2.2 Outline who may be involved in advanced care planning.
Advance car planning centres on discussions with a person who has capacity to make decisions about their care and treatment. If the individual wishes, their family, friends and health and social care professionals may be involved, it is recommended that with the individual’s agreement that discussions, regularly reviewed and communicated to key people involved in their care.
2.3 Describe the type of information an individual may need to enable them to make informed decisions.
Statements of wishes and preferences can include personal preferences, such as where one would wish to live, have a shower rather than a Bath, or just wanting to sleep with the light on and the bedroom door open. Sometimes people may wish to express their values, e.g. The welfare of their husband and children are taken in to consideration when decisions are made about the place of care. Sometimes people may have views about the treatment they do not wish to receive, but do not want to formalise their views as a specific advance decision to refuse treatment. These views should be considered when acting in a person’s best interest but will not be legally binding. A statement of wishes and preferences cannot be made in relation to any act which is illegal. E.g. assisted suicide.

2. Materials and methods:
2.1. Plant material and extracts preparation:
Commercial Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s claw, DC) powdered tubers was provided by MD natur Laboratories (Hammamet, Tunisia) as capsules containing dried coarse powder. The plant material was ground to a fine powder, passing through a mesh to obtain a uniform granulometry. The obtained powder was protected from light and stored at 4°C until use. Then, 500 mg of DC roots powder were resuspended in 10 ml of distilled water and leaved to macerate for 3 hours at 4°C. The suspension was filtered through a 100 ?m mesh. The extract was freshly prepared the day of experiment.
Lipidium sativum (Garden cress, GC) seeds were collected from a local market (Souk El Blat) in the medina of Tunis. Seeds were identified and authenticated by Dr. Mouhiba NASRI AYACHI, professor of plant taxonomy at the faculty of sciences, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunisia. The plant material was stored at room temperature in a dry place prior to use. Then, 3 g of fine powder of seeds were extracted by maceration in 10 ml of distilled water at ambient temperature for 3 h with continuous stirring. The suspension was filtrated with No. 1 Whatmann Millipore filter paper. The extract was freshly prepared one day before treatment.

