# 3.4. there are 1,485 total households (CSA, 2014).

3.4. Sampling Technique and Sample SizeIt is beyond the scope of the study to gather data from the total populations.

Hence, sampling techniques were used; both systematic random sampling and purposive sampling was employed. In Sodo town, there are three sub-towns i.e.

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Arada, Mehal and Merkato. Out of these three sub-towns for this study two sub-towns are selected. Mehal and Arada sub-town is purposively selected for this study because the kebeles under these sub-towns selected for the study are newly developed parts of the town and faced with scarcity of water. In two sub-towns there are eleven kebeles. Data was collected from five kebeles (Damota and Ofa Gendeba Kebels from Mehal and Waja kero, Dil Betigil, Selam kebels from Arada sub towns) by employing systematic random sampling. The total population of the five kebeles is 11,267 and there are 1,485 total households (CSA, 2014).

Out of these, 147 households were used for the collection of sample data. Therefore, for this study the sample size is 10% of the total households (with the following formula as given on page number 15). In order to determine sample households the investigator selected every item on the list of households.

The sample size taken from each sample kebeles is comparative to their total number of households. The total households selected for this study was 147 households residing in the town. There were 310, 290, 285, 295 and 305 total households in kebeles Damota, Ofa Gendeba, Waja kero, Dil Betigil and Selam respectively.

From these 30, 29, 28, 29 and 30 households respectively selected. The sample size for this research is determined by using the formula, as indicated in Burt et al, (2003). This study used the following formula to calculate sample size as follows: µ=n/N x µ¡ Where, µ = sampled sizes of each kebeles n = sample size N = total household size of sampled kebeles µ¡ = number of households in each sampled kebele3.5. Methods of Data Collection3.5.

1. Procedures of data collectionIn order to have general understanding of the specific locality, the investigator first organized a general survey of the study area. The data gathering tools was intended on the bases of objectives, research questions and review of related literatures. During the initial stage of questionnaires administration, the investigator was prepared the objectives of the study clear to the respondents in order to avoid any confusion. Before distributing questionnaires, the time convenience for the respondents was considered in order to maximize the rate of return of the questionnaires. In addition, taking into consideration the non response rate of questionnaires, the investigator added some extra questionnaires were distributed.

3.5.2. Instruments of data collectionCollecting data through different tools leads to the accurate research findings. Having this in mind, the investigator used the following data gathering instruments: questionnaire, semi- structured interview and observation.3.

5.2.1.

QuestionnaireQuestionnaire was used as the major tool for collection of data from the randomly selected sample respondents. Due to resource and time constraint, the research could not entertain large number of people in case studies, in depth interviews and wider focus group discussions. Therefore, questionnaires were used to fill the gap and support the representative sample to address as many individuals as possible to help gather relevant first hand information. Two different sets of questions were prepared: close-ended and open-ended questions.

For those respondents who could not understand English, the questionnaires were prepared and translate in to Amharic, so that the respondents were easily understood. 3.5.2.

2. Key informants interviewThe purpose of interview was to collect supplementary information, so as to stabilize the questionnaire response. Semi-structured interview were conducted to a purposively selected group of informants. The interview was conducted face to face. The interview were used to dig out information on issues like water supply, health condition that is related with water particularly accessibility, consistency, and adequacy to assess water supply and distribution condition in the town. The reason behind using a semi-structured interview is the advantages of flexibility in which new questions can be forwarded during the interview based on the responses of the interviews.

Moreover, the tool also has been instrumental in generating recommendations. Accordingly, key informant interview were used to gather more of qualitative data explains and narrates the study population rather than expressing it in terms of numbers. The recorded data were categorized based on similarities of response and then translate into English language during the transcription. This assisted the researcher to collect relevant and more reliable information to this study.3.

5.2.3. Field Observation Among the primary data collection techniques, observation is crucial to understand peoples’ activity in the basis of how, what and why they are doing something. This allowed the investigator to develop confidence to speak and analyze what is being said and what is really going on the actual setting. Further, this participatory observation has the benefit of becoming part of the selected group and observes how they get; fetch water and asking clarification on their actions.

The field observation was used by the researcher to get additional information to validate the information received from other sources. A checklist was prepared for systematic observation.3.6. Methods of Data AnalysisAfter the completion of data gathering, the data was coded, tabulated, analyzed, described, interpreted, and descriptive statistical technique (percentages, ratio, average, using table, frequency distribution charts etc.) were employed as methods of data presentation.

The data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), v.20 software and MS-EXCEL was used to process the data. Moreover, qualitative data was collected through questionnaires, interview, and observation was rationally interpreted and analyzed to strengthen the quantitative data. 3.

7 Ethical considerations Ethical issues in research are concerned mainly in balancing the right of people for privacy, safety, confidentiality and protection from dishonesty with the pursuit of scientific endeavour (Pilot and Hungler, 1998). The Sodo City Administration was engaged from beginning as the current water services provider of the city of sodo. In addition consent was sought for each household before the interview and the purpose of the interview was clearly explained beforehand.

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