3. The Working principle of Electronic Weight Scale
Electronic weight scale are equipped with electronic measuring modules. The electronic weighing scales operate based on the following principle: the force exerted by the load situated on the balance pan is transmitted to the load cell (one or more) which in turn emits an electric signal whose intensity is proportional with the force. The electrical signal is picked up by the electronic balance block, processed, amplified and transmitted to a digital display system (digital mass indicator), the result representing the weight of the mass located on the load pan. A very common solution is to use strain gauges (strain-sensitive transducers). These commercial weighing devices with low resolution were generally used. The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to balance for temperature changes .When the pan is not loaded by any object all four resistors are the same and the input of the amplifier is zero. When an object is placed on the pan R4 and R1 are compacted and their resistance decreasing, R2 and R3 are strained and their resistance is increasing. This because a voltage difference at the input of the amplifier, proportional to the weight of the object. The strain gauges are wired as a Wheatstone-bridge to compensate for temperature changes .

1 : Spring body
2 : Weighing pan
3 : Mounting plate (housing)
4 : Placing and wiring of the strain gauges (R3 and R4 can also be placed on the under side of the beam)

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The advantages of electronic/digital weight scale are the plain fact that digital scales are considerably effortless to read. Besides, electronic weight scale will give more precision of reading value. Here are some disadvantages to electronic/digital scales, most likely the very regular one being incorrect readings. Several people have criticising that when they stand on the scale at one spot and obtain a reading and when they get back after few seconds they get a different reading altogether. Commonly , digital scales are good but it wil be worn after a regular used. This instrument need to calibrate after years to get better accuracy.

3.7.2. Silver recovery
Treatment of X-ray films with protease lead to degradation of gelatin bounded to silver. So, this reaction was done by 20 µl of both forms of protease. We prepared humidify condition for prevention of evaporation. After two hours a clear zone showed gelatin degradation reaction and release of silver from it. Results in Fig. 6 shown that more gelatin hydrolysis was occurred by immobilized form compared to free protease.

3.7.3. De-haring process
Using some chemical materials for leather processing cause environmental pollution and low leather quality whereas enzymatic de-hairing mechanism give certain desired characteristics to the processed leather. Enzymatic dehairing by protease SO24 showed a big clear region derived from immobilized protease activity which demonstrated higher efficiency of immobilized protease activity compare to free enzyme in leather industry.
3.7.4. Applying as additive to detergent
Magnetic properties of nanoparticle help us to design a simple machine for moving this nanoparticle through cloth fibers (Fig. 1). We use a piece of cloth which soaked to blood for finding out clear efficiency of immobilized enzyme as additive in detergent industrial. Nanoparticles movement under electromechanical force were done in 20 second and results demonstrated all the blood stains were removed as shown in Fig. 6.