2.2. Animals and experimental design:
The study was conducted according to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. Animal handling and procedures were carried out under strict compliance with guidelines for Ethical control and supervision in the Care and Use of animals. Males (300-350 g) and female (200-250 g) Wistar rats were purchased from the Tunisian society of Pharmaceutical Industries of Tunisia (SIPHAT) and allowed to acclimatize for two weeks prior to mating. All animals were housed (2-3 per cage) under photoperiod cycle (12-h: light: 12-h dark; lights on at 7:00 am) in a room with controlled temperature (24 ± 1°C) and humidity (50 ± 10 %). Food (standard rodent pellets provided from El Badr Society, Bizerte, Tunisia) and water were available ad libitum. After acclimatization, non-gravid female rats were mated with males (Female: male = 2:1) and vaginal smears were checked daily. The day of positive-sperm detection in the vaginal smear was considered as a gestational day 0 (GD 0). A total number of 40 pregnant dams were singly-housed in propylene cages and randomly divided into two groups (n=20 per group): the first group was orally given equal amount of vehicle (corn oil) and used as the control, the second received a dose of 500 ?g/ kg of BW/day of DEHP (Sigma, purity 99 %, CAS # 117-81-7) dissolved in corn oil. Female rats were treated from gestational day 1 to day 21 of lactation. Following weaning, at PND 1, the female pups were culled and males were used for the rest of the experiment. 24 male pups from each group were housed 2 per cage (in same previous housing conditions) and were administered the same as before (control group receiving corn oil and DEHP group receiving 500 ?g/kg of BW/day of DEHP) until 9-months age (adulthood). DEHP solutions were prepared freshly before each treatment. The dose of DEHP was chosen because high doses were used previously in many research papers to evaluate the adverse effects of DEHP exposure and here we investigate the neurotoxic effect of a low environmentally relevant-dose. At the end of DEHP exposure, rats were assigned to 4 groups of 12 animals each. Control group was divided into two groups: Group I (Vehicle Sham) receiving 1 ml of corn oil daily and Group II (DcR sham) receiving an intragastrically aqueous extract of Devil claw’s dried roots at a dose of 50mg/kg of BW/day. Rats previously treated with DEHP were also divided into two groups: Group III (DEHP): which continued to receive corn oil and Group IV (DEHP-DcR) consisted of DEHP-intoxicated rats which were given 50 mg/kg of BW/day of Devil claw’s dried roots aqueous extract. The experimental protocol is summarized in figure x. All groups were treated under the same housing conditions for a period of 30 days. Animals were weighted and behavioral observations were scored daily until the end of the experiment.
2.3. Behavioral tasks:
2.3.1. Forced swim test (FST):
The forced swim test (FST) is one of the most commonly used assays for the study of depressive-like behavior in rodents (Slattery and Cryan, 2012). The FST was performed according to a previously reported method described by Yankelevitch-Yahav et al. (2015). The test consists of two swimming sessions: an initial 15-min pretest followed, 24 hours later, by a 5-min test. Briefly, swimming sessions were conducted by placing the rats in a transparent cylindrical Plexiglas container (50 cm in height x 20 cm diameter) filled with tap water at 25°C. The water in the cylinder was changed after each tested rat. The test session was video-recorded from the front of the cylinder for later scoring. The 5-min test was scored for the total duration of immobility (floating with the absence of any movement except for those necessary to keep the nose above the water), struggling/climbing (tentative to escape) and swimming (Movement of forelimbs and hind limbs around the cylinder).
2.3.2. Crawley’s sociability and preference for social novelty test:
The three-chamber paradigm known as Crawley’s sociability and preference for social novelty test is employed to asses social affiliation and social memory in rodent models of central nervous system disorders. The social approach apparatus is comprised a rectangular box made of glass and divided into three chambers (25 cm length x 20 cm width x 50 cm Hight) with two clear glass walls allowing free access into each chamber. The wire box containers were made of cylindrical chrome bars spaced 1 cm apart. The test was carried out as described previously by Kaidanovich-Beilin et al. (2011). Briefly, during the habituation phase, each of the two side chambers contained an empty wire box container, the subject rat was placed at the center of the middle chamber to habituate for 5 minutes. During the sociability phase, an unfamiliar rat (Stanger 1) was enclosed inside a wire box in one of the side chambers, the experimental rat was allowed to freely explore each of the three chambers for 10 minutes. The placement of the novel rat (Stranger 1) in the left or right-side chambers altered across a test rat. During the social novelty session, a new unfamiliar rat (Stranger2) was enclosed in the box container that had been empty during the sociability phase and we proceeded in the same way as the social affiliation session. Exploration of a stranger rat or an empty box container was defined as when the tested rat oriented toward the box container with a distance between the nose and the box less than 1 cm, or as climbing on the box. The time spent in each chamber and time spent exploring empty box container vs box housing stranger 1 (in sociability phase) or between experimental rat and the box housing Stranger 1 vs Stanger 2 (in social novelty preference phase) was recorded from a camera mounted in front of the test apparatus.
2.3.3. Elevated plus maze (EPM):
The EPM test of anxiety is an elevated “+” shaped apparatus consisted of 4 arms (each 50 long x 10 cm wide) and elevated 80 cm above the floor. Two opposed arms have 40 cm high dark walls and are considered as “closed arms”. The other two arms have no walls and are considered as the “open arms”. All arms are joined by a 10 cm x 10 cm wide central part. The test was conducted according to the method described by Li et al. (2015). Rats were individually placed in the center of the maze facing an open arm to avoid direct entrance into a closed arm, left to freely choose for an open or close arm and allowed for 5 minutes free-exploration. After each trial, the apparatus was cleaned with 75% ethanol to prevent olfactory cues and to ensure proper disinfection. The time spent in each arm and the number of entries were video-recorded then scored. Entrance in one arm is defined as having all, four paws inside the arm. Anxious rats were more likely to enter and to stay in the closed arms.
2.3.4. Successive alleys test:
The successive alleys test of anxiety is a modified version of the elevated plus maze (Barkus et al., 2010). The apparatus consists of four successive alleys, connected in a serial manner, of growing anxiogenic character (By gradually decreasing the width of alleys and the height of the side walls and by increasing the brightness of each alley (from black (Alley 1) through grey (Alley 2) to white (Alleys 3 and 4)) the apparatus was made of painted wood and was elevated 50 cm above the floor. Construction details for successive alleys apparatus are summarized in table x. The test was performed as previously described by Deacon (2013). Briefly, Rats were placed at the closed end of alley 1, facing the end wall. The amount of time spent and the number of entries into in each alley were video-recorded and scored during total test time of 5 minutes. The apparatus was cleaned with 75% ethanol between each tested rat to remove olfactory cues. Time spent on, and entries into, the lighted open alleys were considered an inverse index for anxiety-like behavior: the lower is this index, the more anxious the rat is.
2.3.5. Open field (OF) test:
The open field test is another widely used behavioral assay to evaluate anxiety-like behavior and locomotor responses to novel environments in rodents (Klarer et al., 2014). The apparatus was a 90 x 90 x 45 cm3 wooden box. For data analysis, the arena was divided into 36 equal squares. The squares along the side are considered as peripheral squares and the other as central squares. This paradigm is based on the natural preference of rodents to be near protective walls rather than exposed to hazard out in the center (Christakis et al., 2012). Each rat was gently placed in the center of the OF arena and allowed to freely explore for 5 min. Behavior was recorded using a video camera mounted directly above the apparatus. The indices including the time spent in the central quadrants (considered as an inverse index of anxiety-like behavior), the number of square crossing (counted as an index of locomotor activity) rearing and grooming numbers (assessed for stereotypic behavior) and fecal grains were measured. The OF apparatus was cleaned with 75% ethanol after each tested rat in order to reduce odor interference.
2.3.6. Dark-light test:
Anxiety-like behavior was assessed on….day after the end of treatment, in the light-dark task as previously described (Christakis et al., 2012). The light-dark apparatus is an enclosed rectangle, divided into two compartments, one which was made of translucent glass (light lit compartment; 40 x 40 x 40 cm3; 50 lux) and the other which was painted black (dimly lit compartment; 40 x 40 x 40 cm3; 5 lux). The compartments were connected via a small doorway (5 x 10 cm2) allowing transition between the two sides. Rats were individually placed into the light side and allowed to freely explore for 5 minutes. The test was videotaped and the number of transitions between the two compartments and the time spent in each side were manually scored using the recorded videos. Urine and feces were cleaned with 75% ethanol after each test session to eliminate odor cues.

