2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

2.5 Type of car seat material
To fabricate a ventilated car seat Nylon Fabric, Faux Vinyl, PCV, Vinyl, Faux Leather, Suede and Brushed Nylon is the common material used. Each material is described briefly in section 2.5.1 to 2.5.7.
2.5.1 Nylon Fabric
Nylon is a durable, hard-wearing upholstery fabric which comes in many colours. There are plain and patterned designs and you can choose a type which best suits the interior of your vehicle. Because nylon is weaved, it is harder to tear than some fabrics. It is also very stain resistant, providing you can wash out any spills before the dry. It is also the most popular form of fabric found in most automobiles. It is available in many colours and is the least expensive form of trim for your vehicle (Willis, 2014).
2.5.2 Faux Vinyl
This is actually a vinyl which takes on the characteristics of leather or suede or other types of material. It is hard-wearing and can have the appearance and shine of soft leather or the dullness of fabric trim. Faux vinyl is a mock vinyl which emulates the real article at a fraction of the cost (Willis, 2014).
2.5.3 PCV Leather
Commonly known as soft plastic, this is a vinyl style-material that is pliable and easy to form. It stretches well and is used in lower-end models of cars and vans. It can be coloured or made in black and white, but it is notorious for being sticky to sit on during the summer. Heat has a tendency to make the upholstery sweat and the driver of the vehicle is best advised not to wear shorts in the summer if their vehicle is lined with PVC (Willis, 2014).
2.5.4 Vinyl
Easy to wipe clean, durable and hard wearing, vinyl is another coonly used material in the making of automobile upholstery. It has similar properties to PVC but vinyl can soft, hard, pliable or firm. You might be aware that old LP records were made from vinyl but, because it is used in a different capacity for upholstery, it can be as soft as velvet although it will still make the skin sweat during hot periods of weather (Willis, 2014).
2.5.5 Faux Leather
Faux leather is a very versatile material that can be made to appear like almost anything. People have covered their car seats in fake crocodile skin, fake snake’s skin and even dinosaur prints. It behaves like leather and is easy to wipe clean. Spillages can be quickly dealt with so faux leather doesn’t stain easily and is very durable (Willis, 2014).
2.5.6 Suede
Cloth-based suede fabrics are a nice choice for an automobile interior. Suede is soft to the touch and feels like brushed cotton. This automobile fabric is not used as often because it stains easily and it not as durable for many types of automobile use (Willis, 2014).
2.5.7 Brushed Nylon
Brushed nylon is soft and warm and ideal for an interior seat cover or door trim. It is a thick fabric that is usually just under a ¼ thick when used in vehicles. It seems well and is a firm, durable material which is quite hard to tear (Willis, 2014).

2.1 MARKETING PLAN
2.1.1 Description of Project
Sugarcane Juice is a Marketing concept that deals in product. Our product is tetra pack packed sugarcane juice. Sugarcane juice is extensively consumed in summer season due its delectable flavor and low price. But the issue is that it can’t be preserved for prolonged period. In Pakistan no company has introduced sugar cane juice up to now in tetra pack. The methodology employed in Pakistan is kind of old and so many people don’t plump for this sector because of low shelf life threat. Therefore we have chosen to take a shot at sugar cane juice since sugar cane juice is naturally sweet, so it can be sold with a bit extra treatment.
2.1.1 Product Sketch: Sugarcane is the most imperative member of the plant kingdom with a metabolism leading to the accumulation of sucrose. It is transported as glucose and fructose inside the developing plant. The crop gives the least expensive of nourishing and health-giving food.
The sugarcane belongs to the monocot family. It is a perpetual plant which grows from 2.5 to 4.25 meters. With adequate care, it grows up to 7.5 meters. The measurement of steins differs from 2.5 to 8 cm. It has a few joints after each couple of centimeters.
2.1.2 Origin and Distribution: The names sugar and sugarcane have been gotten from the Sanskrit word, Shankar. Sugarcane is native to Pakistan. It was developed here from the old times. Sugarcane is presently cultivated everywhere throughout the globe. Pakistan stands fourth in sugarcane growth, trailed by Brazil, India, Cuba, China, Mexico, the U.S.A., South Africa and Columbia.
2.1.3 Food Value: The juice is extracted from the stems by squeezing it through iron rollers. It is nutritious and refreshing. It includes about 15 per cent natural sugar and is loaded with organic salts and vitamins.
In the beginning, sugarcane was cultivated exclusively to chew in the pacific and South Eastern Asia, a custom which has now spread all through the vast majority of the tropics. The juice can likewise be utilized for drinking or sweetening. In sweltering summer days, it becomes a relieving drink. A little lime juice might be blended in the juice to enhance its flavor. Food value of sugarcane juice is as per the following:
Moisture 90.2%
Calcium 10 mg
Protein -0.1%
Phosphorus 10 mg
Fat 0.2%
Iron 1.1 mg
Minerals 0.4%
Carbohydrates 9.1%

2.1.2 Business Potential
CURRENT SITUATION
We have more clear and exclusive information about the market and we also know the customer demand and choices. In view of our Research we are strictly determined to serve consumer needs and wants with an absolutely new taste of juice like “Sugarcane Juice”. We are going to market our new product for five groups of people. They are demonstrated graphically below:
Geographic:
Our immediate geographic market will be Karachi city with a populace of around 21.2 million.

