2.2. Explanation:

Table 4: Sample logic used in MPS

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(LOM Module notes/exercise, 2018).

3. PREPARATION FOR NEGOTIATION WITH OEM:

According to a hypothesis, let the OEM in this scenario be Hyundai Motor Company who orders on a monthly basis. Here is the preparation made for negotiations for a meet with OEM to move from monthly to weekly deliveries.

3.1 Key benefits of moving to weekly deliveries:

? Less Inventory is needed for weekly demand, hence storage space is less.
By satisfying Hyundai Motor company’s needs on a weekly basis, we can make sure the aerial company’s stocks are moving.
If the stocks are stored for monthly deliveries, there are chances that any accidents in the plant will lead to huge loss for the products to be sold to Hyundai Motor Company. Weekly demand will assure delivery.

? As the commercial area is hired per square foot, monthly storing of inventories occupies maximum space limit and we ought to pay more for the occupancy.

? Labour control:
As our company is supplying goods for many other firms on daily and weekly basis, monthly delivery to Hyundai Motor Company requires employment of additional human resources for audit and inventory control.

? Insurance costs:
Insurance cost goes high with increased inventory stock and area. In case of disastrous event such as cyclone, earthquake, flood, etc., we had to pay higher premiums for losses due to the damage of whole lot of monthly dumped stock.
The selling price of the products will be inclusive of the insurance cost, moving to weekly deliveries will reduce the cost prize of your products too. For example, if the current pay for a Car antenna (Aerial company manufactured part) is $70/unit (monthly delivery) inclusive of the insurance cost, moving to weekly deliveries will reduce its cost price to $64/unit (Leonard, 2018).

? In case of any accidents as discussed above, monthly stocks at our warehouse for delivery will be undelivered and the penalty we pay for loss of goodwill (for undelivered goods) will be too high (12% of the sales value of each good). Weekly deliveries will be beneficial in several ways for both the organizations (As given in the Aerial manufacturing exercise, 2018)

TABLE 5: Comparison of monthly and weekly deliveries to OEM

Monthly (deliveries) Weekly (deliveries)
Product price As mentioned in the Aerial manufacturing exercise, the retail price of our XL model car parts is 55 pounds (inclusive of high labour charges and cost involved in modification of production line) which Hyundai Motor company pays currently.
Addition of these charges for all the monthly goods will multiply your cost to huge amounts. In case of weekly deliveries, we don’t require surplus labors and the selling price of your product will include primarily the manufacturing cost only.
Accidents Monthly deliveries stock will lead to wastage of surplus produce in case of chemical spill, electrical fires, etc. The damage is huge that it’s difficult to be recouped. Inventory management is easy in case of weekly deliveries. Aerial company will be easily able to supply with a replacement sooner even in case of losses
Loot age/Staff theft Say, there is a loot or damage during shipment of the products / staff theft, we will not be having time left for the current month to make arrangements for producing replacements. The possibility of allotting time during the succeeding month for additional produce requires more costs (Anderton and Kiely, 1988). As the number of weekly deliveries is comparatively less, we can quickly arrange for replacement the succeeding weeks (Anderton and Kiely, 1988).
Waste management Monthly deliveries require allotting shift for more human resources, paying insurance for additional warehouse storage (as commercial area is hired), maintenance cost, etc. leads to investment on non-value added operations (Leonard, 2018). Weekly deliveries will reduce all these costs and allows the company to invest more on Value-added operations; thereby reducing the retail price of the product Hyundai Motor company acquires (Leonard, 2018).

Long-term relationship / Bottom Line As the Aerial company and Hyundai Motor company had been in tie-up and marketing products on the long run, even before we got the proprietorship of the company, the reputation in the marketplace can be maintained at cost efficient ways. Monthly deliveries will not be cost efficient in the long-run due to the drawbacks mentioned before (Magee, 1999) (Hamlett, n.d.). Moving to weekly deliveries will allow the collaboration to shine in marketplace at cost-efficient ways.
In consideration of the long-lasting tie up and the advantages, the Aerial manufacturing is ready to supply an additional part cost-free every half a month, in case of weekly deliveries (Magee, 1999) (Hamlett, n.d.).

4. CONCLUSION:

Formulating an appropriate sales forecast keeping the circumstances of the company in consideration should be the prime step in sales forecast. Secondly, laying down a Master Production Schedule (MPS) with preparedness of the possible difficulties would place the company at reduced risk as demonstrated by the example of Aerial Manufacturing plant. For a sample of 10 weeks, sales were met without any penalty and an obvious improvement was noticed in comparison to previous weeks (before week 33) where the company had to pay penalty for 3 weeks due to incorrect planning (LOM module, 2018).

Plan has been made to arbitrate with the OEM (Hyundai Motor Company), notifying the benefits in cost and reputation of both the companies in shifting from Monthly to Weekly deliveries. This paper clearly illustrates that the growth of a manufacturing company relies not only on forecasts but also on the formulation of team to make Forecasting Schedules, analyse the different factors affecting the forecast, making cost cutting in all the possible areas and ways. Consistent success of a company/firm in marketplace depends on all these factors.