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4. Discussion
Bacillus SO24 which produced a high potent protease thrive in the alkaline environment among slaughterhouse wastes. It was immobilized on the functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Optimal temperature for protease activity was 50 °C for free protease whereas it was maximum in the range of 50-70 °C in the case of immobilized enzyme. It showed that the activity of immobilized enzyme was increased in higher temperatures in comparison with free enzyme. It showed an appreciated activity in the high temperatures in which its activity was retained about 90 % of the initial activity at 80 °C (Fig. 4a). Protease SO24 has the same optimum temperature for protease activity of B. subtilis PE-11. Also it is more thermostable than the Bacillus protease reported in some previous studies (Mukherjee et al., 2008; Sen et al., 2011). Moreover, its stability significantly increased after immobilization reaction (Jin et al., 2010). Results demonstrated that the immobilized enzyme retained 40% of its initial activity after 4 h in 50 °C whereas free form showed about 10 % activity during the same condition (Fig. 4c).
As in Fig. 4b) shown, both forms of protease were active over a wide range of pH (4.0-11.0). The maximum activity of free protease was observed in pH 8.0 which it was agreement with previous study on Bacillus cereus BG1 (Horikoshi, 1990). Many reports demonstrated Bacillus protease with alkaline stability in comparison with this study (Mala & Srividya, 2010; Sareen & Mishra, 2008; Sen et al., 2011). Optimum pH for immobilized form was pH 9.0, it showed immobilization process cause increase enzyme tolerant toward alkaline in comparison with free form. Furthermore, the reusability as a key factor in industry was also tested. Results showed residual activity after an 8th cycle was unchanged but a sharp decline of the activity was observed in 10th (Fig. 4d). Although, Hu et al. 2015, reported that protease immobilized onto amino-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed 75% of initial activity retained after 6th cycle (Sinha & Khare, 2015). Furthermore, Atacan et al. 2016 and Hu et al. 2015 reported 79 and 50% remaining activity after 5th and 10th, respectively (Atacan et al., 2016). Among different substrates (albumin, casein, and gelatin) which used as substrate specificity of protease, gelatin was an attractive substrate for protease SO24 in comparison with other protein substrates. It can improve significantly of protease performance in silver recovery. Protease recovery and immobilization capacity were about 84 and 60%, respectively. It showed high efficiency of immobilization reaction and almost, in all case of hydrolysis reaction, immobilized form of enzyme was more efficient than its free form.
In this study we also evaluated application of protease SO24 in protease hydrolysis, leather process, silver recovery and using as additive in detergent industrial. Whey contains high value of soluble proteins which obtains from byproduct of local and industrial dairy waste (about 20 % of the total milk proteins). In addition, it contains high amount of lactose, vitamin B, and essential amino acids (e Silva & Silveira, 2013). Some proteolytic enzyme such as subtilisin, trypsin, and corolase have been used for enzymatic hydrolysis of whey (Silvestre et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2010). It is mentioned that, degree of hydrolysis for Whey was reported in the range of 5 to 23 %. Sinha et al, reported that DH was about 35 % for immobilized halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9 protease after 30 min of incubation (Sinha & Khare, 2015). Our results showed that degree of hydrolysis for Whey was 44 % for immobilized thermophilic protease after 20 min of incubation at 60 % whereas it was 25 % for free enzyme at the same condition. Maximum DH (44 %) after 20 min of incubation for the immobilized protease indicating the improved process efficiency. It has been previously reported that, protein hydrolysates of whey proteins display some valuable properties such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, lipid-lowering and antioxidant (Conesa & FitzGerald, 2013).
Merging biological and magnetic science in nanoscale level made a high number of notable advancement in the clinical and sensor technology (Haes et al., 2005; Ivkov, 2013). A simple mechanic system was manifested to use magnetic property of protease coupled nanoparticle. Appling this system for different forms of wash-up methods including protease coupled nanoparticle+ detergent, detergent alone, protease coupled nanoparticle alone and detergent alone. Results showed high potential level of immobilized protease SO24 coupled detergents as additive in detergent industry. Protease recovery showed compatibility of this enzyme in combination with detergent which its performance is also shown in Fig. 6.
5. Conclusion
A facile method to immobilize CLEAs-protease onto amino-coated magnetite nanoparticles was established to attain enhanced activity and stability. Hydrolysis degree for Whey was 44 % for immobilized thermophilic protease after 20 min of incubation at 60 %. In addition, a simple and efficient mechanic system was manifested to use of mCLEA-P-NC in washing performance. mCLEA-P-NC showed appreciated potential for treatment of waste protein of local wwly. Taken to gather, unique properties of this magnetic-CLEAs protease open an attractive way towards commercialize the production of high value product from waste protein and in washing system.