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Demographic:
Male & Female
Generation – kid, young, matured people, old people and jaundice patients. We know the following about the profile of the typical resident of Karachi:
22% children
18% mature
38% young
20% Jaundice Patients
2% of the old people
Psychographic:
Social class: Middle Class, Upper Middle Class, and Upper Class.
Life style: Achiever
Behavioral:
Benefits: Quality
User status: Potential client, first-time client, and consistent client.
2.1.3 Swot Analysis
1) Strengths:
• We have presented sugarcane juice in tetra pack for the very first time. So it is beneficial for us to have more consumer than other new competitors because the time they take to enter the market the buyer will become loyal to our product.
• Sugar cane produces good quality products. It cannot settle with low quality.
• We have introduced it the first time as there is no any sugarcane juice in tetra pack obtainable in market.
User status: Potential user, first-time user, and regular user
2) Weaknesses:
• Sugarcane juices cannot be store for long time.
• Customers are brand loyal toward competitor’s product so we have to persuade them. As there are already competitors who are dealing in juices and beverages, so it is not easy to shift them from other juices.
3) Opportunities
• Healthy organic and natural drinks oriented global and local culture.
• Limited alternative in regionally produced natural fruit juices.
• High trade potential.
• With excellent pre harvest planning, which is around half of the aggregate generation, could be transformed into potential business opportunity.
• Reduction in excise and import duties on food processing machinery.
4 Threats
• We confront trouble if government forces taxes on them which compel them to increase the rate of their product.
• There is massive competition in juices market.
• There are no many entry obstacles so a large numbers of local juices enter in juices market.
• Inaccessibility of necessary industries statistics.
• Single Product Company.
• High processing and packaging cost.
2.1.4 Marketing Strategy
1) Objectives:
We have set aggressive but accomplishable objectives for the first and second years of market entry.
? First-year Objectives: We are aiming for a 3 percent share of the Pakistan juice market through unit sales volume of 200,000.
? Second-year Objectives: Our second year objective is to reach break-even on the sugar cane juice and launch our new product.
2) Target Customers:
Our potential client will be all sorts of people. But we will fragment our market based on their need and properties towards safe product. Our client will be:
? Students at each level from school to universities.
? Employees who works whole day.
? Households and travelers. In summer session each sort of individuals with no age restrains utilizes this juice. Because of unhygienic products greater part of the general population avoids this. We will exceptionally focus on those sorts of people.
3) Positioning:
Brand strategy is at the core of marketing scheme. It is the demonstration of outlining the organization offer and image with the goal that it involves an esteemed place in the targeted consumer mind. Sugarcane juice is exceptionally useful for health and gives refreshment. As we are launching sugar cane squeeze in tetra pack, so we need to make positive and durable picture in the brains of clients that we are giving hygienic juice since we tend to introduce new flavors like mint and ginger etc.
Positioning Statement:
For every individual, who desires a 100% natural product that offers rejuvenation and freshness, our Sugarcane juice is a packaged drink that offers energy and refreshment at reasonable cost, best quality and value for your money.
Point of parity: Different flavor Tetra packing
Point of difference: 100% pure juice
4) Impact
It is quite a new idea which has not been yet commercialized due to the lengthy and uncertain methods of preserving this juice This juice is require not to be advertised so much since it is new thing which individuals will attempt and love a great deal. Simply we can place it on college cafeteria, school cafeteria, office cafeteria, grocery shops, the main thing we should do is to guarantee its timeframe of realistic usability and long preserving time.
2.1.5 Marketing Mix
Sugarcane Juice marketing mix is comprised of the following approaches:
Promotion product, price, place, marketing communication, marketing research(R ; D) and customer service.
1) Promotion:
The marketing of the product i.e. the advertisement, sales promotion and other promotional tool scan alter the purchasing conduct because some of the individuals greatly inspired by the publicity of the product. We have decided to use integrated marketing communication in which there will be mix of different marketing promotional tools that will pass on clear and stable idea of our product to the customers. These Promotional tools are given below:
• Television
• Newspaper
• Promotion vans
• Unique selling proposition
2) Pricing
In the present market of Pakistan, there are various juice items exist. Through the statistical surveying we have uncovered that a large percentage of these items’ price is in the range of Rs.25 to Rs.30.
As we are trying to launch similar products but with different test, it is smarter to set the cost in view of different products to which we will contend. We have experienced our whole production process and found that even if we keep the price of our product with respect to the cost of our competitor product, we can still cover our aggregate expense. So, the selling price we set for our product is Rs.25
Comparison with the other product *price:
Name of the company Price
Nestle
Quice
Maza

