superior associations, the attention is on the preparation itself. Subsequently, the different meanings of elite contain numerous a bigger number of components than preparing (Levine, 1995:178-179). ‘An informed and prepared laborer is often recognize as a standout amongst the most basic components for an organization’s getting to be and staying focused’. Hence, an organization’s key arranging ought to incorporate a human asset intend to guarantee that human asset hones are lined up with the organization’s key objectives. Workers require new aptitudes, more abilities and versatile abilities. The basic inquiry, consequently is not any more why, yet how: How would organizations be able to stay aware of the quick pace of progress in satisfying this requirement for abilities. Huselid (1995:640) distinguished ‘the qualities of superior work hones: Extensive enlistment, choice and preparing techniques: formal data sharing, disposition evaluation, work outline, grievance methods and work – administration support programs, execution examination, advancement and motivating force, pay frameworks that perceive and reward worker justify’.
5. Conclusion and Recommendation

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Companies can create a competitive advantage by proactively eliminating potential issues and identifying opportunities to enhance basic client mind forms. Operational knowledge gives the perceivability to perceive what is occurring and the knowledge to comprehend what it implies, so the correct move can be made so as to enhance the client encounter.Training has been identified as a significant component of companies’ success. Companies managed with the belief and practices that demonstrate workers knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics are critical assets for ensuring success have shown increased productivity, lower employee turnover and higher employee satisfaction.
This can only be resolved by bringing in people from outside the airline, either on temporary basis to train and mentor existing Air Namibia staff or to fill the permanent gaps in the organisation. Air Namibia staff are not empowered or accountable and lack skills in certain key areas to efficiently run the business. Air Namibia still needs an injection of skills and expertise in critical commercial and operational areas. In many cases, it is simply a matter of putting the right people, with the right skills in the right position.
Therefore the following actions are recommended:
• Do a situational analysis and skills audit of the staff within the organisation. This is to ensure that, the problem identified of and its perceived causes are correct and the proposed solutions will address the issues highlighted.

• Development of a comprehensive Human Resources policy and personnel plan in alignment with organisational objectives which will incorporate solutions suggested above in the recommendations. The new plan should include personnel future level forecasting, training and organisational development, Expatriates requirements and during, skills transfer programs, engineering, pilots, chartered accountants and other scare skills development program, succession planning, competitive remuneration packages career path and compliance with regulations requirements such as the Equal Employment Act and the 2007 Labour Act and Performance Management.

• Discussions and Approval by the Executive Management and Board of Directors, as to ensure that recommendation are in line with the strategic direction of the company and adoption of the new plan

• Implement the new plan

• Do a continuous review of the new plan as to ensure that it is in line set objective and deviation from the set objectives are addressed immediately