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• Christakis, D. A., Ramirez, J. S., ; Ramirez, J. M. (2012). Overstimulation of newborn mice leads to behavioral differences and deficits in cognitive performance. Scientific reports, 2, 546.
• Klarer M, Arnold M, Günther L, Winter C, Langhans W, Meyer U. Gut vagal afferents differentially modulate innate anxiety and learned fear. J Neurosci. 2014 May 21;34(21):7067-76.
• Slattery DA, Cryan JF. Using the rat forced swim test to assess antidepressant-like activity in rodents. Send to Nat Protoc. 2012 May 3;7(6):1009-14. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2012.044.
• Yankelevitch-Yahav, R., Franko, M., Huly, A., Doron, R. The Forced Swim Test as a Model of Depressive-like Behavior. J. Vis. Exp. (97), e52587, doi:10.3791/52587 (2015).
• Kaidanovich-Beilin, O., Lipina, T., Vukobradovic, I., Roder, J., Woodgett, J.R. Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors. J. Vis. Exp. (48), e2473, doi:10.3791/2473 (2011).
• Barkus C, McHugh SB, Sprengel R, Seeburg PH, Rawlins JN, Bannerman DM. Hippocampal NMDA receptors and anxiety: at the interface between cognition and emotion. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jan 10;626(1):49-56.
• Deacon, R.M. The Successive Alleys Test of Anxiety in Mice and Rats. J. Vis. Exp. (76), e2705, doi:10.3791/2705 (2013).
• Li C, Liu Y, Yin S, Lu C, Liu D, Jiang H, Pan F. Long-term effects of early adolescent stress: dysregulation of
hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and central corticotropin
releasing factor receptor 1 expression in adult male rats. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jul 15;288:39-49. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.04.007. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