2.1.6 Conclusion
The idea of sugarcane juice is new in Pakistan. Our Sugarcane juice is an innovative and new concept for marketing. Customers who are aware about their health must accept our product. In accordance to our marketing research, we see that our product as the best marketing product within a couple of years.

2. Objective
The objective of this research is to evaluate the effect the production and price of corn has on ethanol and the meat industry. To be more specific, the research was intended to: (1) Assess the laws and mandates influencing the use of corn to produce a biofuel; (2) Identify the connection between corn and meat industry; (3) Evaluate how the corn ethanol biofuel industry and the food market effect one another as a result of their relation to the production and price of corn.

3. Methods and Procedure
3.1. Literature Review
Many literature and articles exist about the supply and demand of corn and ethanol. In The Economic Impact of the Demand for Corn by Michael Evans, it studies the demand of ethanol and its effect on corn production. Two different models are used in this paper to find the estimations. The multiple regression model used linked the average price of corn to production of corn, amount of corn used for ethanol, and a support price of corn. This determined that corn price is $0.45 higher per bushel when ethanol is produced.
This paper analyzed the impact of the demand for corn.
3.2 Methods
To analyze the data with the highest accuracy possible, a simple and regression model with multiple variables is used. For the simple regression analysis, the independent variable is price of gasoline per gallon and the dependent variable is the supply of U.S. corn. In the multiple regression model includes additional variables. The additional variables are pork, chicken, soybeans, gasoline, and sugar. To keep the same units as corn, soybeans and sugar are listed in millions of bushels. Pork is cents per pound, and chicken is cents per whole chicken.

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2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Vibration Isolation

In engineering, vibration causes damage, failure and destruction of a structure. Vibration on structure either building or machine, must be avoid, get rid or minimize them. Vibration is any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time described by Rao in “Mechanical Vibrations” 1. In engineering field, vibrations are commonly found in rotating machineries. Ormondrovd and Hartog 2 said that Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA) also known as Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) has been physically proven to reduce mechanical vibration. In this paper, TMD will be used. The TMD has been studied for many decades as mentioned by Warburton 3. Tuned Mass Damper typically comprise of a mass, spring, and a damping element which normally attached to the vibrating main system. Tuned Mass Damper will reduce any undesirable vibration. In vibration control, vibration absorber are classified into two categories which is passive and active according to Rivin 4. The semi-active dampers however, are like improved version of passive energy dissipating technology as they integrate adaptive systems to increase effectiveness and intelligence. Passive systems are used to attenuate structural vibrations induced mostly by natural phenomenon such as earthquake and wind excitation. According to Elias and Matsagar 5, the most famous passive systems are friction control devices, fluid viscous dampers, seismic base isolation, tuned liquid dampers, and tuned mass dampers. The one TMD or Single TMD was originated since the attempt made by Frahm in 1909 6. Then, TMD was improvise with variance of optimum design approach in order to reduce vibration by Ormondroyd and Den Hartog 7. TMD are basically tuned near or frequencies associated with low order modes and can improve overall damping. The equations of motion for a single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure and multi-DOF structure with the TMD mechanism are expressed as,

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Ms{x¨s} + Cs{x? s} + Ks{xs} = {Ft} (1)

where Ms, Cs, and Ks are the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the structure.
?

In the present study, TMD is counted for the control of vibration mode of a generic system. For example, an external actions such as wind and earthquake excites a structure which causes vibration to the main structure. The mechanical model of TMD system as shown in Fig. X where, single degree of freedom is represented by the main system. Then, the mechanical parameters are introduced

Type equation here.

?

2.1.1 Passive Tuned Mass Damper

Passive TMDs has been proven by many researchers which is effective in attenuating the vibration of a structural system caused by an external excitation. In high rise buildings, passive TMD are widely used such as in John Hancock Building in Boston equipped with a TMD consisting of two 2.7 x ?10?^5 kg (300 ton) 8. In Taiwan, the tall building Taipei 101 equipped with a 660 tons of TMD ball which equals to 0.24% of the building weight. According to Tamboli 9, the TMD is intended to reduce service-level accelerations at upper levels by about 40%. Research done by Lin, Hu, et al. 10 showed that TMD can reduce seismic responses by as much as 60%. They also conclude that passive TMDs are better in attenuate the vibration amplitude of acceleration than displacement. Lievens, Lombaert, et al. 11 stated that TMD is defined by its mass m, stiffness k and damping c, and characteristics. They presented that TMD performs satisfactorily in uncertain circumstance. Lee, Nian, et al. 12 presented passive vibration control using DVA to reduce vibrations in turning operation. Moradi et al. 13 also presented TVA or known as TMD to suppress vibration in boring manufacturing process.