4.1.2 Diplomatic asylum will be at stake
Diplomatic asylum is the asylum which a state grants to a fugitive in its embassy or legation situated within the territory of another state. Territorial sovereignty is a fundamental principle of international law. Diplomatic asylum derogates from the territorial sovereignty, since it withdraws the fugitive from the jurisdiction of the territorial state.
From the above discussions on the effects of diplomatic immunity and protection extended to diplomats in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. One is left with mind blogging questions on the whole issue of diplomatic immunity and various issues surrounding the subject. Some of the questions are:-
4.2 Is diplomatic immunity absolute?
Diplomatic immunity is absolute. I would argue, though, that the general ignorance concerning what diplomatic immunity is, and whether such immunity extends to all acts of any nature committed by an individual, even if that individual does qualify as a diplomat. All other questions are a distraction. The concept of diplomatic rights was established in the mid-17th century in Europe and since then came gradually to be accepted throughout the world. These rights were formalized by the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which protects diplomats from being persecuted or prosecuted while on a diplomatic mission.
However, if we examine the specific articles of that Vienna Convention of 1961, some interesting facts emerge.
First, Article 29 states that the person of a diplomatic agent shall be inviolable. He shall not be liable to any form of arrest or detention. The receiving or host state shall treat him with due respect and shall take all appropriate steps to prevent any attack on his person, freedom or dignity. But those, who demand the release of diplomats who have violated the convention by committing serious crimes like murder, human trafficking, grievous abuse of domestic worker just to mention but a few, on ground of diplomatic immunity, have obviously neglected to read, or don’t want others to read, the related articles within the Convention which strip away any absolute blanket coverage under the guise of “diplomatic immunity” for visiting or appointed diplomats.
Article 38 of the Vienna Convention 1961 states that except where additional privileges and immunities have been specifically granted by the host State, a diplomatic agent who is a national of or permanently resident in that State shall enjoy only immunity from jurisdiction, and inviolability, in respect of official acts performed in the exercise of his functions.
Article 37 of the 1961 convention goes on to reinforce the above limitation on immunity by stating:
Members of the administrative and technical staff of the mission, together with members of their families forming part of their respective households, shall, if they are not nationals of or permanently resident in the receiving State, enjoy the privileges and immunities specified in Articles 29 to 35, except that the immunity from civil and administrative jurisdiction of the receiving State specified in paragraph 1 of Article 31 shall not extend to acts performed outside the course of their duties.
To explain further, on the same issue, is the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963, the later treaty extends and further clarifies, that where there may be a conflict, it would supersede the earlier treaty. In Section II, Article 41 in its first paragraph regarding the “Personal inviolability of consular officers”:
In reality, whether a prosecution proceeds against a high-ranking foreign state representative will depend on many factors, political and legal, not least the particular features of the prosecuting state’s laws on jurisdiction and procedures. In most cases the issue of the defendant’s immunity is usually raised and considered by the national court concerned. In others, it appears to have been ignored or overlooked, and this factor may be of some significance given the approach taken by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the case concerning Certain Questions of Mutual Judicial Assistance in Criminal Matters (Djibouti v France ). The ICJ suggested that, in the case of functional immunity, it is for the official’s home state to notify the state seeking to exercise jurisdiction and that the latter is not obliged to raise or consider the matter of its own accord . Consular officers shall not be liable to arrest or detention pending trial, except in the case of a grave crime and pursuant to a decision by the competent judicial authority.
The law here would seem to be quite clear. If the accused person ‘diplomat’ was in the scene of crime on anything other than official consular business, and if he/she committed serious crimes i.e. murder, “in cold blood”, then legal authorities in the receiving state will be absolutely within their rights under the Vienna Conventions to be hold the ‘diplomat’ him for trial only after his diplomatic immunity has been waived.
If he/she is released before a judicial determination regarding his claim of immunity, or if he is found to be properly detained but is released anyhow before standing trial for the killings or serious crimes, it would be not because he has diplomatic immunity, but because of political pressure from his/her country or a state that has super powers, i.e. the US. But this would be something that is outside of the realm of the law.

This leads me to my other disturbing question;-
4.3 Is diplomatic immunity and protection on trial?
At a quick glance, this seems to be a pretty straight forward ‘yes’ and ‘no’ question. Many commentators have been tempted to jump to one side or another of the equation only sooner or later realize that any presumptuous conclusions, in favour of diplomatic immunity will be condoning impunity and against will destroying the whole goal international relations.
Diplomatic relations and the laws surrounding diplomatic immunity have freed many foreign diplomats serving around the world and have even saved lives but they have also given diplomats the notion that committing petty or even serious crimes is acceptable. Many countries have recently found themselves at an impasse while trying to cater to the rights of foreign political visitors, and still uphold the human rights of its citizens.
What is on trial is not diplomatic immunity but rather the two conventions which in most cases have prevented the prosecution of diplomats in the name that they enjoy diplomatic immunity.
5 Which law takes precedence between diplomatic immunity and human rights?
One may assert that human rights take precedence over diplomatic immunity in international law as they constitute a higher good.
4.8 Is diplomatic immunity unnecessary evil in the globe?
The key question surrounding diplomatic immunity and diplomatic studies is if diplomatic immunity is evil and should be done away with. The answer to the question is that diplomatic is necessary for the efficient functioning of foreign relations between states. However, limiting measures should be put in place to curb the numerous cases of abuse that continue to soar up. This could be done through some of the measures that have been previously recommended by a number of scholars such as amendment of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, use of the functional necessity theory, bilateral treaties and formation of a permanent International Diplomatic Criminal Court.
4.9 Is diplomatic immunity necessary regardless of all the abuses being witnessed?
Diplomacy is essential to maintain international relation between two nations and for that the diplomats play an indispensible role. Diplomatic immunity is, therefore, necessary for the smooth delivery of the duties of the diplomats, and to grant them impunity from coercion, unjust pressurization and marginalization by the host nation. Simply put, if one nation can castigate the diplomats of another nation, then the reverse also holds good! Under such circumstances, diplomats would become mere pawns and diplomacy will be impossible.
Despite the noticeable abuses of diplomatic immunity, my submission is in the negative. An old Latinism has it thus, whenever there is a society, there should be law . By the same token, societal laws must be just and fair to all its subjects. Hence diplomatic law and diplomatic immunity should remain.
It is important that law enforcement and judicial authorities of the globe always treat foreign diplomatic and consular personnel with respect and with due regard for the privileges and immunities to which they are entitled under international law. Any failure to do so has the potential of casting doubt on the commitment of the sovereign countries to carry out their international obligations or of negatively influencing larger foreign policy interests. However, appropriate caution should not become a total “hands off’ attitude in connection with criminal law enforcement actions involving diplomats.