2.1 Introduction
Service quality is a multi-see idea that can be clarified in light of two parameters (i.e. dialect and hierarchical points of view). In parts of dialect point of view, it is frequently showed up as inconspicuous, which is difficult to rehashed and impacted by individual states of mind and recognitions (Aryee et al. 2013; Sriram, Chintagunta and Machanda, 2015; Yuen and Thai, 2015). In light of this perspective, it has comprehensively translated as a long-run assessment criteria.
2.2 Performance Drivers (CSFs)
The term “performance driver” will be henceforth used to mark activities (as repetitive atomic processes) or actions (as one-run events) that increase potential to achieve higher level of corporate performance. In quality literature performance indicators (PDs) are called critical success factors (CSFs) and they are always used interchangeably.
The key performance drivers (KPDs) are lead indicators that focus on key business processes and direct employees’ actions. In contrast, a KPO is a lag indicator that focuses on what was achieved from the business processes and provides information to management that is useful in planning and control (Demydyuk, G. 2011).
PDs or CSFs are latent variables, which means they cannot be measured directly. The critical factors differs from one author to another, and from one industry to another although there are common issues (Bouranta, N., Psomas, E. L., ; Pantouvakis, A. 2017).
One of the earlier empirical studies in QM is by (Saraph et al. 1989) who has used data obtained from 162 managers of 20 manufacturing and services industries located in USA to identify the critical success factors that has the most direct impact on service quality, they identified eight factors leadership, role of quality department, training, product design, supplier quality management, process management, quality data reporting, and employee relations.
Also Meseguer Miravet, A. (2017) discussed a number of PDs which contribute in TQM programs in service industry, they selected the following: recognition and rewarding program, benchmarking, training, employee empowerment, technology management, process management, employee participation, teamwork, training, and outcome measurement.
Finally a recent research conducted by (Tahib and Rahman, 2010) identified nine TQM CSFs which are: top management commitment, customer focus, training and education, continuous improvement and innovation, supplier management, employee involvement, employee encouragement, benchmarking, and quality information and performance.
From the previous studies a comprehensive list of a number of 16 effective CSFs of positive impact on quality of service were determined, but only 9 of them were selected through a series of interviews conducted with ports managers which are: Leadership, Benchmarking, Process Management, Teamwork, Communication, organizational culture, employee participation, reward and recognition, training and recognition. Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H1: There should not be any significant difference in the nine performance drivers implemented in Suez Canal ports.
• H2: There is a significant positive relationship between the nine performance drivers and service quality in SC. ports.
2.2.1 Leadership
A successful leader is the person who steers the team members in order to achieve organizational goals. This will help achieve all organization objectives. (Kok, S. K. et al.2017).
Wreder Å., (2007;2008) describes leadership as “a process for influence, without forcing, one or several groups of people in one direction”.
While Glatthorn, A. A. et al., (2018) tried to discuss the difference between management and leadership. Management, according to them is to orientate an operation in the surrounding world. Leadership on the other hand is personal and intentionally influence the workforce to perform an outstanding result.
Keinan, A. S., ; Karugu, J. (2018) asserted that top-management commitment is the fundamental driver of business excellence. Further, studies showed that top-management commitment significantly affects the quality performance. Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H11: Leadership practices are significantly implemented in Suez Canal Ports.
• H21: Leadership is positively correlated with Service quality.
2.2.2 Benchmarking:
Benchmarking is an integral part of a total quality process. It is a continuous process of evaluating companies renowned as industry leaders, as to determine business and work processes that represent best practices to establish smart business goals (Hair Jr, J. F. et al., 2015)
While (Hervani, 2005) visualize benchmarking as “a tool to improve organization’s performance and competitiveness in business life”.
Benchmarking should be a reference and/or measurement standard for comparison; a performance measurement that is the standard for business excellence; and a measurable standard to determine best-in-class achievement. Benchmarking can be definitely considered as a strategic tool for performance assessment and continuous improvement. (Hassan, A. A. 2016).
While A. Wind (2017), gave its own definition as follows “benchmarking is the process of identifying, understanding and adapting to outstanding practices and processes from organization world-wide by any firm to maintain and/or improve its performance”.
Similarly, the study by Anil, A. P., ; Satish, K. P. (2016) reported that benchmarking help in continuous service improvements and establishment of customer satisfaction. Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H12: Benchmarking practices are significantly implemented in Suez Canal ports.
• H22: Benchmarking is positively correlated with Service quality.