2.8 Floor finishes
2.8.1 Theory of best practice
According to the article Common Floor Finishes (2011), the floor finishes are the topmost cover of the structural floor that provides a surface to walk on (Fig. 1).

center6096000
77152547625Figure 1: Tiles creating a smooth surface to walk on
Figure 1: Tiles creating a smooth surface to walk on

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Functions:
? to increase the life-span of the subfloor? to provide a surface that is easy to clean? to reduce the conveyance of sound? aids in the interior aesthetics of the building? to provide support to residents and furniture? to minimize effects of shrinkage and settlement by means of the high level of flexibility
Types of floor finishes
Floor finishes are divided into three main categories (Chudley.2005: 383):
? Applied floor finishThis finish involves laying materials onto a clean, dust-free subfloor which has been covered with a screed mix of 1:3 (cement: sand) to smooth out the previously poured cement screed. A tile adhesive will then be used to allow the tiles to firmly bond to the underlying floor. The materials laid on the smooth subfloor range from plain clay tiles, cork tiles, asphalt tiles and more.
? In-situ floor finishThis type of finish is a sand-cement liquid which is laid on the subfloor and left to dry and set to a solid surface.

? Timber floor finishTimber, in the form of blocks, sheets or boards, are laid on a prepared base to create this type of finish.
The type of floor finish is dependent on a few things such as cost, maintenance, personal preference, type of supporting base and appearance CITATION Chu05 l 7177 (Chudley & Greeno, 2005). During the evaluation of our construction site, we will be focusing on Applied floor finishes as Porcelain Tiles have been used on our chosen site as seen in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

2895599132715004318003396615Figure 2: Group member indicating porcelain tiles placed
Figure 2: Group member indicating porcelain tiles placed
43180012954000
2904490195580Figure 3: 60mm × 60mm porcelain tilesFigure 3: 60mm × 60mm porcelain tiles
2.8.2 Evaluation of construction project
The theory was almost properly executed on site. A chalk line was drawn from one side of the room to the opposite side. This made it easier for the tile layer to determine the midpoint of the room and to ensure that each tiles was laid in line with the ones surrounding it.
We feel that choosing Porcelain Tiles as the floor finish has its advantages and disadvantages. Table 1 below explains this clearly CITATION Fra17 l 7177 (Anderson, 2017).
Advantages Disadvantages
Fired at higher temperature, resulting in a harder, denser tile. Because of tile being much harder it is more difficult to cut accurately and making it harder to install.

Glazed effect causes a mirror-like reflection. Expensive
More moisture resistant due to tile being less porous. Can only be cleaned using light detergents.
Brighter space created due to tiles being light in colour. This reduces energy consumption due to less artificial lighting being used. Low maintenance. Table 1: Advantages and disadvantages of the porcelain tiles used on site
A notched floor trowel was used to spread the Pro Grip Tile Adhesive (Fig. 4) over a section of the floor on which the tiles were placed. Tile spacers were used to ensure a consistent pattern between the tiles (Fig. 5) and to create a space which was later filled with Pro Grip Waterproof Tile Grout as seen in Figure 6 below. The main purpose of grout is to keep water out that might damage the tiles. It also aids in bonding the tiles to each other.
3276600641350032804102756535Figure 5: Tile spacers creating even spaces between each tile
Figure 5: Tile spacers creating even spaces between each tile
-1492256858000
-149225191770Figure 4: Tile Adhesive used to bond the tiles and the floor surface
Figure 4: Tile Adhesive used to bond the tiles and the floor surface

1905003891280Figure 6:Waterproof tile grout used to fill the spaces between each tile
Figure 6:Waterproof tile grout used to fill the spaces between each tile
-85725959485030003753893820Figure 7: Tile cutter used to ensure that tiles are cut to correct size
Figure 7: Tile cutter used to ensure that tiles are cut to correct size
300037568707000Where tiles had to be cut to fit into place, the tile layer used markers to draw a line on the tile indicating where it needs to be cut. The tiles were cut using a Snap and Saw tile cutter (Fig. 7).

With regards to the tiling on the stairs, each tile was measured and cut to the position in which it was placed. A strip of anodized aluminium tile edging was placed on the edge of each tile to smooth out the edge of the staircase (Fig. 8).

11512552654300Figure 8: Anodized aluminium tile edging
Figure 8: Anodized aluminium tile edging
center2540000
A problem that we found during the laying of the floor tiles, was that the tile adhesive was not cleaned off as tile laying progressed on site. This makes it much more difficult to clean at a later stage.

2) Competitor Awareness – Competitor Awareness is considered to be another limitation of concept testing. For example organisations are always at risk of their competitors trying to know more about their particular product. It is often seen that many organisations are learning as well as trying to know more about their competitor’s product within the market. And they end up doing this with the help of what different type of business strategies their competitors are using and on the basis of how their competitors are marketing their product. An example can be seen where suppose if the time involved in concept testing is a bit long then this actually gives their competitors ample amount of time to research and then actually develop their own products. And after they have known about their competitor’s particular product they can then roll out their products as early as possible.
3) Time Consuming – Another limitation of concept testing is that it is time consuming. As most of the organisations often spend most of the time in concept testing because a lot is at stake for these organisations. And another factor is from the consumer’s perspective that they also take some amount of time to get to know about a particular product’s availability within the market which is another time consuming factor

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

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