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4.2.3 Rain Attenuation

The rain attenuation occurs as a result of the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic waves by rain particles. The attenuation on any given path depends on Rainfall rate, the frequency of that wave, polarization, temperature, path length and the size of raindrops. Above 10 GHz frequency, rain drops fade in the form of absorption and scattering become a serious contribute to transmission losses. When designing a Line of Sight microwave link or a satellite link operating at frequency above 10 GHz, z, the absorption and scattering by rain along the transmission path should be considered. Rain attenuation prediction models take into account of path reduction factor, the product of path reduction factor and the physical path length of a microwave link is the effective path length which is smaller than the actual physical path length. The modified effective path length features both path length and rainfall rate.
Rain attenuation models have been studied based on experimental measurement data from different regions worldwide. The ITU-R and other models have collected decades of rain data from around the world, but The ITU-R model is mostly widely used. It should be noted that rain attenuation models based on measurement data from different regions worldwide show good agreement with ITU-R recommendations which have taken into consideration of averages of statistics over decades due to the variability of rainfall statistics.18 26
By using this information it is possible to design radio links able to overcome even the worst weather events or to predict the durations of weather related outages of radio links operating at specific frequencies. The ITU rain zone classification map shows the expected rainfall rates in alphabetical order. While areas that experience the least rainfall rate are classified as “Region A,” the highest rainfall rates are in “Region Q”. In ITU-R recommendation, an approximate relationship between attenuation Lrain (dB/km), R distance and rain rate R (in mm/h unit) is given by ITU-R recommendation P.838-3 is given by the following equation (4.3):
Lrain = a R^b (4.3)

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Where a and b are functions of frequency given by ITU-R recommendation. Figure 4.2 shows several rain attenuation with different values of rainfall rate given by ITU-R.
As shown, Radio propagation within the millimeter band (30–300 GHz) is characterized by very high rain attenuation which practical limits the link distance. For example, heavy rain with rainfall rate 25 mm/h can lead to over 10 dB/km attenuation at E-band frequencies. For the case of very severe tropical rainfalls (100 mm/h), the attenuation can reach up to 30 dB/km at the same frequency. In addition, we can see that rainfall attenuation increases with frequency in general and rain attenuation is very significant in millimeter waves. However, this generally occurs only in short bursts and is associated with a severe weather event that moves quickly affecting the link performance. Therefore, rainfall rate is always associated with up time probability or link availability of the average year. 18 26
Fortunately, most intense rain tends to fall in limited parts of the world, mainly the equatorial and tropical countries. In other countries, such severe weather generally occurs only in short bursts. It tends to fall in small clusters within a larger and lower-intensity rain, and is usually associated with a severe weather event that moves quickly across the link path. Therefore, rain outage tends to be short and is only problematic on the long distance transmissions. 10


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