1 Understand models of disability
1.1 Identify conditions, impairments and difficulties commonly subsumed under the term disability
• Cognitive disabilities- learning disabilities, learning difficulties, adhd, dyslexia
• Hearing impairments – deafness
• Vision impairments – blind or visually impaired
• Physical disabilities – upper limb, lower limb, problems with co ordination
• Mental Health Impairment – Personality Disorders, Schizophrenia
1.2 Compare theoretical models of disability
There are several different models of disability that are used to address a range of disabilities. These models of disability have been developed so that things that affect the way a person lives with their disability are governed by laws, regulations and any services that are provided have guidelines to work to. The primary models of disability used are:
• The medical model- this model describes disability as being the result of a disease, or health condition brought on by an event that could cause a disruption of a person’s normal physical or cognitive functioning.
This model focuses on the disability being a condition a person has and looks more at the prevention, treatment and curing of the disability rather than the cause.
• The functional model- this model has a similar stance as the medical model in regards to this model looks at disability as an impairment and that the actual disability effects the person’s ability to function effectively.
• The social model – this model looks at what people with disabilities come across as barriers in their daily living instead of focusing on the impairments and problems they may have. This model states that a person’s daily tasks are not limited by their disability but by the lack of resources available to them.
1.3 Explain how the application of different models of disability can be experienced in the lives of children and young people
Like it was covered in the above question, each model of disability looks at the person who has the disability from a different viewpoint so this can then have an impact on a child or young persons experience for example if a setting follows the social model then there will be more opportunities available to them regardless of the barriers. The staff at the setting would promote choice and try to empower the young people there instead of looking at their disability as something that should be regarded as a hindenece. How a setting looks at their risk manegemnet policies can also be affected by the differnet models of disability in regards to how risk is adressed for the young people this could see them either sheltered from risk or be allowed to experience risk to enable them to learn+from their mistakes.
1.4 Explain how different models of disability shape organisational structures and outcomes
The two main models of disability shape various different organisations structures and outcomes for young people for example:
Area Medical Model Social model
Attitudes Specialist transposrt would be sourced and provided for people who are not able to access main stream transportation
Homes are adapted and specialist products are recommended by professionals such as Occupational Therapists to meet the needs of individual disabled people.
Disabled children receive specialist provision in special schools and are entered for alternative qualifications.
Sheltered workplaces are created for disabled people to work alongside other disabled people in a specially adapted environment doing specific work.
Communication takes place in ‘standard’ ways e.g. letters are in size 12, if someone is unable to read them they can be given magnifiers or ask someone to read the information for them.
Language usually refers to a person’s medical condition, what is ‘wrong’ with them and what they can and can’t do.
People make assumptions about what someone is capable of based on information about their medical condition for example using internet searches.
Mainstream transport and other modes of infrastructure are main accessible for everyone
Mainstream retailers (kitchen and bathroom shops) offer more options such as different heights and depths of units as standard. Products around the home are designed with accessibility in mind so that specialist products are not required.
Disabled children are educated in accessible mainstream schools alongside non-disabled children. Education provision is accessible to all with the same qualifications and opportunities open to all who wish to access them.
Workplaces are made accessible for disabled people and training and development available to disabled people enables them to apply for a range of roles
Communication is tailored to meet the needs of the individuals involved and information is available in a range of formats.
Language is focussed around the barriers faced by an individual and what can be done to remove them.
People talk to individuals about their needs and experiences and the barriers they face.
2 Be able to review how models of disability underpin organisational practice with children and young people
2.1 Explain how policies, procedures and working practices are underpinned by a model of disability
3 Be able to develop others’ awareness of models of disability
3.1 Plan activities that increase others’ understanding of
? models of disability
? how they are experienced by children and young people
? how models of disability shape organisational structure and ways of working
3.2 Implement planned activities
3.3 Review the outcomes of planned activities