2) design, construction and development decisions. 2) No

2) The Opera House isthe iconic symbol of Sydney and to some extent, Australia.1) The Opera Housebecame and remains a world-class performing arts centre with currently has 5main auditoria and nearly 1000 rooms, a reception hall, 5 rehearsal studios, 4restaurants, 6 theatre bars, an extensive foyer, library and administrativeoffices.BENEFITS     5) There was alsouncertainty about government expectations of the project.

The costs continuedto increase and issue arose on how this large-scale project would be funded.4)  There were no project evaluation measures.Therefore, some sections of the opera house were even built then laterdemolished, re-designed and built again.3) The Sydney Opera Houseproject had no project manager, and it was assumed that Jorn Utzon would takethe initiative for all design, construction and development decisions.2) No known methods toconstruct proposed roof structure.1) The designcompetition, though it was a good incentive, failed to evaluate how muchexperience the entrants had with large-scale design projects.There were a lot ofdifficulties, challenges and risk involved or associated with the Sydney OperaHouse Project. Some of them are:CHALLENGES Being a publicattraction and attracting a lot of tourists and locals every year, the mainsource of revenue for such a structure comes from admission fees, concertssales, tours and other public events.

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This makes the public discretionarystakeholders.Today, the Sydney OperaHouse remains an icon to the theatrical, structural and architectural worlds.The government of New South Wales continues to be a primary stakeholder lookingover the operations of the Opera House.

The section of the government thatmaintains the theater is the Sydney Opera House Trust Fund, who operates thetheater on behalf of the government.2) Present daystakeholdersNext in line ofstakeholders, was Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC), lotteries that werethe primary source of the funds for the Opera House. Last was the Opera HouseCommittee formed in 1954.

Due to financialissues, Utzon resigned from the project before its completion, and thegovernment had to eventually hire Hall, Todd and Littlemore for the completionof the project. They had some of the original blueprints of the building, timeand money and assumed the role of project manager which makes them the furtherstakeholders of the project.The main stakeholderthroughout the initial construction process (1959-1973) was Jorn Utzon. Sincethe project lacked a proper project manager, Utzon, along with Ove Arup, thechief structural engineer working on the project, took the job of facilitatingand overseeing the construction of the project. Arup, who was for the most partUtzon’s second in command, is also considered a stakeholder.The next stakeholdersare the judging panel of the international competition to design the OperaHouse. However they lacked the power to do anything further once the design waschosen.The project firststarted to take form in the mid 20th century and the New South Walesgovernment was given a task to create a theater, which was intended to servethe arts.

Therefore, the New South Wales government stands as the very firststakeholder of the project.1) During theconstruction (1959-1973)The Sydney Opera House,a public sector endeavor, had many stakeholders. The stakeholders can beclassified as: THESTAKEHOLDERS The Sydney Opera Housewould be one of the first major projects using computer-aided design (CAD) andpresented major revolutionary architectural concepts and engineeringchallenges. Altogether, the Sydney Opera House took fourteen years to completeand construction costs amounted nearly AUS $102M.

Since its initial opening in1973, the Sydney Opera House has undergone renovations and expansions andhosted many performances.Under the leadership ofUtzon: on July 19, 1957, the Sydney Opera House Lottery Fund was established.The government of New South Wales did not want to pay for the project. In 1959, Ove Arup and Partners were appointed asthe structural engineers for the project and thus, the construction of SydneyOpera House began in 1960. It was expected to take four years to complete withan estimated cost of AUS $7M. However, even working together with Arup, thefinal spherical design of the roof was not becoming possible even after three tofour years after the construction began.LEADERSHIP In early January of1957, a 38-year old Danish architect, Jorn Utzon, was announced as the winnerof the competition by Cahill at the Art Gallery of New South Wales. Utzon had designedthe opera house without having seen the site in person and he relied onphotographs, shipping maps and firsthand accounts.

The judges chose Utzon’sdesign based on its pure originality and creativity, realizing that it would’clearly be a controversial design”. However, they were still convinced of itsmerits to New South Wales and Sydney. The original drawing features Utzon’sstructurally unrealizable, but aesthetically pleasing roof design.On February 1, 1956 theinternational competition for the national opera house was commenced arrangedby Premier Cahill and the government of New South Wales, provided competitionswith a 25-page booklet with black and white photos of Bennelong Point. Detailedin the booklet were the requirements for the opera house.

The competitionclosed in the late 1956 acquiring 233 entries representing 28 countries thatincluded Australia, England, Germany, French, Morocco, Iran and Kenya.On November 11, 1954the honorable John Joseph Cahill, the Premier of New South Wales at the time,convened a conference to discuss the establishment of an opera house in NewSouth Wales, Sydney, Australia. At the conference, Cahill expressed his desirefor “proper facilities for the expression of talent and the staging of thehighest form of entertainment that will be accredit to the State not only fortoday but hundreds of years.

Out of the 21 possible sites of the proposed OperaHouse, Bennelong Point, a peninsula of 2.23 hectares was chosen on May17, 1955.


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