2.2.3 Teamwork:
Teamwork typically involves groups of interdependent employees who work hand by hand to achieve group outcomes( Harper, C. 2015).
Effective team implementation can enhance the motivational features of work and thus increases job satisfaction. However, the job satisfaction of team members is determined by a number of factors, such as the team formation, group dynamics, and the nature of the work itself; because these factors operate together, there is no simple process through which teamwork affects job satisfaction (Cummings, T. G., ; Worley, C. G. 2014 ).
Successful organizations are run with teams, for solving problems, improving quality, and for introducing new processes and new products (Goetsch, D. L., ; Davis, S. B. 2014).
Lee, J. C., Shiue, Y. C., ; Chen, C. Y. (2016). commented that entire organization should work for improving quality and support for quality improvement activities by implementing teamwork practice. Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H13: Teamwork practices are significantly implemented in Suez Canal ports.
• H23: Teamwork is positively correlated with Service quality.

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2.2.4 Organizational Culture
Chindia, E. W. (2017) defined corporate culture as being “the deeper level of basic values, assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization”. These values, assumptions, attitudes and beliefs are reflected within an organizational culture.
An organizational culture is renowned by members shared ability to understand specific concepts within the organization. A strong organizational culture enables the flexible flow of information and enshrines harmony among its employees. The key feature is that culture is taught to new members as the correct way to behave, thus preserve organizational survival and growth (Baron, A., Hassard, J., Cheetham, F., ; Sharifi, S. 2018).
And according to Dhar, R. L. (2015) it is the task of the top management to design a structure and establish a culture that will maximize the effective participation of all employees in the search for quality. Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H14: Organizational culture is significantly implemented in Suez Canal ports.
• H24: Organization culture is positively correlated with Service quality

2.2.5 Employees Participation:
The aim of improving employee participation is to encourage employees to make more contributions to the success of the firm. Employee commitment can be established only on the basis of confidence among employees and management (Ross, J. E. (2017).
Top management and supervisors should encourage and motivate employees to develop and utilize their full potential, trust and care for employees, encourage and support employees in job- and career-related development/learning objectives, respect and value employees’ talents and creativity, and treat employees as valuable resources of the firm. (Mohammed, M., Rufai, M. D., & Oludare, Y. L. 2017)
Every employee should be encouraged to function as a supervisor. Thus, employee commitment can be increased through responsibility more importantly, they should be treated equally, fairly, and rationally. Employee commitment can be cultivated step by step; it is an incremental process (Trevino, L. K., & Nelson, K. A. 2016).
Trevino, L. K., & Nelson, K. A. (2016) claimed that involvement and participation of employees at all level is must to improve the quality of the current and future product or service. Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H16: Employee participation practices are significantly implemented in Suez Canal Ports
• H26: Employee participation positively correlated with Service quality.
2.2.6 Communication
Communication came to very important for organizations due to its play a strategic role in the successful work environment. This refers to behaviors and people attitudes have influence by levels of communication at the organizations. In addition to the communication is considered the feature factor to helps both staff and mangers to achieve organizational objectives (Bryson, J. 2017).
Earlier studies indicated that communication is an essential and vital management practice within an organization. While recent studies noted that effective communication stimulates the organization to move systematically towards employees’ involvement, customer satisfaction, and improves organization performance (Scott, W. R. (2015).
For sharing information to be successful, management should target the right audience with the right message in the right way at the right time, Failure to communicate effectively creates unnecessary problems, resulting in confusion, loss of interest and eventually in declining quality through apparent lack of guidance and motivation (Oakland, 2003). Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H17: Communication practices are significantly implemented in SC. ports.
• H27: Communication is positively correlated with Service quality.