3) De monolieten worden daarna naar een bergingsmodule vervoerd. Een bergingsmodule is een soort van bunker met betonen muren van 75cm dik, waarin men de monolieten zal stapelen tot aan het dak om de volledige ruimte te benutten. In deze bergingsmodule zijn de monolieten beschermt tegen de weersomstandigheden zoals wind en regen. In elke bergingsmodule kunnen 936 monolieten geplaatst worden.
Aan het einde van dit hoofdstuk wil ik een zeer specifieke bron van laagradioactief afval toelichten namelijk TENORM-afval, omdat deze meestal niet besproken wordt als men over radioactief afval praat. Onder TENORM verstaan we natuurlijk voorkomende radioactieve materialen die door menselijke activiteiten zoals olie- en gasproductie en delfstoffenwinning (bv. Uraniumwinning) vrijkomen. Bij de olie en gas ontginning uit diepe bodemlagen wordt de bodemlaag verstoord waardoor radioactief materiaal uit de natuurlijke omgeving vrijkomt. Dat radioactieve materiaal komt in contact met vloeistoffen en apparatuur. Zodra de olie of het gas uiteindelijk is geëxtraheerd en verwerkt, worden deze radioactieve besmette materialen laagradioactief afval. In de meeste landen wordt dit afval op dezelfde manier verwerkt als “normaal” laagradioactief afval – of Categorie A-afval.
Met één uitzondering, Amerika, daar is de verwerking van TENORM-afval momenteel niet wettelijk geregeld en kunnen de individuele Staten zelf beslissen hoe ze met dit afval omgaan. Omdat de verwerking van radioactief afval zeer duur is werd er door de olie-industrie voor gezorgd dat dit TENORM-afval tot voor kort niet speciaal behandeld moest worden. Ook vandaag is het in Amerika nog altijd normaal het slib dat bij olie- en gaswinning geproduceerd wordt verwerkt mag worden in bouwmaterialen en zo volledig buiten de wetgeving rond de verwerking van radioactief afval valt. Door de recente discussie over schalieolie- en gaswinning is dit onderwerp wel op de radar gebracht. Onder druk van de milieuorganisaties komt hier eindelijk verandering in.

3.1 Introduction
This chapter describes the research methodology of the study whose main focus was to investigate the country’s recycling industry that is an emerging economic sector. Philosophical assumptions that informed the study are presented as well. Research methodology focuses on data collection and analysis procedures used in order to address the research problem as Walter, 2013; Cresswell, 2009 and Mouton 1996) emphasized.
3.2 Research paradigms
Research is usually guided by certain beliefs as highlighted by (Saunders, 2013). These are known as research paradigms. These are considered as the starting point of any research. Despite the fact, they are often taken for granted. The search for reality is therefore influenced by a set of assumptions that the research may have. The term paradigm was first used by Thomas Kuhn in his 1972 whist referring to overall theoretical research framework (Saunders, 2013). Positivism and interpretive are considered to be the broad frameworks of paradigms in which research is conducted, (Ngulube, 2015) cited in Matangira, (2016).

The positivist paradigm is mainly associated with natural sciences (Neuman, 2014) whose emphasis is on scientific methods. The main assumption of this paradigm is that the nature of reality can be observed through scientific (measurements and testing) and statistical analysis methods. Reality is considered to be ‘out there’, independent of human consciousness; is objective, rests on order, is governed by strict natural and unchangeable laws, and can be realised through experience (Sarantakos, 2005).
Despite its relevance, positivism paradigm has been criticized. This gave birth to constructivism or interpretivism ideologies. Interpretivism is concerned with text interpretation and understanding of social life (Neuman, 2014; Sarantakos, 2005). The fundamental assumption of this paradigm is that social reality depends on people’s views and interpretations. The same idea is supported by Saunders, 2013). The world in social phenomena has different meanings. As a result, different researches can have different conclusions for one observation. There are three assumptions in research: ontological, epistemological and methodological.
3.3 The Ontological Orientation of the Research
Ontology is concerned with the nature of reality (Neuman, 2014). There are different assumptions to see the world as outside individual. From a realist point of view, knowledge development is based on careful observation and measurement of the objective reality that exists out there (Neuman 2014; Creswell (2009)’. Reality is considered independently of humans and their interpretations. The nominalist on the other hand, is subjective based on human influences and interpretations.The world in social phenomena has different meanings. As a result, different researches can have different conclusions for one observation.
Nominalist assumptions informed this study. In order to have an in depth understanding of the nature of recycling industry in Namibia, the researcher relied on views of different actors of the industry who were identified, namely local authorities, government ministries and recycling companies.

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