Figure XX : Time response of system before (left) and after (right) absorber is applied.
Fig XX shows that the absorber reduces the absolute value of the real part of transfer function of the dynamic system. In civil engineering, tall structures are equipped with TMD to protect the structures against forces induced by natural phenomenon such as strong winds and earthquake. Thus, TMDs are being studied widely to counter force induced by earthquake which can cause structural collapse and fatal. Passive vibration absorber Performance of TMD on structural collapse due to earthquakes was studied by Domizio et al. 14 which showed that TMD was able to increase the safety margin of a 4-story steel frame building induced by 8 near-fault earthquakes. An investigation done by Okhovat et al. 15 on TMD for seismic response reduction of Tehran tower with 170m height shows that TMDs are very sensitive for detuning. The effectiveness of TMD on structural response were evaluated by using both peak and normed-based evaluation. In Chile, Garrido and Sarrazin 16 presented the effectiveness of TMD for earthquake to protect Chilean buildings.

Fig XXX 15

The case was studied by considering 2 DOF systems for a database of 132 acceleration which corresponding to seven Chilean earthquakes of magnitude larger than 7.0. Two responses were then calculated as shown in flowchart in Figure XX. However, they stated that the detuning is not relevant if the frequency of TMD is between 95% and 105% of the optimum frequency. Rofooei 17 presented the performance of TMD in reducing the damage in 2-D concrete structural models. The structural models was tested to seven earthquake records with different intensities. The results shows that TMD has efficiently mititgates the damage index for the 8-story model. However, for larger intensities, the TMD does not show any performance due to detuning. Nawrotzki 18 reported in retrofitting of structures with TMD reduces the structural responses about 25% – 40%. The results showed a significant reduction of the structural responses in terms of displacements, accelerations and internal stresses. Effect of torsional response such as rotation of building presented by Khante and Nirwan 19 showed a reduction in displacement, rotation, base shear and bending moment when a passive TMD is applied to the structure. The results showed that TMD has substantial energy absorption capability. As studied by Lin et al. 20, they discovered the effectiveness of TMD on a stochastic structural buildings was more efficient to mitigate the dynamic responses induce by wind rather than earthquake. They stated TMD was more effective in reducing the vibration amplitude of acceleration than displacement. In terms of dissipating energy into primary system criterion, as eloquently stated by Greco and Marano 21 TMD gives a great reduction in terms of energy dissipation. With optimum parameters, the energy criterion gives greater ?_opt^TMDvalues. On the opposite, ?_opt^TMD is larger if the displacement criterion is take on. As depicted in Fig XX, the time history showed the consistency of TMD selected with best optimum design in displacement and energy dissipated criterion.

Fig XX: Time history of displacement and dissipated power for the system without TMD and with TMD optimized by two criteria 21
Meena et al. 22 studied on vibration control using TMD by using approaching methodology of STMD and MTMD. They claimed that the number of TMDs does not have much effect on the optimum tuning frequency and the effectiveness of MTMD. In aerospace engineering, a segmented mirror telescope requires a very tight tolerances in terms of alignment. In this case, Yingling and Agrawal 23 studied on application of TMD in SMT due to its simplicity in implementation and effectiveness on targeting specific modes. The study resulted in reduction of vibration amplitudes by 80% and wavefron error (WFE) by a factor of 5.

Arctic pipeline with one TMD per span Fig. XX 24

In present, an application of TMD in pipeline was one of the application in passive TMD. To overcome the oscillation induced by wind to the pipeline. As shown in Fig XX, every span of the pipeline was installed TMD to attenuate the vibration. Although the frequencies are small (which are all below 5Hz) the vibration cycles can cause failure at pipeline joints according to Hart et al. 24. A study by Farzampour and Asl 25 in performance of TMD in vibration response control of base excited structures shows that active TMD leads to appropriate response reduction. In 8-story building active TMD responded a noticeable reduction as shown in Fig XX

Fig XX :
It is showed that in eight-story shear building, ATMD shows highly limited story drift and shear regarding the strong ground motions; however, application of PTMD leads to slight reduction in story drift and shear. Despite the cost of ATMD, it shows a great reduction in vibration suppression. It is concluded that ATMD leads to appropriate response reduction.

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