2.2.7 Training and Education
Training and education is the process that provides employees with the knowledge and the skills required to operate within the systems and standards set by management”, a definition by (Kerzner, H., & Kerzner, H. R. (2017)
(Gile, 2009) sees that training is a technology that converts inactive employee into an active one by making him/her visible and controllable in order to reduce or even eliminate the gap between the current and the expected situation.
Also Companies recognized the importance of training and educating staff, especially in the changing work environment, an indispensable part of the management activities (Morsi, M. A. et al, 2016). In the same context (Talib and Rahman, 2010) reported the critical role of training and education in maintaining high quality level within the service industry. Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H15: Training and education practices are significantly implemented in Suez Canal Ports
• H25: Training and education is positively correlated with Service quality
2.2.8 Rewards and recognition
Firms should institute a serious recognition and reward program, the recognition and reward must be consistent with organizational values and objectives. If individual or team efforts cannot contribute to the realization of the overall organizational objectives, they cannot be recognized and rewarded. Therefore, objectives of individuals or teams need to be continuously reviewed and updated, and the criteria should be objective and measurable; otherwise, it is not easy to ensure that the recognition and reward can be conducted fairly (Ross, J. E. 2017).
The recognition and reward should be meaningful and fit the organizational culture. Otherwise, it is useless, also the program should be approved by the workers’ congress (Scott, W. R. 2015).
Once the program is approved, it should be strictly implemented. Otherwise, recognition and reward activities cannot effectively stimulate employee commitment, enthusiasm, and creativity. Finally, recognition and reward can be provided at several levels: Individual, team, department, or business unit (Short, K. (2016).
Employee encouragement such as rewards and recognition motivates employees to perform which in turn influence customer satisfaction (Chang, K. C. (2016).. Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H18: Reward and recognition practices in are significantly implemented in Suez Canal ports.
• H28: Reward and recognition is positively correlated with Service quality
2.2.9 Process Management
The concept of process management can be traced back to the evolving of quality movement and its shift in focus from product features (the output) to process features (how value is actually created in organizations?) (Hammer, M. 2015).
This shift was explained furthermore by the next generation of scholars in the quality evolution, for example, Scott, W. R. (2015), who suggested that the whole organization should be viewed as a system of processes.
So from their point of view, process management shall involve planned efforts to define and map processes; identify bottlenecks and improve the process flow; in addition to assign process owners (POs), thus creating a management structure for the value stream that moves between departments (Boutros, T., & Cardella, J. 2016).
Mitra, A. (2016) commented that process management stresses the value adding to a process, increasing the productivity of every employee and improving the quality of the organization. Accordingly two hypotheses were proposed:
• H19: Process management practices are significantly implemented in Suez Canal Ports.
• H29: Process management is positively correlated with Service quality.

2.1 Definition of Risk
In past research, researchers have defined risk according to their perspective and understanding. Based on Jaeger et al. (2013), risk entails both possibility that an outcome or event can happen with the denial that either occurs with predetermined certainty. Risk includes both good and bad impacts, which are referred to as opportunities and threats (Lehtiranta, 2014). As per Gokmen (2014), risk is defined as the possibility of an action or activity to bring into damage or loss and to determine, evaluate, and give priority to the unexpected outcome.

In the context of project management, risk is referred to as the measure of the likelihood and the consequences of not fulfilling a project goal (Koleczko, 2012). In the construction context, Thomé et al. (2016) define risk as the variance of either cost or time estimates, where it is measured by the likelihood of the event with the impact of the risk if occurred. Risk is closely tied to human nature which it involves option among discrete possibilities. Predicting the aftereffect of alternative possibilities, assessing their benefit, and choosing the most desirable choice lie at the core of human agency (Jaeger et al., 2013). Risk is, therefore, a social concept effected by various kind of discrimination. The idea of risk was created by human, so there is no such thing as real risk or objective risk (Sotic et al., 2014). In the context of uncertainty, risk has today become an expression (Johansen and Rausand, 2014). In other studies, risk is related to the difference of the expected uncertain consequences. Therefore, risk presents the chance or likelihood of contrast outcomes than the predicted ones (Hartono et al., 2014).

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Researchers argue that there is no comprehensive meaning for risk as the literature presents a various understanding of risk (Lehtiranta, 2014; Aven, 2012). According to Aven (2012), the definitions differ; while some focus on probability and likelihood, others focus on undesired consequences and threats and some line risk with uncertainty.

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